Peru - 13th January - 31 May 2006

Published by Frank Rheindt (frankrheindt AT

Participants: Frank Rheindt



From mid-January through late May 2006, I was lucky enough to spend five incredible months around some of Peru’s best birdwatching sites as part of the fieldwork for my PhD project on Tyrannidae. Though fieldwork did not permit me to go off and look for birds all the time, it often left me with enough time to do additional birding at the respective sites.

The trip route was defined by the sites for which INRENA gave me permits for my fieldwork. Initially, it was supposed to cover the entire country. However, at the end of the trip, I ran into time constraints, and additionally lost precious weeks due to a complicated infection in Iquitos (see site account), so unfortunately all the southern Peruvian sites had to be skipped.

This trip report traces my bird sightings at each site in a chronological order, giving personal site lists and important general site information complementing the detailed accounts by Thomas Valqui’s site-guide. The report starts out from Lima (with a brief southward side-trip to Paracas, Pampa Galeras and Ayacucho), continuing to a number of east-slope sites in Junín Department, then back to Lima and on to the northern circuit via Ancash, the Tumbesian Region (incl. a quick side-trip to Buenaventura in Ecuador), the Maraňón, San Martín and ending up in Iquitos (Loreto).

The trip was a great success with respect to the bird species found at most of the areas visited. Unfortunately, at many sites the going was exceptionally rough (e.g. Tumbes), and the great physical efforts required to do some of the sites on my own resulted in frequent illness and – at the final site in Iquitos – a severe tropical infection.

14 Jan 06: Lomas de Lachay

A single hot and sunny day was spent here without sunscreen lotion, resulting in a strong facial sunburn that lingered for 10 days. Cactus Canastero required a far exhausting walk down into the sparse cactus groves on the far side of the round trail. Excellent views of flocks of Raimondi’s Yellow-Finch were had in this same area, though single individuals additionally appeared at the water well closer to the headquarters. Other highlights included Least Seedsnipes and Coastal Miners in the desert along the entrance track, as well as Thick-billed Miners, Grayish Miners, Collared Warbling-Finches and Short-tailed Field-Tyrants in the main loma area.

Site list for Lomas de Lachay:
American Kestrel, Black-chested Buzzard-Eagle, Least Seedsnipe, Eared Dove, Pacific Dove (Lima), Croaking Ground-Dove, Bare-faced Ground-Dove (2), Oasis Hummingbird, Purple-collared Woodstar, Thick-billed Miner, Grayish Miner, Coastal Miner, Cactus Canastero, Vermilion Flycatcher, Short-tailed Field-Tyrant, Southern House Wren, Cinereous Conebill, Rufous-collared Sparrow, Collared Warbling-Finch, Raimondi’s Yellow-Finch, Band-tailed Sierra-Finch, Scrub Blackbird (Lima), Peruvian Meadowlark, Blue-black Grassquit (Lima).

15 Jan 06: Cieneguilla (Lima)

A full day was spent in riparian growth in this desert suburb of Lima in the fruitless pursuit of Peruvian Elaenia (E. albiceps modesta). Instead, I found large flocks of Mountain Parakeet and a single flock of Scarlet-fronted Parakeet in riverside vegetation, as well as noteworthy songbirds, such as a singing Masked Yellowthroat, Band-tailed Seedeater and Collared Warbling-Finch.

Site list for Cieneguilla:
Snowy Egret, Turkey Vulture, Black Vulture, American Kestrel, Pacific Dove, Croaking Ground-Dove, Pacific Parrotlet, Scarlet-fronted Parakeet, Mountain Parakeet, Groove-billed Ani, Amazilia Hummingbird, Purple-collared Woodstar, Southern Beardless Tyrannulet, Vermilion Flycatcher, Yellow-billed Tit-Tyrant, Tropical Kingbird, Blue-and-white Swallow, Southern House Wren, Long-tailed Mockingbird, Masked Yellowthroat, Cinereous Conebill, Band-tailed Seedeater, Chestnut-throated Seedeater, Blue-gray Tanager, Collared Warbling-Finch, Streaked Saltator, Parrot-billed Seedeater, Hooded Siskin, Blue-black Grassquit, Saffron Finch, Scrub Blackbird.

