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South central Turkey

23rd-29th June 2003

Pallid Scops Owl


by Chris Batty et al

Introduction

Turkey has long been recognised as an essential birding destination. A large country, spanning both Europe and Asia, Turkey supports several species which are either very difficult or impossible to find elsewhere in the Western Palearctic. After considering a visit for many years 2003 saw me finally get my act together and book a charter flight to Antalya, a Mediterranean coast tourist magnet.

I found the flight on the internet and booked through Beaver Travel 01309-673699 for £126 including taxes. This left Manchester for Antalya late on a Sunday afternoon and returned in the early hours of Monday morning a week later. We organised a hire care before leaving England with Holiday Autos. The whole trip cost c£390, including flights, taxes, car hire, transport to airport, parking accommodation and food. Andy Holden, Tom Lowe and Doug Macadam accompanied me on the trip.

Due to the size of Turkey a two-week trip would be necessary for a full 'clean-up'. A week does not allow enough time to reach the east of the country for such specialities as Caucasian Grouse, Mongolian Finch and Grey-necked Bunting. In late June Turkey is hot, particularly so inland. However it is the humidity of the Mediterranean coast which slows down your birding, at Adana and the Goksu Delta it is a real problem. As a hay fever sufferer I was disappointed to find Turkey just as irritating as the British Isles.

Before leaving for Turkey I scoured the internet for trip reports and information on how best to find our target species. The essential guide to birding in south central Turkey is Dave Gosney's superb 'Finding Birds in Turkey Ankara to Birecik'. This is a must and can be purchased online. Other guides used to a lesser extent were Dave Gosney's 'Finding Birds in Western Turkey'; 'Where to watch birds in Turkey, Greece and Cyprus' by Hilary Welch, Laurence Rose, Derek Moore, Bill Oddie and Harry Sigg, published by Hamlyn; 'A birdwatchers' guide to Turkey' by Ian Green and Nigel Moorhouse. I found useful trip reports catalogued at OSME and Birdtours. Particularly helpful reports for our trip being by Ady and Keren Gancz, Andreas Kristensen, Simon Hartill and Aleix Comas. For a most amusing read try Ian Merrill's. Additonally Julian Hough and Simon Smethurst's excellent report can be purchased from FBRIS and a short note by Daniele Occhiato in Birding World Vol.14 No.8 provided invaluable information on Nemrut Dagi and surrounding area.

The Collins Bird Guide covers the birds of Turkey well but for a most in depth analaysis the 'Songbirds of Turkey' by C.S.Roselaar is an impressive work.

Itinerary

Sunday: flew Manchester to Antalya, arriving late evening
Monday: drove to Akeski for dawn, Akeski, drove through Konya to Karapinar craters, drove to Demirkazik and slept in car
Tuesday: Demirkazik chromium mine, Demirkazik village, slept at Safak Pension
Wednesday: tractor ride to chromium mine, Demirkazik village, Sultan Marshes, Col Golu, drove to Birecik for dawn
Thursday: Birecik; slept at Otel Merkalam (by petrol station west of bridge in Birecik)
Friday: Nemrut Dagi, Narince, drove to Isikli, slept in car
Saturday: Isikli, Adana, Gosku Delta, drove to Akseki, slept in car
Sunday: Akeski, Tasagil, Koprulu Kanyon National Park

I have detailed below how we found our target birds, following this with information about the target birds we failed to see and finally a complete systematic trip list of all 183 species seen during the week. Throughout the whole report I have followed the taxonomy and nomenclature used at Western Palearctic Birds.

I have written this report on the presumption that you will be using 'Finding Birds in Turkey Ankara to Birecik' as your principle source of information on any visit to the region. I have therefore referenced the booklet as 'Gosney' and given a page and site number where appropriate.

Target birds found

Ruddy Shelduck

Karapinar: east of Karapinar on the first crater lake south of road 330 (Gosney page 9 site 3) where a couple of pairs were accompanied by 24 young.

