iPhone digi-scoped Stilt Sandpiper at Pennington Marshes

The recent Stilt Sandpiper at Pennington Marshes was a ‘lifer’ for Steve but only a ‘Hants Tick’ for me because I connected with the Brownsea Island bird back in August 06, whilst Mrs T and the girls watched Red Squirrels elsewhere on the island.  However, this individual was somewhat closer and didn’t have to be observed through gaps in path side vegetation.  The rusty ear coverts were particularly striking and even the pale median crown-stripe was visible.  Due to the fact Steve had his larger prime 300mm lens with him I left my Nikon DSLR and 70-200mm Sigma lens in my camera bag and opted to experiment with my iPhone through the eye-piece of my scope instead.  I suspect my results were better than what I would have achieved with my DSLR.

Stilt Sandpiper, Pennington Marshes – 22 May 16

Stilt Sandpiper, Pennington Marshes – 22 May 16

Stilt Sandpiper, Pennington Marshes – 22 May 16

Hopefully, now that our days serving at sea are over we can look forward to many more ‘twitches’ together.  Unfortunately, it will be difficult for Slasher to participate now that he has moved to Wales.

Good birding,

Tony T   BSc (Hons) GeoSci (Open)

Water Voles along the Titchfield Canal

The afternoon of the 21st May, (Happy Birthday Dad) saw me spending a couple of hours down the canal prior to settling down to watch the FA Cup Final. Even though it was early afternoon and there was a number of people coming and going, I was fortunate enough to come across a feeding Water Vole on the first stretch of canal south of Bridge Street. The Vole was quite aware of my presence and performed well, munching away on the bankside vegetation as I clicked away.

Water Vole 1, Titchfield Canal, 21 May 2016

Water Vole, Titchfield Canal, 21 May 2016

Water Vole 2a, Titchfield Canal, 21 May 2016

Water Vole, Titchfield Canal, 21 May 2016

Water Vole 3, Titchfield Canal, 21 May 2016

Water Vole, Titchfield Canal, 21 May 2016

Water Voles were reintroduced to the Haven area back in 2013/14 when I believe approximately 900 animals were released in batches around the reserve. Since then I have had several sightings despite not visiting as often as normal due to working away. Last year I did see adults with young which was great. Today just the one Vole but always a fantastic sighting.

Water Vole 5, Titchfield Canal, 21 May 2016

Water Vole, Titchfield Canal, 21 May 2016

Water Vole 4, Titchfield Canal, 21 May 2016

Water Vole, Titchfield Canal, 21 May 2016

Steve C

More on the Great-spotted Cuckoo at Portland

I spent the Thursday night at the Obs in company with a bottle of Merlot and a pre-packaged salad from the Easton Tesco, could life get any better.  Yes, as the recently installed wood burner stove was on at max chat, and after a couple of hours seawatching in a stiff May breeze it was pleasant to sit in the glow of the fire with a glass of red in hand. Early the following morning, I roamed around the top fields in search of the Cuckoo but with no joy there, I did a long loop around to the west and ended up at the Bill watching the Auks and Shags coming and going. Up by the old lighthouse I got a phone signal and noted that the Cuckoo had been relocated at Reap Lane, one of its preferred haunts. I made my way there to find the bird in a small stand of scrubby trees. It gave good views through the scope and I was surprised how many people were still coming to twitch the bird on its 8th day of residence. The bird moved around within the stand of trees every ten minutes or so, (usually coinciding with the No1 bus roaring past).

Great-spotted Cuckoo 2a, Portland, 20 May 2016

Great-spotted Cuckoo, Portland, 20 May 2016

Great-spotted Cuckoo 4a, Portland, 20 May 2016

Great-spotted Cuckoo, Portland, 20 May 2016

Great-spotted Cuckoo 6a, Portland, 20 May 2016

Great-spotted Cuckoo, Portland, 20 May 2016

 After another half an hour or so the bird moved over to an adjacent Bramble patch that I could see was full of the silken tents of the Brown-tail Moth. Needless to say the bird started to gorge itself on the hairy caterpillars that had already emerged. As we walked around the houses to a better viewing position, it was clear that the Cuckoo would not be going hungry for a good while, as the footpath and walls surrounding the area were covered in them. I know that the caterpillars which are covered with 1000’s of barbed hairs can cause considerable irritation and in some years numbers can get to biblical plague proportions, so I guess the locals will be glad if the Cuckoo stays around for a while longer.