16 Jan 06: Pantanos de Villa (Lima)

A full morning and early afternoon at the Pantanos de Villa were mainly spent in coastal grass vegetation in pursuit of songbirds. Both Grassland Yellow-Finch and Yellowish Pipit took quite some searching around the dangerous horse-riding area on the beach that is frequently visited by knife-wielding thugs. I tried to keep my distance from other people, and would not recommend this to other birders. Peruvian Thick-knee, Puna Ibis and Yellow-hooded Blackbird were seen in the course of these searches for the yellow-finch. Many-colored Rush-Tyrant was seen poorly in good reed habitat near the distant tower (which is close to the fence at the highway).

Site list for Pantanos de Villa:
Great Grebe, Pied-billed Grebe, Peruvian Pelican, Neotropic Cormorant, Great Egret, Little Blue Heron, Snowy Egret, Cattle Egret, Striated Heron, Puna Ibis, White-cheeked Pintail, Cinnamon Teal, Black Vulture, Osprey, American Kestrel, Common Moorhen, Andean Coot, American Oystercatcher, Peruvian Thick-knee, Killdeer, Spotted Sandpiper, Willet, Ruddy Turnstone, Band-tailed Gull, Kelp Gull, Gray-headed Gull, Franklin’s Gull, Sandwich Tern, Eared Dove, Pacific Dove, Croaking Ground-Dove, Amazilia Hummingbird, Vermilion Flycatcher, Blue-and-white Swallow, Southern House Wren, Yellowish Pipit, Blue-black Grassquit, Grassland Yellow-Finch, Peruvian Meadowlark, Yellow-hooded Blackbird, Many-colored Rush-Tyrant.

17 Jan 06: Paracas National Park

In the morning I did a regular tourist boat trip to the Islas Ballestas. No notable seabirds were seen during this ride. However, the islands themselves harboured – as usual – colonies of Guanay Cormorant (only one juvenile Red-legged Cormorant seen), Humboldt Penguin and Peruvian Booby. A single Peruvian Seaside-Cinclodes was briefly spotted on one of the islands. In the afternoon, a car was rented to search for certain tyrannids in the river delta scrub north of Pisco town, where the desired birds were not seen, but instead a surprise Grassland Yellow-Finch turned up. A single Slender-billed Finch was sought out in peculiar native desert tree vegetation west of the Panamericana about 8-15km south of the Paracas intersection. However, this land appeared to be private and soon after finding the first finch I was chased away. A quick stop at Lagunillas inside the national park produced a handful of hoped-for Peruvian Terns, apart from numerous wader species.

Site list for Paracas:
Humboldt Penguin, Peruvian Pelican, Peruvian Booby, Neotropic Cormorant, Guanay Cormorant, Red-legged Cormorant (1 juv.), Great Egret, Snowy Egret, Cattle Egret, Striated Heron, Black-crowned Night-Heron, Turkey Vulture, Osprey, Harris’ Hawk (1), American Kestrel, Peregrine (1), American Oystercatcher, Semipalmated Plover, Snowy Plover, Killdeer, Whimbrel, Spotted Sandpiper, Ruddy Turnstone, Sanderling, Semipalmated Sandpiper, Western Sandpiper, Band-tailed Gull, Gray Gull (1), Kelp Gull, Gray-headed Gull, Franklin’s Gull, Royal Tern, Sandwich Tern, Peruvian Tern (ca. 5), Inca Tern, Pacific Dove, Croaking Ground-Dove, Groove-billed Ani, Coastal Miner, Peruvian Seaside-Cinclodes, Vermilion Flycatcher, Short-tailed Field-Tyrant, Blue-and-white Swallow, Southern House Wren, Long-tailed Mockingbird, House Sparrow, Slender-billed Finch (1), Blue-black Grassquit, Chestnut-throated Seedeater, Grassland Yellow-Finch, Peruvian Meadowlark.

18 Jan 06: Pampa Galeras

From my hotel base in Nazca, I rented a taxi for the best part of the day (S./140 after much haggling) to take me into the Polylepis patch in Pampa Galeras described in Valqui’s guide. This trip takes hours and should not be underestimated, especially the last 15-20km from the highway turn-off to the patch; warn your taxi driver! At first we picked up a local boy to go looking for an alternative patch that is supposed to be somewhere closer to the park headquarters and that he said he knew well. However, it turned out the patch did not exist, so we lost 3hr and therefore only arrived at the real patch in the afternoon. This first detour did produce Andean Condor, a pair of Gray-breasted Seedsnipe and Cordilleran Canastero. The Polylepis patch (of ca. 1-2 sq km) was reached in bad weather (wind, hail and snow). Activity was very low, but the distinct unnamed subspecies of Dark-winged Canastero was eventually found. Moreover, the patch produced great views of two flushed Band-winged Nightjars of the montane subspecies and a few Rusty-crowned Tit-Spinetails of the rare subspecies latistriata, which you should definitely pick up here, since it is quite narrowly restricted to Polylepis patches in Huancavelica and Ayacucho.