Sultan Marshes: Col Golu (Gosney page 35 - though not numbered - Gol Golu labelled as Dortyol) from road 805 north of Yesilhisar head east towards Develi. Along this road you will cross a large, reed-filled canal. This is Kanal II and to view Col Golu you should drive north along the track on the west side of the canal for 3.5km then view east.

Goksu Delta: from the tower hide overlooking Akgol in the Goksu Delta (Gosney page 25 tower hide is located near the northwestern number 4). Also Red-crested Pochard, Ferruginous Duck, Glossy Ibis, Spoonbill, Gull-billed Tern, 34+ Red-rumped Swallows in the car park.

Caspian Snowcock

Demirkazik: after early June this species becomes very difficult to see above the ski centre by Demirkazik village. As the birds retreat higher into the crags it becomes essential to visit a nearby site which is at a higher altitude. This 'new' site, a chromium mine was found by Ady and Keren Gancz as recently as 2000 and has proven to be the place to search for snowcocks in the summer months. Full directions and an excellent map can be found here. Initially we attempted to reach the chromium mine on foot, driving as far up the track as our 1.2 Fiat Siena would take us and then, at around 1:30am, setting off on foot up the steep rocky track. However, after only a short way we were clearly approaching a herd of sheep and dogs could be heard barking ahead of us. Having heard many elaborate tales of the viscous nature of the Anatolian Sheepdogs we elected to retreat back to the car and wait for dawn before making our ascent. At 5am we started walking up the mountain again and after 3 1/2 hours had reached only the base of the crags on which the chromium mine perches. Thoroughly exhausted due to a combination of low fitness levels, thin air and blistering heat we scanned the crags above us but to no avail. After descending to the car we drove to Safak Pansiyon where we met the proprietor Hasan Safak. Hasan runs the guesthouse but most importantly takes tractor rides to the crags for dawn in search of snowcocks. Hasan charges something of a premium price for his services and it may be worth trying to haggle him down from 75 Euros, particularly given the strengthening Euro. Hasan was more than happy to accommodate us and the following morning we set out at 3.30am on a long and bone-shaking tractor ride to the chromium mine. It is advisable to bring warmish clothes and thick gloves to avoid blisters on your hands as you have cling to the bouncing tractor. Hasan soon located a snowcock right next to the buildings at the chromium mine and for the following two hours we were treated to views of at least six birds singing, atop of the crags, flying and chasing each other up and down the scree slopes. Also Golden Eagle, Water Pipit, Shorelark, Rock Thrush, Rock Bunting.

If you are fit you could walk to the chromium mine but I would budget for about a five hour walk - Demirkazik Mountain is 3,756 metres high. It may not be essential to be there early morning, indeed Aleix Comas seemed to find them later there in the day. Unless you have a four-wheel drive you will probably not be able to drive as far up the track as Ady and Keren Gancz managed. If you are intending to use Hasan it may well be worth contacting him in advance to make sure he is not going to be double-booked.

See-see Partridge

Birecik: from my research the main wadi at Birecik seems the only reliable place to see this species (Gosney page 19 site 2). We made a dawn visit and crept right along the winding wadi with no joy. We climbed out of the wadi onto the plains above and had a very brief view of a partridge species flying back down into the wadi. We then walked slowly back along the main wadi towards the road and saw three See-sees together flying and running up the slope only a couple of bends before the entrance to the wadi.

Black Francolin

Birecik: having flushed two females from cover left of the main track by the gravel works (Gosney page 22 site 11) a dusk visit to this area produced three plus singing males perched prominently atop of the gravel mounds. Also Little Bittern.

Goksu Delta: we did no try for this species southwest of Akgol (Gosney page 23 site 3) where it is traditionally found.

Pygmy Cormorant

Birecik: we found this species only at Briecik where it is very common all along the River Euphrates

Sultan Marshes: whilst scanning the reedbeds from the viewing tower north of Ovaciftlik village we were offered a boat trip out to the open water where were told we would see this species, we declined. Kanal II was reed-filled and di not appear suuitable for this species.

Lammergeier

Demirkazik: a single immature (1st or 2nd calendar year) circled over the chromium mine area late morning.