Great-spotted Cuckoo 7, Portland, 20 May 2016

Great-spotted Cuckoo, Portland, 20 May 2016. In a favoured feeding spot.

Great-spotted Cuckoo 8, Portland, 20 May 2016

Great-spotted Cuckoo, Portland, 20 May 2016. Brown-tail Moth caterpillar in mouth.

Steve C

Stilt Sandpiper at Pennington Marshes

Yesterday morning, I received a couple of texts from my fellow Amigos reference the Stilt Sandpiper that has been found at Pennington Marshes, many thanks to the finder. After a slight pause whilst Tony planted some Ormskirk Earlies, I picked him up and we headed west. We would have taken Slasher but he was much further west in Mid-Wales. We had an easy run down (by avoiding Lyndhurst and Brockenhurst) and we managed to find a parking place along Pennington Lane. Quick greetings were exchanged with Simon Ingram, and a few minutes later we were watching the bird through our scopes. The hour we were present it favoured a small pool of water surrounded by sedge in which to feed. Not moving more than a few metres from the position we first saw it. It fed in the vicinity of a Dunlin and a Redshank for the majority of the time we watched; it could be seen though, that it was wary of the Redshank. The distance to the Sandpiper did not make for great photography but the bird was certainly worth a few snaps. Over 300 in the end. I’ll spare you 295 of them. Tinders did get a great shot through his scope with his Iphone. I’m hoping he will add it to this entry or post his own in due course.

Stilt Sandpiper 1, Pennington Marshes, 22 May 2016

Stilt Sandpiper, Pennington Marshes, 22 May 2016 (Habitat Shot including the Bird)

Stilt Sandpiper 1c, Pennington Marshes, 22 May 2016

Stilt Sandpiper, Pennington Marshes, 22 May 2016

Stilt Sandpiper 2a, Pennington Marshes, 22 May 2016

Stilt Sandpiper, Pennington Marshes, 22 May 2016

Stilt Sandpiper 4, Pennington Marshes, 22 May 2016

Stilt Sandpiper, Pennington Marshes, 22 May 2016

Stilt Sandpiper 3, Pennington Marshes, 22 May 2016

Stilt Sandpiper, Pennington Marshes, 22 May 2016

Steve C

Great-spotted Cuckoo at Portland

Spent Thursday and Friday on the Isle of Portland. primarily hoping to connect with the Great-spotted Cuckoo that had arrived the previous Friday. Work and family commitments had prevented me trying for the bird any earlier. I arrived just after seven and found myself at Reap Lane with one other person; Ian from Liverpool who had travelled down the afternoon before to visit his son and watch the Europa Cup Final. Not good news there, so he was hoping not to double dip! We chatted for about an hour with no sign of the bird, so we exchanged numbers and I headed off to the top fields whilst he waited there. I walked down the lane along the top fields and saw John Lucas looking into a patch of scrub before beckoning me over. Needless to say my pace quickened. Glad to say he had just picked up the Cuckoo minutes before. The bird was sat in a small bush busy preening; maybe after a first session of feeding in among the damp bushes. After having a good look at the bird through my bins, I grabbed my phone to call Ian, only to find the common curse of Portland; no signal. I was going to nip back to grab him but I asked John if he minded giving him a quick bell for me as he did have signal on O2. A very happy Ian was round with another birder in short order and we all had good views of the bird as it continued to preen and get itself ready to move on. Which it did in due course feeding around the scrub for a further 15 minutes, receiving unwanted attention from a few crows in the meantime. It then flew off in the direction of Culverwell and ended up near the Obs garden where it has been seen a few times during its stay. It was seen for the last time that day in the fields opposite the Obs, feeding in Bramble scrub. Hopefully I would/will connect with the bird on Friday for more views.