Site list for Pampa Galeras:
Andean Condor (2-3), Mountain Caracara, Andean Lapwing, Gray-breasted Seedsnipe (1,1), Band-winged Nightjar (2), Rusty-crowned Tit-Spinetail (ssp. latistriata), Dark-winged Canastero (new unnamed dark subspecies), Cordilleran Canastero, D’Orbigny’s Chat-Tyrant, Shrike-Tyrant spec., Hooded Siskin, Peruvian Sierra-Finch, Ash-breasted Sierra-Finch.

19 Jan 06: montane scrub 5km below Jatumpampa (near Ayacucho)

A bus from coastal Ica to Ayacucho City took an entire night. At dawn, I then took local transport from the chilly Plaza de Armas of Ayacucho back the same road towards Ica all the way to a spot with good montane roadside scrub about 5km below the town of Jatumpampa, where I birded for the next fruitful three hours. I duly found the nominate race of Pale-tailed Canastero that is reported from these slopes; their nests are easy to see but it takes a bit of patience to track the birds down. Other noteworthy species in this scrub included a male Bearded Mountaineer and the very distinct albigularis race of Streaked Tit-Spinetail, which – in my opinion – is a key taxon here, since there are hardly any other spots where it can easily be seen.

Site list for Jatumpampa:
Black-chested Buzzard-eagle, Aplomado Falcon, Bearded Mountaineer (1,0), Streaked Tit-Spinetail (ssp. albigularis), Pale-tailed Canastero (ssp. huancavelicae), White-browed Chat-Tyrant, Southern House Wren, Chiguanco Thrush, Cinereous Conebill, Blue-and-yellow Tanager, Mourning Sierra-Finch, Ash-breasted Sierra-Finch, Band-tailed Seedeater, Golden-billed Saltator.

21 Jan 06: Río Rimac (Lima)

Some unspectacular fieldwork was carried out in the depauperate riparian vegetation along the Río Rimac in the vicinity (and with the permission) of the major Lima water supply company. None of the desired tyrannids were encountered, and the best species on this very dull day would have to be a juvenile Harris’ Hawk and a few Yellow-billed Tit-Tyrants.

Site list for Rio Rimac:
Great Egret, Black-crowned Night-Heron, Black Vulture, American Kestrel, Harris’ Hawk (1 juv), Spotted Sandpiper, Franklin’s Gull, Pacific Dove, Croaking Ground-Dove, Eared Dove, Pacific Parrotlet, Groove-billed Ani, Amazilia Hummingbird, Southern Beardless Tyrannulet, Yellow-billed Tit-Tyrant, Vermilion Flycatcher, Tropical Kingbird, Blue-and-white Swallow, Southern House Wren, Long-tailed Mockingbird, House Sparrow, Cinereous Conebill, Blue-gray Tanager, Blue-black Grassquit, Chestnut-throated Seedeater, Saffron Finch, Rufous-collared Sparrow, Streaked Saltator, Scrub Blackbird.

22-23 Jan 06: Bosque de Zárate

On the first day, a late arrival in San Bartolomé around 3.00 p.m. meant that the ascent to Bosque de Zárate would have to be done partially at night-time. It was difficult to find a guide willing to leave that late in the afternoon. The ascent is tough and took us much longer than the widely-publicized 8hr, so we only got to the shed at Zárate after midnight. Despite exhaustion, I spent the rest of the night outside spot-lighting until I found Koepcke’s Screech-owl. The next morning and early afternoon were spent in the badly degraded main grove of the Bosque de Zárate, which yielded three White-cheeked Cotingas and a surprise Jelski’s Chat-Tyrant. The local specialty, Rufous-breasted Warbling-Finch, is described to be common in Bosque de Zárate by Valqui, yet I only saw a single individual near the shed close to departure time for the return trek. This finding mirrors similar reports by Charles Hesse who failed to find the species here on his first visit to Zárate in early 2006. The endemic Rusty-bellied Brush-Finch is common in the grove, and Pied-crested Tit-Tyrant as well as the Lima endemic race pileata of Rusty-crowned Tit-Spinetail were seen a number of times. I had good looks at up to two Andean Tinamous, and an Andean Condor was spotted circling near the shed. Canyon Canastero was sighted in scrub on the way back down. The grove is in bad condition and suffers from daily cattle grazing. It will be useless for sensitive bird species within the next decade unless something is done about it. The area holds anthropologic interest for its caves that contain human skull bones from pre-Incan cultures.