Egyptian Vulture

Sultan Marshes: at least 12 along the road just west of Soyasil (Gosney page 35 - though not numbered).

Eurasian Griffon Vulture

Koprulu Kanyon National Park: 3 soaring distantly over crags from the road (Gosney Finding Birds in Western Turkey page 20 site 2).

Long-legged Buzzard

Long-legged Buzzard

Seen on several occasions by the roadside.

Imperial Eagle

Demirkazik: a chance encounter with a subadult at close range from the track running south southeast from the mountain centre (Gosney page 12 site 4). Also Ring Ouzels. Lesser Spotted Woodpecker in Demirkazik village.

Eleonora's Falcon

Birecik: a single over the gravel works at dusk (Gosney page 22 site 11).

Goksu Delta: a pale-morph seen hunting over Akgol from the tower hide mid evening (Gosney page 25 tower hide is located near the northwestern number 4).

Grey-headed Swamp-hen

Goksu Delta: at least 11 on the edges of the reeds at Akgol viewed from the tower hide (Gosney page 25 tower hide is located near the northwestern number 4).

Greater Sand Plover

Sultan Marshes: at least seven at Col Golu (Gosney page 35 - though not numbered - Gol Golu labelled as Dortyol) from road 805 north of Yesilhisar head east towards Develi. Along this road you will cross a large, reed-filled canal. This is Kanal II and to view Col Golu you should drive north along the track on the west side of the canal for 3.5km then view east.

Spur-winged Lapwing

Goksu Delta: common along the southeast side of Akgol, along track by Paradeniz Golu and in the paddyfields south of Kurtulus (Gosney page 25 sites 4, 6, 7 and 9).

Laughing Dove

Birecik: one on an aerial in the town just southeast of the bridge.

Pallid Scops Owl

Birecik: one roosting in the usual tea garden (Gosney page 22 site 8). The waiter was keen to charge a hefty sum for showing us the owl but with time on our side we elected to search for it ourselves. About an hour later the waiter, who could probably no longer bear to watch us walking around in contorted positions showed it to us for free. After dark the quiet soft song could be heard. Also 2 Long-eared Owls.

European Scops Owl

Akeski: heard singing during the night in the pine forests along road 695 south of the town.

Birecik: one flushed from a tree in the southwest corner of the park immediately south of the tea garden during the day (Gosney page 22 site 8) and watched hunting in both the park and under the lights of the tea garden after dark.

Little Swift

Birecik: several seen around the colony on the east side of the River Euphrates at the north edge of the town (Gosney page 21).

White-breasted Kingfisher

White-breasted Kingfisher

Adana: at least 8 were seen immediately on arrival at site just south of Adana. From a huge new mosque by the River Tarsus in Adana follow road 815 south signed Karatas. Not long after you have left the city you cross over a major canal and should turn immediately right (at the 'Group Sagun Kemal Balicilk' sign) and pass several sluice gates. The main track bears left here but another track bears right and runs alongside the canal. We followed this track for a few hundred metres until we reached a confluence with another canal by a building. We didn't leave the car because of the presence of snarling dogs, extreme heat and humidity but enjoyed excellent views of White-breasted Kingfishers perching and fishing. Also Night Herons.

Pied Kingfisher

Birecik: we found a track running south out of the town along the east bank of the River Euphrates that we followed for several kilometres until it left the riverside. We saw a single Pied Kingfisher fishing over the River Euphrates by this track. Also several Ferruginous Ducks, White-winged Black Terns.

Syrian Woodpecker

Akseki: present and vocal in the graveyard opposite the stadi (Gosney page 30 site 2). Nearby Red-rumped Swallow.

Birecik: in the tea garden (Gosney page 22 site 8).

Middle Spotted Woodpecker

Middle-spotted Woodpecker

Akeski: a pair present at the 'new' site (Gosney page 32 site 4) in the clearing in the forest by the road. They favoured the trees just east of the road north of where you are recommended to park. Also Booted Eagle and Crossbills there and nearby Black Storks.

White-backed Woodpecker

Akseki: a vocal single at the 'new' site (Gosney page 32 site 4) in the clearing in the forest by the road.