Great-spotted Cuckoo 1c, Portland, 19 May 2016

Great-spotted Cuckoo, Portland, 19 May 2016

Great-spotted Cuckoo 1b, Portland, 19 May 2016

Tighter crop of above image

Great-spotted Cuckoo 2a, Portland, 19 May 2016

Great-spotted Cuckoo, Portland, 19 May 2016

Great-spotted Cuckoo 3b, Portland, 19 May 2016

Great-spotted Cuckoo, Portland, 19 May 2016

Great-spotted Cuckoo 4, Portland, 19 May 2016

Great-spotted Cuckoo, Portland, 19 May 2016

Steve C

 

Birding Wales – Skokholm ringing

The Tri-service ringing team had gone to Skokholm for a week of general birding and the real hope of seeing falls of migrating birds. Sadly this was not to be and on some days there were more ringers than birds. For me this was my first ever use of Heligoland traps and I found them to be excellent. These are basically large wire funnels interspersed with foliage. As they narrow the birds fly into a small box where they can then be extracted safely.  We started ok with the most numerous bird being Willow Warbler. Spring traps were quiet with just the odd Wheatear accepting the mealworms that were on offer.

wheatear skokholm april 16

Wheatear, Skokholm, April 2016

 

George 1

George checking the Heligoland Trap

We knew that a Water Rail was present in the small pond to the south of the island and despite the delicacies that we placed in the Potter traps we had no luck until Carl returned with a bird in hand that had wandered into the Heligoland trap nearby. More Willow Warblers followed with the odd Robin, Chiffchaff and Meadow Pipit. On the third day it picked up a little and we were pleased to see this fabulous male Restart.

Redstart, Skokholm, April 2016

The next day we trapped a Lesser Whitethroat but the birds were few and far between. On the final day we began early and were rewarded with a fine Grasshopper Warbler, I hadn’t ringed many of these so was given the honour. This bird was hugely overshadowed as later Nikki (volunteer warden) noticed a bird on the outside of the Heliogoland trap which ran near the kitchen, not immediately recognising it but knowing that it was something good, she called the warden Richard. By the time I returned from a round of the nets the bird was securely in hand and I got to see my first ever UK Eastern Sub-alpine Warbler.

Subalp Warbler, Skokholm, 240416

Eastern Sub-alpine Warbler, April 2016

We did ring Manx Shearwaters but more on that next time
Mark C

Red-footed Boobies feeding in the Atlantic

The wording below the first series of images is from a blog entry I wrote back in March 2011. The last sentence mentions about attempting to get half decent images of the birds hunting Flying Fish, in particular a successful hunt. Well the good news is I managed to snap those pictures in April of 2015, just over four years later. The pictures are self explanatory so I won’t label them all. Again as I mentioned; most hunts are unsuccessful, (top images) but every so often they hit the jackpot, (lower images).

Red-footed Booby and  Fish 1a, Central Atlantic Ocean, 8 Apr 2015

Red-footed Booby unsuccessfully hunting a Flying Fish, Central Atlantic Ocean, 8 Apr 2015. Four Images.

Red-footed Booby and  Fish 2a, Central Atlantic Ocean, 8 Apr 2015 Red-footed Booby and  Fish 3a, Central Atlantic Ocean, 8 Apr 2015 Red-footed Booby and  Fish 4, Central Atlantic Ocean, 8 Apr 2015

Red-footed Booby 7, Central Atlantic Ocean, 8 Apr 2015

Two birds getting in each others way

Red-footed Booby 8, Central Atlantic Ocean, 8 Apr 2015

Getting Closer

Flying Fish 3, Central Atlantic Ocean, 8 Apr 2015

Flying Fish, Central Atlantic Ocean, 8 Apr 2015

Flying Fish 4, Central Atlantic Ocean, 8 Apr 2015

Flying Fish, Central Atlantic Ocean, 8 Apr 2015

Another distinguishing feature of the Red-footed Booby is their preferred hunting method.  Now I cannot say that they hunt like this all the time but I have watched them before in the Pacific and now the Atlantic and I have witnessed this behaviour on both occasions.  The Red-footed Booby does not plunge dive like the Masked. (Now I am no boffin and I am quite sure they are capable of plunging and most probably do it but not as I have watched from ships).  Instead the birds gain a little height by flying near to the ship and then when the ship scares the flying fish out of the water they swoop down at great speed and fly up behind the unsuspecting gliding fish before plucking them clean out of the air.  Now most fish see the Red-foots coming and hastily re-enter the water at great speed.  Often they then get picked off by the Masked Boobies which are also in attendance.  The Red-footed Boobies certainly miss more fish than they catch but I guess they save the extra energy by not having to break free from the water after each dive as in the case of Masked Boobies.  I will try and put together a few shots I have of both species hunting in a later posting.  However, the birds are always more distant so the quality will be down on the rest of the Booby images but it will give you an idea what I am talking about.