Site list for Bosque de Zárate:
Andean Tinamou (1-2), Andean Condor (1 ad.), American Kestrel, Pacific Dove, Croaking Ground-Dove, Band-tailed Pigeon, Koepcke’s Screech-owl (1 seen well, 2 more heard), Black Metaltail, Canyon Canastero, Rusty-crowned Tit-Spinetail (ssp. pileata), White-cheeked Cotinga (3), Yellow-billed Tit-Tyrant, Pied-crested Tit-Tyrant, Jelski’s Chat-Tyrant (1), White-browed Chat-Tyrant, Southern House Wren, Long-tailed Mockingbird, Cinereous Conebill, Blue-and-yellow Tanager, Mourning Sierra-Finch, Rufous-breasted Warbling-Finch (1), Collared Warbling-Finch, Band-tailed Seedeater, Black-throated Flowerpiercer, Rusty-bellied Brush-Finch, Rufous-collared Sparrow, Chiguanco Thrush, Golden-bellied Grosbeak.

25-27 Jan 06: Abra Esperanza (Yanachaga-Chemillén)

Thanks to the great help of the people at INRENA in Oxapampa, especially Eduardo de la Cadena, I was taken up the track to Abra Esperanza as far as vehicles can go (ca. 8km), which saved me some major walking with heavy baggage. However, fuel is rather expensive in Oxapampa, and INRENA charged me S./40 for this service. From the drop-off point, it was about 2km through good forest to the hut I had been given a key to. Here I stayed for two nights. I did my fieldwork around here in subtropical forest, but I also spent some time birding the trail that goes up into temperate forest towards the peak of this Andean foothill, where there is another research hut. The return hike from the lower hut down to Oxapampa (10km in heavy rain) was very painful with heavy baggage on my back.

Some of the birds in the site list were only seen around the highest and most temperate parts that I frequented (especially in bamboo), such as a White-throated Quail-Dove, one Tyrannine Woodcreeper, Rufous Spinetail, good views of Rusty-breasted Antpitta, Rufous-headed Pygmy-Tyrant, Black-throated Tody-Tyrant, Golden-browed Chat-Tyrant and the all the hemispingusses, fruiteaters and mountain-tanagers on the list. Good streamside forest along the trail above the hut held Buff-browed Foliage-gleaner, Long-tailed Antbird, Inca and Flavescent Flycatcher and a lot of Rufous-vented Tapaculos. The Rufous-bellied Bush-Tyrant must be close to its northern range boundary here.

Site list for Abra Esperanza:
Band-tailed Pigeon, White-throated Quail-Dove, Smooth-billed Ani, Speckled Hummingbird, Chestnut-breasted Coronet, Bronzy Inca, Collared Inca, Sword-billed Hummingbird, Amethyst-throated Sunangel, Blue-banded Toucanet, Rufous Spinetail, Pearled Treerunner, Streaked Xenops, Streaked Tuftedcheek, Buff-browed Foliage-gleaner, Tyrannine Woodcreeper, Montane Woodcreeper, Long-tailed Antbird, (Bay Antpitta: heard only), Rusty-breasted Antpitta, Rufous-vented Tapaculo, Band-tailed Fruiteater, Barred Fruiteater, Streak-necked Flycatcher, Inca Flycatcher, Rufous-headed Pygmy-Tyrant, White-banded Tyrannulet, Black-throated Tody-Tyrant, Flavescent Flycatcher, Cinnamon Flycatcher, Golden-browed Chat-Tyrant, Maroon-chested Chat-Tyrant, Rufous-breasted Chat-Tyrant, Rufous-bellied Bush-Tyrant, Smoke-colored Pewee, Tropical Kingbird, Barred Becard, Peruvian Wren, Mountain Wren, Gray-breasted Wood-Wren, Andean Solitaire, White-collared Jay, Spectacled Whitestart, Citrine Warbler, Russet-crowned Warbler, Capped Conebill, Grass-green Tanager, Common Bush-Tanager, Gray-hooded Bush-Tanager, Black-capped Hemispingus, Superciliaried Hemispingus, Rufous-chested Tanager, Blue-capped Tanager, Hooded Mountain-Tanager, Lacrimose Mountain-Tanager, Yellow-scarfed Tanager, Orange-bellied Euphonia, Flame-faced Tanager, Beryl-spangled Tanager, Blue-and-black Tanager, Plushcap, Masked Flowerpiercer, Tricolored Brush-Finch, Stripe-headed Brush-Finch, Golden-bellied Grosbeak, Yellow-billed Cacique, Dusky-green Oropendola.