Calandra Lark

Calandra Lark

Konya: common on the barren land and agricultural fields east of the town. Also Stone Curlew and nearby Lesser Kestrels and Collared Pratincoles.

Bimaculated Lark

Bimaculated Lark

Karapinar: east of Karapinar on the first crater lake south of road 330 (Gosney page 9 site 3) many adults and recently fledged juveniles were in the heather-like vegetation on the northeast side of the first crater lake.

Isikli: one adult carrying food further up the valley than illustrated in Gosney's map (Gosney page 18 site 6).

Asian Short-toed Lark

Konya: at least two seen on a track running south from road 330 about four kilometres east of Konya.

Sultan Marshes: from road 805 north of Yesilhisar head east towards Develi. Along this road you will cross a large, reed-filled canal. This is Kanal II and you drive north along the track on the west side of the canal for 3.5km.

White-spectacled Bulbul

Birecik: one in the main wadi (Gosney page 19 site 2).

Adana: From a huge new mosque by the River Tarsus in Adana follow road 815 south signed Karatas. Not long after you have left the city you cross over a major canal and should turn immediately right (at the 'Group Sagun Kemal Balicilk' sign) and pass several sluice gates. The main track bears left here but another track bears right and runs alongside the canal.

Goksu Delta: one in scrub southwest of Akgol viewed from the tower hide (Gosney page 25 tower hide is located near the northwestern number 4).

Radde's Accentor

Demirkazik: two, one carrying food, by the stream near the nomad camp.

Alpine Accentor

Demirkazik: two around the snow by the track before the chromium mine.

Rufous-tailed Scrub Robin

Birecik: feeding fledged young in the pines near the entrance to the main wadi (Gosney page 19 site 2).

Settimio Severn's roman bridge: at least two birds by road 360 near bridge (Birding World 14:344).

Narince: from Kahta follow road 360 to Narince then follow the road to Nemrut Dagi and after 3.1km there is a grove on the left hand side left hand side of the road.

Also seen at other sites.

White-throated Robin

Nemrut Dagi: two were very elusive in a small area of bushes left of the road 3.9km before the summit car park. Nemrut Dagi is signed from road 360 north of Kahta.

Isabelline Wheatear

Very common between Konya and Sultan Marshes, and present elsewhere.

Finsch's Wheatear

Finsch's Wheatear

Demirkazik: a pair around the small walled cemetery by the road 500 metres north of ski centre. Also a single along the track running south southeast from the mountain centre (Gosney page 12 site 4).

Nemrut Dagi: seen along the track between car park and the summit. Nemrut Dagi is signed from road 360 north of Kahta.

Red-tailed Wheatear

Red-tailed Wheatear

Nemrut Dagi: at least 10 were seen around the western terrace at the summit and by stopping at various points along the road between the car park and the entrance booth. Also Great Spotted Cuckoo, Rock Thrush. Nemrut Dagi is signed from road 360 north of Kahta.

Isikli: a pair present by the track up the valley just as the track leaves the orchard edge (Gosney page 18 site 6 southern of two points marked RTW).

Graceful Prinia

Birecik: around the gravel works (Gosney page 22 site 11).

Moustached Warbler

Sultan Marshes: common in reed-filled Kanal II (Gosney page 35 - though not numbered). Also Bearded Tit.

Caspian Reed Warbler

Sultan Marshes: present in reed-filled Kanal II (Gosney page 35 - though not numbered).

Birecik: in reeds around the gravel works (Gosney page 22 site 11).

Goksu Delta: in reedbeds at Akgol viewed from the tower hide (Gosney page 25 tower hide is located near the northwestern number 4).

Upcher's Warbler

Birecik: several in the main wadi (Gosney page 19 site 2).

Isikli: present by the track up the valley just as the track leaves the orchard edge (Gosney page 18 site 6 southern of two points marked RTW) as well as further up the valley.

Olive-tree Warbler

Narince: from Kahta follow road 360 to Narince then follow the road to Nemrut Dagi and after 3.1km there is a grove on the left hand side of the road (Birding World 14:344). Olive-tree Warblers were flying into the adjacent fields to collect food.