Red-footed Booby 5, Central Atlantic Ocean, 8 Apr 2015

Red-footed Booby successfully hunting a Flying Fish, Central Atlantic Ocean, 8 Apr 2015. Six Images.

Red-footed Booby 55, Central Atlantic Ocean, 8 Apr 2015 Red-footed Booby 555, Central Atlantic Ocean, 8 Apr 2015 Red-footed Booby 5555, Central Atlantic Ocean, 8 Apr 2015 Red-footed Booby 55555, Central Atlantic Ocean, 8 Apr 2015 Red-footed Booby 555555, Central Atlantic Ocean, 8 Apr 2015

Out of interest when I looked at the properties of the six images above they cover just over a second of time.

Steve C

Birding Wales – Skokholm

Skokholm Island can be found 2.5 miles off the coast of Pembrokeshire on the south west tip of Wales. The island is a SSSI and home to breeding Gulls, auks and Shearwaters. A few weeks ago I went there as part of a ringing expedition with the tri-service ringing team. The ringing will be covered in my next post but firstly a little about the island. The two wardens are Richard and Giselle and on landing they immediately make you welcome. Accommodation is first class apart from the fact that there are no showers. As no electricity runs to the island, all the heating is from a large Solar panel so hot water is at a premium.
We stayed in the cottage which has four very tidy single rooms. In the middle is a common room where everyone meets in the evening to carry out the day’s call over. The kitchen and dining area are in another building and the wardens live at the lighthouse, which can be found at the other end of the island.
As the ringing could be rather quiet at times, Roger Dickey and I would spend part of the day exploring different parts of the island and visiting the three ponds scattered about.
North pond was the nearest and this often had waders around its edges. A Bar-tailed Godwit stayed for most of our trip as did a group of Dunlins, a pair of Ringed Plovers and the odd Common Sandpiper or migrating Whimbrel.

Dunlin, North Pond, Skokholm, April 2016

Dunlin, North Pond, Skokholm, April 2016

Around the edge of the island Puffins, Guillemots and Razorbills breed amongst the gulls and Fulmars. The two volunteer wardens, Sam and Nikki had the unenviable task of counting them on a daily basis. Not easy as they could be seen on land, air and sea and were constantly flying from one to the other.

Razor1

Razorbill, Skokholm, April 2016

 

Puffin2

Puffins, Skokholm, April 2016

Interestingly the only reptile that can be found on the island, is the Slow worm. Possibly a result of islandism the Slow worms that are found on Skokholm are the biggest in the British Isles.

Slow worms 1

Slow worms, Skokholm, April 16

Corrugated sheets had been placed for the animals to bask. We found 30 plus when we looked including this very red individual.
Mark C

Red-footed Booby in the Tropical Atlantic

The third species of Booby that we encountered on our passage north from Rio was the Red-footed Booby, Sula sula. As with Masked and Brown this species also has a pan-tropical range across the three major oceans. And as with the other two species I have also seen this species in the Indian and Pacific Oceans as well as here in the Atlantic. The Red-footed Booby has a variety of plumages ranging from White to a sandy brown and combinations of the two such as white-tailed brown plumage. They generally show pinky red skin on the face with a pale blue bill. Regardless of plumage the legs and feet are always red. Given its name I doubt that will come as a surprise.

Red-footed Booby 1, Central Atlantic Ocean, 7 Apr 2015

Red-footed Booby, Central Atlantic Ocean, 7 Apr 2015

Red-footed Booby 4b, Central Atlantic Ocean, 7 Apr 2015

Red-footed Booby, Central Atlantic Ocean, 7 Apr 2015. Close up showing facial skin and bill colour

Red-footed Booby 1a, Central Atlantic Ocean, 8 Apr 2015

Red-footed Booby, Central Atlantic Ocean, 8 Apr 2015. White-tailed Brown Morph Bird

Remembering back I was fortunate enough (right place at the right time) to have a first for the Canary Islands with this bird back in Sep 2012. (see link below) It was an immature bird perched on the same foremast as the recent birds in the shots further down the page.