28-30 Jan 06: “Chollet” (Oxapampa – Antenna Road; Yanachaga-Chemillén)

I arranged an INRENA jeep to take me up to the antenna house in the area that local people refer to as Chollet (described as Antenna Road in Valqui’s book) for S./160. Though expensive, vehicle transport to this site is essential: The trip took half a day in a jeep, and you probably couldn’t comfortably hike it up in a single day. The antenna warden Julio kindly granted me one half of his bed for the next two nights. Even though the elevation is not that high on this pre-Cordilleran peak (see Valqui), nights and mornings are very chilly up here, and camping would have been very inconvenient, so I greatly appreciated Julio’s offer. Julio also shared some of his food, for which I reimbursed him. On the third day, I walked back down towards Oxapampa with all my 40kg baggage and was picked up by the INRENA people about 5-10km down from the pass.

Fieldwork up here was unproductive, and birding was slow though eventually a few specials were seen: Amongst the best birds to look out for is an undescribed species of Rufous-type Antpitta with a distinct but inconspicuous vocalization, which is mainly restricted to areas around the intersection 2km before the antenna. Vegetation quickly thins out upwards from here, and becomes lusher (and therefore unsuitable for the antpitta?) further down. This antpitta is exceptionally tricky to get good looks of, and I only succeeded with the help of playback. Despite ample night-birding (mostly in drizzle and heavier rain) on both nights, I did not succeed in finding Cloud-Forest Screech-owl, though I am pretty sure I heard one during the first night. Orange-breasted Falcon was seen well perched in a dead tree along the road stretch about 2-5km from the above mentioned intersection back down towards Oxapampa.

Note that Valqui’s map is misleading in that the track that descends from the pass to the other side is no longer a dead-end road, but continues far down into the valley, giving access to good forest at lower elevations, and potentially even going all the way down to Villa Rica (according to Julio). Habitat is far better on this side than on the Oxapampa side, but deforestation is continuing apace with logging activity everywhere. The first three kilometres down from the intersection at the pass along this track provided good flocks in the morning (including White-cheeked Cotinga, Gray-breasted Mountain-Toucan and most of the notable tyrannids on the site list). Lower elevations were only reached at later hours and provided little activity.

Site list for Chollet:
Fasciated Tiger-Heron, Turkey Vulture, Hook-billed Kite, Orange-breasted Falcon, Band-tailed Pigeon, Squirrel Cuckoo, Speckled Hummingbird, Collared Inca, Amethyst-throated Sunangel, Emerald-bellied Puffleg, Tyrian Metaltail, Long-tailed Sylph, Highland Motmot, Gray-breasted Mountain-Toucan, Crimson-mantled Woodpecker, Ash-browed Spinetail, Pearled Treerunner, Streaked Tuftedcheek, Montane Woodcreeper, Variable Antshrike, “Yanachaga Chestnut Antpitta”, (Bay Antpitta: heard only), (Rufous-vented Tapaculo: heard only), Band-tailed Fruiteater, Barred Fruiteater, Streak-necked Flycatcher, Inca Flycatcher, Mottle-cheeked Tyrannulet, Black-capped Tyrannulet, Peruvian Tyrannulet, White-banded Tyrannulet, Ochraceous-breasted Flycatcher, Cinnamon Flycatcher, Smoke-colored Pewee, Maroon-chested Chat-Tyrant, Rufous-breasted Chat-Tyrant, Rufous-bellied Bush-Tyrant, Barred Becard, Peruvian Wren, Mountain Wren, Gray-breasted Wood-Wren, Andean Solitaire, White-eared Solitaire, Green Jay, White-collared Jay, Spectacled Whitestart, Citrine Warbler, Russet-crowned Warbler, Capped Conebill, Grass-green Tanager, Common Bush-Tanager, Gray-hooded Bush-Tanager, Drab Hemispingus, Blue-capped Tanager, Hooded Mountain-Tanager, Lacrimose Mountain-Tanager, Yellow-scarfed Tanager, Buff-breasted Mountain-Tanager, Beryl-spangled Tanager, Blue-and-black Tanager, Flame-faced Tanager, Rusty Flowerpiercer, Masked Flowerpiercer, Tricolored Brush-Finch, Slaty Brush-Finch, Stripe-headed Brush-Finch, Mountain Cacique, Dusky-green Oropendola.

