A day at the beach

I had not actually planned to leave the house today, given the weather report and plenty of stuff to do at home, but Steve called with a report of millions of pink things washing up on the beach and the weather didn’t look all that bad yet…

So I went out to Sunset Beach to look for pink things.  And the first things I saw when I got to the beach were zillions of mysterious pink animals and a dead Cassin’s Auklet.

Not too much further down the beach I found a dead CACKLING GOOSE (and zillions of pink things).

Those pink things when you get up close to them look like this:

My “mysterious pink thing” guys tell me they are some sort of PEANUT WORM.

[Update 10/18/2014] Not all the “mysterious pink thing” guys are in agreement that these are sipunculans.  The presence of longitudinal grooves, visible in the close-ups, suggest they are little pink sea cucumbers (holothurians).

Higher up the beach, away from the new wrack line and the pink things, I found this:

The early storms of fall are often the hardest on birds in the midst of migrating from one spot to another, finding themselves in an inconvenient spot in the rain, in the dark.  These birds have not died in vain, however.  A host of other species depend on these lost individuals for their own winter survival: eagles, hawks, corvids, coyotes, mustelids, even Sanderlings will pick at a dead bird on the beach.

I walked about a kilometer and a half before turning inland and back to the car through the piney woods.  It’s mushroom season and soon my attention was diverted away from mysterious pink things by other distractions.

 

Goosey, goosey gander

In the 45th supplement to the American Ornithologist Union Checklist of North American Bird (2004) the complex of white-cheeked geese formerly known as Canada Geese was split into big ones (still called Canada Goose) and small ones (Cackling Goose). The split followed splits that had been made several years earlier in Europe for the complex and brought the North American checklist in line with other international taxonomic opinion.

There are considerable morphological and behavioral differences separating the big geese from the small geese, but the primary basis for sorting geese into two species level clads was genetic data which relied heavily on mtDNA. This is genetic information found in the mitochondria of cells and is passed on through the maternal line. Changes in mtDNA occur more slowly over time and are not subject to the effects of hybridization. This makes mtDNA analysis a good tool for measuring differences between species on the broad scale. From this analysis white-cheeked geese breakdown like this:

On the basis of mtDNA, the decision to split big Canada Geese from small Canada Geese seems well grounded.

Wouldn’t it be wonderful if the story stopped there?

Speciation is driven by natural selection and reproductive isolation.  In the case of white-cheeked geese, especially small forms, reproductive isolation has everything to do site fidelity to the places they choose to breed.  Aleutian Geese breed in very different places than minima geese and this restricts gene flow.  The distribution of mtDNA haplotypes is strongly associated with breeding ground distribution and reflects reproductive isolation.  On the other hand, natural selection occurs over the entire range of a goose including the winter grounds and there are very distinct advantages to looking like all the other geese in a flock in the winter, independent of species.  White-cheeked geese most probably all look alike (at least superficially) for an adaptive reason.

But there’s more.

We can’t see the differences in mtDNA, because they are not morphologically expressed.  We depend on the morphological differences expressed by nuclear DNA to tell geese apart and the factors affecting nuclear DNA are more complicated than those that affect mtDNA.  Natural variation within populations creates overlap of morphological characters.  Some big geese at the small end of the scale and small geese at the big end of the scale are very difficult (if not impossible) for non-geese to tell apart when away from the breeding grounds and this is, in part, because there may be selective pressure that favors looking the same.

The influence of males on gene flow is not expressed in mtDNA, but genetic material from males contribute half of the genes found in nuclear DNA.  Male geese are more likely to wander.  Male geese are more likely to find themselves on the wrong breeding grounds.  Male genes may well be the reason why birds at the boundary between Taverner’s type Cackling Geese and Lesser Canada Geese are so gosh-darn hard to sort out even though the data we see from the mtDNA, which follows the deeper maternal relationships, says otherwise (Mowbray, et al 2002).

So let’s recap:

1. The white-cheeked goose complex was split into two species based on mtDNA differences which are inherited through the female only.   These differences positively assort on the breeding grounds which are reproductively isolated from other goose types by geography.

2. Large-form and small-form species may look alike, because there is a selective advantage to looking like other birds in a mixed species flock on the wintering grounds.

3. Gene flow at the nuclear DNA level, contributed by wandering males, may create morphotypes not reflected in the underlying mtDNA genetics, producing individuals that cannot be sorted reliably to large-form or small-form categories.