First record of Red-footed Booby in the Canary Islands

Perching on the ship is not uncommon for this species and Protector’s foremast was always a favourite. I have also photographed the odd Peregrine, Swallow-tailed Gull and Pale-faced Sheathbill on the same mast. In fact it probably has a very good bird list of its own.

Red-footed-Booby-6a-Canary-Islands-23-Sep-2012

Red-footed-Booby, Canary-Islands, 23 Sep 2012

Red-footed-Booby-5-Canary-Islands-23-Sep-2012

Red-footed-Booby, Canary-Islands, 23 Sep 2012

Red-footed Booby 2, Central Atlantic Ocean, 9 Apr 2015

Red-footed Booby, Central Atlantic Ocean, 9 Apr 2015

Red-footed Booby 33, Central Atlantic Ocean, 9 Apr 2015

Red-footed Boobies, Central Atlantic Ocean, 9 Apr 2015

Peregrine Falcon, ad 3 , Central Eastern Pacific, 24 Apr 2014

Peregrine Falcon, Central Eastern Pacific, 24 Apr 2014

Peregrine Falcon, ad 1 , Central Eastern Pacific, 24 Apr 2014

Peregrine Falcon, Central Eastern Pacific, 24 Apr 2014

Steve C

Bloody-nosed Beetle at Portchester Common

On Bank Holiday Monday afternoon I visited Portchester Common in search of summer migrants.  I was rewarded with my first Lesser Whitethroat and Swift of the year.  However, the sighting of the day was two large beetles I encountered on a footpath.  Rather than get my DSLR out I took a few record shots with my Smart Phone.  I sent the images to Richard D who confirmed that they were Bloody-nosed Beetles – Britain’s largest species of leaf beetle.  The name is derived from the beetle’s ability to secrete a drop of foul tasting red blood from the mouth in defence when disturbed.  Ladybirds have a similar defence mechanism but the blood is secreted from the leg joints.  I had always thought it was pooh.  Every day is a school day.

Bloody-nosed Beetle, Portchester Common – 2 May 16

Bloody-nosed Beetle, Portchester Common – 2 May 16

Good wildlife watching,

Tony T   BSc (Hons) GeoSci (Open)

Lunar Marbled Brown macro moth new for Fareham garden

A single Lunar Marbled Brown was the sixth new species of macro moth for my Fareham garden since I upgraded to a Robinson’s Trap.  However, there have been a few common species (Shuttle-shaped Dart, Bright-line Brown-eyes, Muslin Moth and Knot Grass) I have recorded in April that have yet to turn up this year.

Lunar Marbled Brown, Fareham garden – 25 Apr 16

Good mothing,

Tony T   BSc (Hons) GeoSci (Open)

Little and Great-crested Grebes at Mere Sands Wood

Spent a few days up north over the last week. Whilst visiting the mother-in-law in Burscough, I found a few hours on Friday morning to visit Mere Sands Wood Nature Reserve. I have visited this reserve on and off for the last twenty five years or so. In that time it has had its ups and downs but glad to report that the reserve is on the up at the moment. A great deal of work has gone into clearing the abundant and extremely invasive Rhododendron scrub. Hopefully this is starting to pay off as there was a great many newly arrived Blackcaps, Chiffchaffs and Willow Warblers around the reserve; all in good voice. Not to mention good numbers of the resident Song Thrush, Robins, Wrens and the usual Tits. It is also a great place to get close views of Great-crested and Little Grebes, especially from the Cyril Gibbons hide which overlooks Mere End Lake. All in all a great place to visit if you find yourself in West Lancashire.

Great-crested Grebe 1, Mere Sands Wood, 22 Apr 2016

Great-crested Grebe, Mere Sands Wood, 22 Apr 2016

Great-crested Grebe 3a, Mere Sands Wood, 22 Apr 2016

Great-crested Grebe, Mere Sands Wood, 22 Apr 2016

Great-crested Grebe 4, Mere Sands Wood, 22 Apr 2016

Great-crested Grebe, Mere Sands Wood, 22 Apr 2016

Great-crested Grebe 5, Mere Sands Wood, 22 Apr 2016

Great-crested Grebe, Mere Sands Wood, 22 Apr 2016

Great-crested Grebe 6a, Mere Sands Wood, 22 Apr 2016

Great-crested Grebe, Mere Sands Wood, 22 Apr 2016

 