Ménétries's Warbler

Birecik: common in the main wadi (Gosney page 19 site 2) and also seen at the gravel works (Gosney page 22 site 11).

Rüppell's Warbler

Akseki: present at several sites along the road to the 7.9km 'old' site (Gosney page 31).

Eastern Orphean Warbler

Akeski: two in the graveyard opposite the stadi (Gosney page 30 site 2).

Narince: from Kahta follow road 360 to Narince then follow the road to Nemrut Dagi and after 3.1km there is a grove on the left hand side of the road.

Sombre Tit

Akeski: present in the graveyard opposite the stadi (Gosney page 30 site 2) and commonly in the pine woods at the 'new' site (Gosney page 32 site 4).

Krüper's Nuthatch

Akeski: found in the pine woods along the road to the 7.9km 'old' site (Gosney page 31) and around the clearing at the 'new' site (Gosney page 32 site 4).

Eastern Rock Nuthatch

Birecik: one in main wadi (Gosney page 19 site 2).

Settimio Severn's roman bridge: along road 360 north from Kahta, one was present in the gorge north of the bridge (Birding World 14:343).

Isikli: present further up the valley than illustrated in Gosney's map (Gosney page 18 site 6).

Western Rock Nuthatch

Common in suitable habitat throughout.

Lesser Grey Shrike

Demirkazik: at least seven by the road north of Safak Pension (Gosney page 13). Also Golden Oriole.

Masked Shrike

Masked Shrike

Akeski: nesting in trees opposite the last house on the road to the 'old' site (Gosney page 31). Also at the 'new' site (Gosney page 32 site 4) in the clearing in the forest by the road.

Dead Sea Sparrow

Birecik: several nests and singing birds in the WWF Bald Ibis compound (Gosney page 19 site 1). Over 20 males present in the reeds at the gravel works late evening (Gosney page 22 site 11).

Pale Rock Sparrow

Pale Rock Sparrow

Isikli: at least 2 feeding young further up the valley than illustrated in Gosney's map (Gosney page 18 site 6) follow the track to the left.

Nemrut Dagi: none could be found here where the species had been abundant in 2001 (Birding World 14:344), the species is apparently nomadic and often vacates areas where previously abundant. Nemrut Dagi is signed from road 360 north of Kahta.

Chestnut-shouldered Petronia

Birecik: a single singing by the electricity sub-station north of the town (Gosney page 20 site 5).

Settimio Severn's roman bridge: at least two birds by road 360 near bridge (Birding World 14:343).

White-winged Snow Finch

White-winged Snow Finch

Demirkazik: present along the track to the chromium mine.

Nemrut Dagi: present around the car park at the top. Nemrut Dagi is signed from road 360 north of Kahta. Also Rock Sparrow.

Red-fronted Serin

Red-fronted Serin

Demirkazik: common around the stream by the nomad camp.

Crimson-winged Finch

Demirkazik: present along the track to the chromium mine.

Desert Finch

Birecik: 2 at the gravel works (Gosney page 22 site 11).

Cinereous Bunting

Nemrut Dagi: present all along the road between the entrance booth. Nemrut Dagi is signed from road 360 north of Kahta.

Isikli: present further up the valley than illustrated in Gosney's map (Gosney page 18 site 6). Roselaar in 'Songbirds of Turkey' suggested that Cinereous Buntings in the Isikli area to be of the nominate form cineracea but their appearance seemed identical to those present at Nemrut Dagi, which are semenowi.

Cretzschmar's Bunting

Akseki: present along the road to the 7.9km 'old' site (Gosney page 31).

Demirkazik: present along the lower stretches of track to the chromium mine.

Target birds missed

White-headed Duck

Sultan Marshes: we might have seen this species if we had taken a boat trip north of Ovaciftlik village (Gosney page 6 site 1). Nearby Whiskered Terns were seen.

Marbled Duck

Sultan Marshes: we might have seen this species if we had taken a boat trip north of Ovaciftlik village (Gosney page 6 site 1).