At the end of all this, we need to remember that taxonomist (and especially molecular taxonomists) are asking very different questions about species and speciation than you and I are and they are under no obligation to produce results that are convenient or easy for birders.  We can be frustrated.  We can change the rules for bird listing so that birders use a different, easier definition of what counts on a life-list, but we’re not going to change the way taxonomist see the world or the way white-cheeked geese behave.

References

Banks, Richard C.; Cicero, Carla; Dunn, Jon L.; Kratter, Andrew W.; Rasmussen, Pamela C.; Remsen Jr., J. V.; Rising, James D.; Stotz, Douglas F. 2004. FORTY-FIFTH SUPPLEMENT TO THE AMERICAN ORNITHOLOGISTS’ UNION CHECK-LIST OF NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS. Auk (American Ornithologists Union); Vol. 121 Issue 3, p985. http://www.aou.org/checklist/suppl/AOU_checklist_suppl_45.pdf

Mowbray, Thomas B., Craig R. Ely, James S. Sedinger and Robert E. Trost. 2002. Canada Goose (Branta canadensis), The Birds of North America Online (A. Poole, Ed.). Ithaca: Cornell Lab of Ornithology; Retrieved from the Birds of North America Online: http://bna.birds.cornell.edu/bna/species/682

Paxinos, Ellen E., Helen F. James, Storrs L. Olson, Michael D. Sorenson, Jennifer Jackson, and Robert C. Fleischer. 2002. mtDNA from fossils reveals a radiation of Hawaiian geese recently derived from the Canada goose (Branta canadensis). Proceeding of the National Academy of Sciences 99(3):1399-1404. http://www.pnas.org/content/99/3/1399.full

I just picked up a lifer…

As all of you know by now, I have lots of lists, many of which do not conform with the official ABA listing rules.  I was able to put LAYSAN ALBATROSS on my birds I’ve seen alive, birds I’ve touched, birds I have photos of and birds I’ve been bitten by lists this past March when a bird, recovered from a barge in Columbia County, was brought into rehab at the North Coast Wildlife Center.

Laysan Albatross - 3/1/2014

I was also invited to participate in the release and got to see it fly away.

Laysan Albatross - 3/15/2014

The ABA, however, did not allow for the inclusion of birds released from rehabilitation (though one could count them while they sat dying on the beach or roadside).  So, I had Laysan Albatross on all my important lists, but did not (could not) include it on the ABA list, the one everybody else seems to place the most importance in.

Well that has now officially changed.  Rehabbed birds can now be counted on one’s life-list by those who witness the release.  So, I just gained a new bird on my official ABA life-list by fiat.

In other life-list news those of you who’ve seen California Condors or Aplomado Falcons “in the wild” (post captive breeding program) may now pretend like they’ve been successfully and permanently re-established in the wild and count them on your ABA list.

The ABA blog has the breakdown for these new rule changes.

Atmospheric Rivers and You

There is a change coming to the Pacific Northwest….

After a good, long spell of unusually warm and mostly dry conditions, the weather guessers are calling for some rain, maybe quite a lot of rain.  Our area has been under the influence of what the professionals call a persistent upper level ridge of high pressure which has been directing marine air around us by pushing the Jet Stream to the north.  That pattern is breaking down and will cause the upper level flow to become more “zonal” which is a technical term for “aimed right at us.

The forecast models for this particular weather change have several moving parts.  There is a warm ocean.  There are remnants of typhoon Phanfone embedded in the approaching frontal system and the jet stream is focusing its energy into a narrow band centered on the Washington/Oregon Coast.  This creates what meteorologists call an “atmospheric river” producing heavy rains and serious winds.  Particularly warm ones with most of their moisture originating in the tropics are sometimes also referred to as “the Pineapple Express”.  The 1962 Columbus Day Storm is an extreme example of what these systems can be like.

When these systems arrive in early to mid-autumn, they can produce interesting birding along the coast and (sometimes) even interior lakes and large rivers.  This can be a good time to set up the spotting scope at a good sea-watching location and watch for near-shore occurrences of tubenoses and other pelagic species.

The models that forecasters use to predict these early transitional systems are not in total agreement about the coming weather shift, and they are most definitely not predicting anything on the scale of a Columbus Day Storm, but keeping a weather-eye on these early fall systems can benefit the intrepid birder.