Little Grebe 2a, Mere Sands Wood, 22 Apr 2016

Little Grebe, Mere Sands Wood, 22 Apr 2016

Little Grebe 1a, Mere Sands Wood, 22 Apr 2016

Little Grebe, Mere Sands Wood, 22 Apr 2016

Little Grebe 4, Mere Sands Wood, 22 Apr 2016

Little Grebe, Mere Sands Wood, 22 Apr 2016

Little Grebe 5, Mere Sands Wood, 22 Apr 2016

Little Grebe, Mere Sands Wood, 22 Apr 2016

Little Grebe 5b, Mere Sands Wood, 22 Apr 2016

Little Grebe, Mere Sands Wood, 22 Apr 2016

The bird above was feeding close to the hide and if it not for a Canada Goose spoiling the fun, I could have watched for hours.

Song Thrush 1, Mere Sands Wood, 22 Apr 2016

Song Thrush, Mere Sands Wood, 22 Apr 2016

Robin 1, Mere Sands Wood, 22 Apr 2016

Robin, Mere Sands Wood, 22 Apr 2016

Robin 1a, Mere Sands Wood, 22 Apr 2016

Robin, Mere Sands Wood, 22 Apr 2016

Steve C

 

Acleris umbrana micro moth (Na) new for Fareham garden

The two species of macro moth (Frosted Green and Streamer) that were New For Garden on Friday 15 Apr 16 were completely eclipsed by confirmation of the identity of a micro moth I caught the following night.  I had my suspicions that the micro was the Nationally Scarce A Acleris umbrana due to the prominent black streak from the base to the apex of the forewing.  However, with so few records in Hampshire I assumed it had to be a form of the common and highly variable Acleris hastiana.  Due to my niggling doubts I showed the specimen to Richard D who examined its genitalia and confirmed that it was indeed Acleris umbrana (female).  The Fareham Mothing Group first encountered the species last year with one at Horsea Island and two at Titchfield Haven, all three being recorded during the month of July.  Due to the fact the species overwinters as an adult, my garden record must either represent a recent arrival from the continent or possibly an individual that has survived the mild winter locally.

I had hoped to get a few record images of the Acleris umbrana before showing it to Richard but unfortunately it refused to settle.  Consequently, I didn’t risk letting it out of the tube.  However, I’ll post an image of it mounted in due course.  The photograph below is of the specimen that turned up at my sheet at Titchfield Haven last year during an outing to the reserve by the Fareham Mothing Group.

Acleris umbrana, Titchfield Haven – 10 Jul 15

Good mothing,

Tony T   BSc (Hons) GeoSci (Open)

Green-winged Orchid at Clayhall Cemetery

Yesterday I headed to Gosport to ‘twitch’ the Green-winged Orchids in flower at the Naval Cemetery in Gosport.  The orchids, that have unspotted leaves, are only located within a small area of managed lawn beside the chapel.  The majority of the twenty or so plants were in small clumps well away from any path but the two photographed below were an exception, and allowed a few record photographs without any fear of unknowingly treading on any emerging orchids.

Green-winged Orchid, Clayhall Cemetery, Gosport-23 Apr 16

Green-winged Orchid, Clayhall Cemetery, Gosport-23 Apr 16

Good wildlife watching,

Tony T   BSc (Hons) GeoSci (Open)

Frosted Green and Streamer macro moths new for Fareham garden

I had a very rewarding couple of nights mothing in my back garden last weekend with a further two species that were new for garden (NFG).  I first encountered Frosted Green during an outing with the Fareham Mothing Group at the start of the month but the Streamer was a completely new species for me.  The Streamer, named for the black pennant like marking two thirds of the way down the leading edge, was in particularly good condition and showed the violet tint.  Both NFGs occurred on the Friday night when I only had one other moth – Hebrew Character.

Frosted Green, Fareham Garden – 15 Apr 16

Streamer, Fareham Garden – 15 Apr 16

The following night I only had two moths but the Angle Shades was new for year.  It’s a species that partially roles its wings up when at rest.  The specimen wasn’t actually inside the trap but on the wall beneath an occupied Starling Box, and I initially mistook it for a piece of discarded nesting material.

Angle Shades, Fareham Garden – 16 Apr 16

Angle Shades, Fareham Garden – 16 Apr 16

Good mothing,

Tony T   BSc (Hons) GeoSci (Open)