Goksu Delta: none could be seen on Akgol but the tower hide should represent you best chance (Gosney page 25 tower hide is located near northwestern number 4).

Chukar

Demirkazik: heard calling north of the mountain centre in Demirkazik gorge (Gosney page 12 site 2) but not seen, Rock Bunting here.

Scopoli's Shearwater

Goksu Delta: a short evening seawatch off Tasucu did not produce this species.

Yelkouan Shearwater

Goksu Delta: a short evening seawatch off Tasucu did not produce this species.

Great White Pelican

Eregli Marshes: recent information indicated the marshes here were dry so we did not visit (Gosney page 9).

Dalmatian Pelican

Eregli Marshes: recent information indicated the marshes here were dry so we did not visit (Gosney page 9).

Northern Bald Ibis

Birecik: at least 51 birds were seen but sadly all are feral (Gosney page 19 site 1).

Levant Sparrowhawk

Tasagil: we searched for this species over the pinewoods by the road from Tasagil to Koprulu Kanyon National Park where they nested in the late 1980s but failed. Also Short-toed Eagle.

Bonelli's Eagle

Halfeti: present in the gorge north of the town but we did not give the site any time (Gosney page 20 site 7).

Lanner Falcon

Birecik: reported to breed north of the town but we had no specific site information.

Saker Falcon

Demirkazik: apparently present here but we had no specific information.

Cream-coloured Courser

Birecik: the site given by Gosney (Gosney page 20 site 6) apparently no longer holds any coursers.

Armenian Gull

Central Anatolian plateau: reported to be present at the golus in this area, particularly Kulu Golu.

Black-bellied Sandgrouse

Birecik: the changing flow of the River Euphrates has meant that the gravel islands near the WWF Bald Ibis compound mentioned in Gosney (Gosney page 20 site 3) are no longer present and so the occurrence of sandgrouse is less predictable.

Pin-tailed Sandgrouse

Birecik: the changing flow of the River Euphrates has meant that the gravel islands near the WWF Bald Ibis compound mentioned in Gosney (Gosney page 20 site 3) are no longer present and so the occurrence of sandgrouse is less predictable.

Eurasian Eagle Owl

Birecik: I am not sure if this species still occurs in the main wadi (Gosney page 19 site 2).

Blue-cheeked Bee-eater

Birecik: as far as we know the colony along the track to the gravel works (Gosney page 22 site 9) has been destroyed although odd singles are still being seen over the gravel works and nearby River Euphrates.

Grey-headed Woodpecker

Akeski: reported to occur at the 'new' site (Gosney page 32 site 4).

Desert Lark

Birecik: occurs on the plateaux above the main wadi (Gosney page 21) but we didn't see any in a brief search, concentrating our efforts on See-see Partridge.

Eastern Bonelli's Warbler

Akeski: occurs at the 'new' site (Gosney page 32 site 4).

Semi-collared Flycatcher

We had no specific information for this species in south central Turkey.

Wallcreeper

Demirkazik: we scanned the crags around the chromium mine, where they can be seen, without success.

Trumpeter Finch

Isikli: present at this site in previous years we have no recent information.