You can follow progress of model interpretations among the professionals at:
http://forecast.weather.gov/

And other interesting climate info at Cliff Mass Weather Blog

Northern Fulmar - 10/27/2010

Milestones

Yesterday Jimmy Carter turned 90 years old.  The election that put Jimmy Carter in the White House was my first presidential election, but I don’t really want to talk about that milestone or Jimmy Carter.  It’s that number, ninety, that intrigues me.  Why is the number 90 more special than the number 89 or 91?  89 is a prime number and 91 is a semi-prime, both conditions are way more unique than being divisible by 10.  There is only about 1% difference between 89 and 90, but Jimmy Carter turns 90 and it makes the news, 89 did not require a press release.  What is it about numbers ending in zero that makes them so special?

I get the human need for milestones, but the ones we choose to celebrate (or ignore) are a bit arbitrary.  I am a professional counter of things.  I spend the counting season quantifying biological density and diversity.  Some jobs have me counting butterflies, some birds, some plants.  Many contractors want a snapshot of everything I can find.  The reason for counting stuff is to assess the quality of the habitat.  Counting stuff is an assessment tool.  In some cases, having a big number of a particular organism is positive thing that reflects well on the assessment of habitat quality; in other cases, having too many of a particular organism is considered a negative.  Finding 90 species is no more special than finding 91.  Both numbers are simply best estimates of the reality of site, anyway, plus or minus the standard error.  It’s not the specific number that matters. It’s what that number tells us, or at least what we think it tells us, that gives it meaning.

A few years back, I officially passed the 400 species milestone for bird species seen in Oregon.  We Oregon birders traditionally place a special, magical significance on 400 and for obvious reasons… it ends with not one, but two zeros and it’s the largest value ending in two zeros one might reasonably expect to get in Oregon over a lifetime.  Totally objective, right?

But here’s the thing, I’m not actually sure what my 400th species was.  The bird I claimed as 400, Broad-winged Hawk, turns out to have been a clerical error.
 photo bwha20090903notes_zpse79cca66.jpg
I had failed to add a couple of species seen earlier in the year onto my list.  Of course, a few years after that the AOU split a bunch of species including Solitary Vireo.  I’d seen both Cassin’s and Plumbeous in Oregon before the split, so technically I was at 400 even earlier, but the science took a while to catch up with what the vireos (presumably) already knew.

… or had it?  That alleged Plumbeous Vireo?  that extra dull gray vireo from back in the days when getting it absolutely right didn’t matter to my list? was it really what I think it was?

As a professional counter of things, taking into account all the splits and lumps over 45 years of birding, I would have to say Broad-winged Hawk was species number 400 ± 3.  There may not be nearly as much certainty to the milestones we celebrate than we think.  Any claim of 400 species in Oregon probably shouldn’t be trusted until the claimant gets beyond the standard error.  It took me another two years to do that.   For me, the number of birds I’ve seen in any given point in time is just an estimate based on current data and a moving target.  And milestones, be they birthdays or bird counts, are just markers along the way to somewhere else, points of reference without much deeper meaning.

You know, Jimmy Carter is a birder.  90 years old and still birding (with a Secret Service entourage).  Now that’s something to celebrate, even at time intervals that are not evenly divisible by 10.

a phenomenon of nature…

The first ELEGANT TERNS to ever be noted in Oregon were seen August 4, 1983 in Coos Bay.  That was a strong El Niño year and Elegant Tern made a better than average showing (for those days) along the Northern California Coast as well.  The following year 319 birds appeared on the Necanicum River Estuary in a single flock.  El Niño was still affecting the weather.  Subsequent years were less impressive and the operating hypothesis was that El Niño was necessary for Elegant Terns in Oregon.  I saw my first Elegant Terns at the mouth of the Columbia River on August 12, 1990 which was not an El Niño year (though the next year was).

We still needed to write up Elegant Tern reports for the OBRC back in those days.  Over the course of that season, I saw numbers ranging from 20 to 60 almost daily, with a peak of 125 on August 26.  I did not see any Elegant Terns again in Clatsop County for several years, but by 1992, enough records had built up on the Oregon South Coast to justify removing the terns as an OBRC review species.