Shore Lark

Complete trip list

Ruddy Shelduck Tadorna ferruginea
Common Shelduck Tadorna tadorna
Red-crested Pochard Netta rufina
Common Pochard Aythya ferina
Ferruginous Duck Aythya nyroca
Gadwall Mareca strepera
Mallard Anas platyrhynchos
Caspian Snowcock Tetraogallus caspius
See-see Partridge Ammoperdix griseogularis
Black Francolin Francolinus francolinus
Little Grebe Tachybaptus ruficollis
Great Crested Grebe Podiceps cristatus
Pygmy Cormorant Microcarbo pygmeus
Little Bittern Ixobrychus minutus
Black-crowned Night Heron Nycticorax nycticorax
Squacco Heron Ardeola ralloides
Little Egret Egretta garzetta
Grey Heron Ardea cinerea
Purple Heron Ardea purpurea
Black Stork Ciconia nigra
White Stork Ciconia ciconia
Glossy Ibis Plegadis falcinellus
Eurasian Spoonbill Platalea leucorodia
Lammergeier Gypaetus barbatus aureus
Egyptian Vulture Neophron percnopterus
Eurasian Griffon Vulture Gyps fulvus
Short-toed Eagle Circaetus gallicus
Western Marsh Harrier Circus aeruginosus
Montagu's Harrier Circus pygargus
Eurasian Sparrowhawk Accipiter nisus
Common Buzzard Buteo buteo menetriesi
Long-legged Buzzard Buteo rufinus
Imperial Eagle Aquila heliaca
Golden Eagle Aquila chrysaetos
Booted Eagle Hieraaetus pennatus
Lesser Kestrel Falco naumanni
Common Kestrel Falco tinnunculus
Eleonora's Falcon Falco eleonorae
Peregrine Falcon Falco peregrinus
Common Moorhen Gallinula chloropus
Grey-headed Swamp-hen Porphyrio poliocephalus caspius
Eurasian Coot Fulica atra
Black-winged Stilt Himantopus himantopus
Pied Avocet Recurvirostra avosetta
Stone-curlew Burhinus oedicnemus saharae
Collared Pratincole Glareola pratincola
Little Ringed Plover Charadrius dubius coronicus
Kentish Plover Charadrius alexandrinus
Greater Sand Plover Charadrius leschenaultii colmbinus
Grey Plover Pluvialis squatarola
Spur-winged Lapwing Vanellus spinosus
Northern Lapwing Vanellus vanellus
Eurasian Curlew Numenius arquata
Common Redshank Tringa totanus
Green Sandpiper Tringa ochropus
Common Sandpiper Actitis hypoleucos
Black-headed Gull Larus ridibundus
Yellow-legged Gull Larus michahellis
Gull-billed Tern Gelochelidon nilotica
Common Tern Sterna hirundo
Little Tern Sterna albifrons
Whiskered Tern Chlidonias hybrida
White-winged Tern Chlidonias leucopterus
Rock Dove Columba livia
Common Wood Pigeon Columba palumbus
Eurasian Collared Dove Streptopelia decaocto
European Turtle Dove Streptopelia turtur
Laughing Dove Streptopelia senegalensis phoenicophila
Great Spotted Cuckoo Clamator glandarius
Common Cuckoo Cuculus canorus
Pallid Scops Owl Otus brucei obsoletus
European Scops Owl Otus scops
Little Owl Athene noctua indigena
Long-eared Owl Asio otus
European Nightjar Caprimulgus europaeus meridonalis
Common Swift Apus apus
Pallid Swift Apus pallidus
Alpine Swift Apus melba
Little Swift Apus affinis galilejensis
White-throated Kingfisher Halcyon smyrnensis syriaca
Pied Kingfisher Ceryle rudis
European Bee-eater Merops apiaster
European Roller Coracias garrulus
Eurasian Hoopoe Upupa epops garrulus
Eurasian Wryneck Jynx torquilla
Syrian Woodpecker Dendrocopos syriacus
Middle Spotted Woodpecker Dendrocopos medius
White-backed Woodpecker Dendrocopos leucotos lilfordi
Lesser Spotted Woodpecker Dendrocopos minor
Calandra Lark Melanocorypha calandra calandra
Bimaculated Lark Melanocorypha bimaculata rufescens
Greater Short-toed Lark Calandrella brachydactyla
Asian Short-toed Lark Calandrella cheleensis niethammeri
Crested Lark Galerida cristata
Wood Lark Lullula arborea pallida
Shore Lark Eremophila alpestris kumerloevei
Sand Martin Riparia riparia
Eurasian Crag Martin Ptyonoprogne rupestris
Barn Swallow Hirundo rustica
Red-rumped Swallow Hirundo daurica rufula
Common House Martin Delichon urbica
Water Pipit Anthus spinoletta coutelli
Black-headed Wagtail Motacilla feldegg
White Wagtail Motacilla alba
White-spectacled Bulbul Pycnonotus xanthopygos
Winter Wren Troglodytes troglodytes seilerni
Radde's Accentor Prunella ocularis
Alpine Accentor Prunella collaris subalpina
Rufous-tailed Scrub Robin Cercotrichas galactotes
Common Nightingale Luscinia megarhynchos
White-throated Robin Irania gutturalis
Black Redstart Phoenicurus ochruros ochruros
Common Redstart Phoenicurus phoenicurus samamisicus
European Stonechat Saxicola rubicola rubicola
Isabelline Wheatear Oenanthe isabellina
Northern Wheatear Oenanthe oenanthe libanotica
Eastern Black-eared Wheatear Oenanthe melanoleuca
Finsch's Wheatear Oenanthe finschii finschii
Red-tailed Wheatear Oenanthe xanthoprymna
Rufous-tailed Rock Thrush Monticola saxatilis saxatilis
Blue Rock Thrush Monticola solitarius solitarius
Ring Ouzel Turdus torquatus
Common Blackbird Turdus merula syriacus
Mistle Thrush Turdus viscivorus viscivorus
Cetti's Warbler Cettia cetti orientalis
Graceful Prinia Prinia gracilis akyildizi
Moustached Warbler Acrocephalus melanopogon
Caspian Reed Warbler Acrocephalus fuscus
Great Reed Warbler Acrocephalus arundinaceus arundinaceus
Eastern Olivaceous Warbler Acrocephalus pallidus tamariceti
Upcher's Warbler Hippolais languida
Olive-tree Warbler Hippolais olivetorum
Ménétries's Warbler Sylvia mystacea rubescens
Rüppell's Warbler Sylvia rueppelli
Eastern Orphean Warbler Sylvia crassirostris
Lesser Whitethroat Sylvia curruca
Common Whitethroat Sylvia communis icterops
Spotted Flycatcher Muscicapa striata
Bearded Reedling Panurus biarmicus russicus
Sombre Tit Parus lugubris anatoliae
Coal Tit Parus ater
Blue Tit Parus caeruleus
Great Tit Parus major major
Krüper's Nuthatch Sitta krueperi
Eurasian Nuthatch Sitta europaea levantina
Eastern Rock Nuthatch Sitta tephronota dresseri
Western Rock Nuthatch Sitta neumayer
Eurasian Golden Oriole Oriolus oriolus oriolus
Red-backed Shrike Lanius collurio
Lesser Grey Shrike Lanius minor
Woodchat Shrike Lanius senator niloticus
Masked Shrike Lanius nubicus
Eurasian Jay Garrulus glandarius anatoliae
Common Magpie Pica pica pica
Alpine Chough Pyrrhocorax graculus digitatus
Red-billed Chough Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax docilis
Western Jackdaw Corvus monedula soemmerringii
Rook Corvus frugilegus frugilegus
Hooded Crow Corvus cornix pallescens
Common Starling Sturnus vulgaris
House Sparrow Passer domesticus
Spanish Sparrow Passer hispaniolensis transcaspius
Dead Sea Sparrow Passer moabiticus mesopotanicus
Eurasian Tree Sparrow Passer montanus
Pale Rock Sparrow Petronia brachydactyla
Chestnut-shouldered Petronia Petronia xanthocollis transfuga
Rock Sparrow Petronia petronia
White-winged Snow Finch Montifringilla nivalis leucura
Common Chaffinch Fringilla coelebs
Red-fronted Serin Serinus pusillus
European Serin Serinus serinus
European Greenfinch Chloris chloris
European Goldfinch Carduelis carduelis niediecki
Common Linnet Carduelis cannabina bella
Common Crossbill Loxia curvirostra guillemardi
Crimson-winged Finch Rhodopechys sanguinea sanguinea
Desert Finch Rhodospiza obsoleta
Rock Bunting Emberiza cia hordei
Cinereous Bunting Emberiza cineracea semenowi
Ortolan Bunting Emberiza hortulana
Cretzschmar's Bunting Emberiza caesia
Black-headed Bunting Emberiza melanocephala
Corn Bunting Emberiza calandra calandra

Chris Batty, July 2003