Last year, Elegant Terns started summering on the Hammond Boat Basin jetty.  The first of them noted on August 14.  Numbers peaked at around 150.  We had a lot of fun watching them, but figured it would be a one-off event…

Elegant Tern - 8/18/2013

The first Elegant Terns this year were noted on East Sand Island on July 19.  Three Elegant Terns turned up on Trestle Bay on July 26.  By August 14, they were being seen on the Hammond Jetty again, and in pretty good numbers.  Today, my best count was 450 birds, about 150 on the jetty,  250 on the river pilings just west of the boat basin, and another 50 or so feeding out on the river.

It truly is one of those rare phenomenons that no photograph really captures.  There are some things that the eye still does better.  There are intimate behaviors, like an adult chatting with a youngster.

And flocking behaviors involving large groups taking off at once, flying together out over the river and returning for no reason that would make sense to those of us who are not terns watching from the shore.

If they hold to the pattern noted in previous years, these birds will probably stick around until the end of the month, though probably not in the numbers seen in the last couple days.   And they are awfully fun to watch…

Buff-breasted Sandpiper

A BUFF-BREASTED SANDPIPER was reported from the South Jetty of the Columbia River yesterday.  Today Neal Maine and I went out to do a bit of photo-documentation.

Most of the Buff-breasted Sandpipers I’ve been fortunate enough to find have been remarkably tame and this bird was no exception. Both Neal and I were able to get remarkably close shots by just planting ourselves in one spot and letting the bird come to us.

At one point Neal and I were no more than 20 feet apart and the bird casually walked between us, too close for the long lenses on the cameras.

More Buff-breasted Photos HERE.

Green Birding

I’ve spent more than a few electrons on the topic of motorless birding over the years. The concept is pretty straight-forward and given that birding is often claimed to be an eco-friendly hobby, shouldn’t cause much controversy (you’d think).  But part of birding is listing and part of listing is chasing and part of chasing is hopping in the car and driving long distances to tick a single singular bird.  For a (small) subset of birders, that’s kind of all there is to birding.  If you’re not chasing, you’re not birding.  Those folks can get a might defensive if they think they’re being criticized. The majority of birders get the paradox, however, and find some comfortable spot somewhere between leaving moa-sized carbon foot-prints and birding completely off the grid.

I’ve been keeping motorless bird lists (I call them walkabouts) for quite a while and have even taken to using the Patch Totals function at eBird to track them.  They are the framework for my plan to keep myself reasonably fit as I glide into old age.  Most are extended walks between 3 and 5 miles, but occasionally I pump up the tires on my bicycle and go for longer motorless excursions.

My efforts at being motorless pale in comparison to those of Dorian Anderson, however.   He has taken green birding far beyond anything I have the energy for.  Beginning in January, he started an attempt at a North American Big Year by foot, bicycle and a couple kayak trips- no cars, no airplanes, no buses.  He has arrived, 244 days and 543 bird species later, on the North Coast of Oregon.

I caught up with him today at Haystack Rock in Cannon Beach where he was resting up from a 108 mile dash yesterday from Westport, WA to Cannon Beach in a quest to list TUFTED PUFFINS and BLACK OYSTERCATCHERS at Haystack.  I spent most of the morning watching him photographing oystercatchers and HARLEQUIN DUCKS while he stood knee-deep in the ocean.  He seemed to be having a good time.  And there were still one or two puffins (still carrying food) coming to the rock.  He’ll probably be heading inland to Portland tomorrow and then down the valley, before turning back toward the coast.  You can follow his adventures at BIKINGFORBIRDS.

Dorian Anderson

I should note that Dorian is not the first Big Year Birding Biker I’ve encountered here on the North Coast.  In 2008, then 16-year-old, Malkolm Boothroyd and his parents came through on a 365-day adventure that began in the Yukon and ended in Florida.  Curmudgeons like to point out that his Big Year was not in a “calendar year” and that they went back to the Yukon by bus.  I say, if you’re going to start a trip by bicycle from the Yukon (or most of the US above the 40th parallel) your year should start in June, not January.  Let’s be real.  365 days is 365 days.  And taking a bus home on day 366 is, in my view, no big deal.  Most of us are going to have to get back into a car at some point in our lives after a motorless birding trip of any size.  Nit-picking the specific details gets in the way of the bigger issues Dorian and Malkolm are trying to address.

I’ll be sticking to walkabouts, but the idea of motorless listing at the Big Year level is gaining momentum, especially at the state level  There’s even a website – GreenBirding.

Please check out Dorian Anderson’s blog and watch for him if his route passes by your door

Harlequin Ducks