31 Jan, 1-2 Feb 2006: Villa Rica

Though there is virtually no primary habitat left in the environs of this cafetalera community, patches of secondary forest and shade coffee plantations make for some fabulous birding here, and indeed this type of vegetation may give you a better shot at some of the local east-slope specialties than primary woodlots.

A rainy morning spent around the gorge of the Río Entaz Trail (within walking distance of town; see Valqui for directions) was unproductive in terms of mixed flocks, though a perched Orange-breasted Falcon, a Chestnut-backed Antshrike and flocks of White-eyed Parakeet were a good compensation. The lake next to town harboured the majority of waterbird species on the site list.

Without a doubt, the best birding in the area was had in the shade coffee plantations uphill from Hacienda El Carmen (see Valqui). This area is tricky to reach at dawn; I tried to arrange an early-morning taxi pick-up, but the driver did not show, so I arrived slightly late on both mornings. Morning activity in the plantations was phenomenal at times, and the area was characterized by a wealth of northern migrants, e.g. three migratory flycatcher species, a thrush, two vireos and three warblers. The best migrant, Cerulean Warbler, was seen on three occasions (singly) and was exclusively picked up in the biggest high-canopy flocks, i.e. those which contained more than 15 species, amongst them also some of the other rarer mixed-flock members, such as Guira Tanager. Clearly, Nearctic migrants favour these types of secondary growth, and the amount of money that is poured into research on and the “protection” of their wintering grounds is not proportional to the sorry plight and conservation dependency of some of the really endangered resident Neotropical endemics.

But Hacienda El Carmen was not only good for its migrants. One of the best local specialties is Creamy-bellied Antwren, which is reported from the plantations, though I only picked it up in the woodlot next to the quarry further up the hill (see Valqui for directions). The quarry area held a Cabanis’ Spinetail, and the woodlot itself was good for Plumbeous-crowned Tyrannulet and Sickle-winged Guan. The rich mixed canopy flocks in the plantations themselves yielded Ocellated Piculet, Stripe-chested Antwren and Red-billed Tyrannulet.

It looked as though this is an area where many lowland birds and Andean birds meet at the limit of their altitudinal range. For instance, in the woodlot and plantations I found typically Andean birds such as Sparkling Violetear (here way below its lower elevational limit) and Blue-winged Mountain-Tanager together with species more typically associated with the lowlands, such as Wing-barred Piprites and a number of Tangara tanagers.

Site list for Villa Rica:

EC – Hacienda El Carmen
RE – Rio Entaz Trail

Least Grebe, Striated Heron, Black-crowned Night-Heron, Turkey Vulture, Roadside Hawk, Orange-breasted Falcon (1 RE), Speckled Chachalaca, Sickle-winged Guan (2 EC), Common Moorhen, Spotted Sandpiper, Ruddy Ground-Dove, White-tipped Dove, White-eyed Parakeet (RE), Squirrel Cuckoo, Smooth-billed Ani, Sparkling Violetear (1 EC!), Blue-tailed Emerald, Speckled Hummingbird, Booted Racquet-tail, Chestnut-tipped Toucanet, Ocellated Piculet, Yellow-tufted Woodpecker, Golden-olove Woodpecker, Azara’s Spinetail, Cabanis’ Spinetail (EC), Plain-crowned Spinetail, Ash-browed Spinetail, Streaked Xenops, Montane Foliage-gleaner, Olivaceous Woodcreeper, Chestnut-backed Antshrike, Plain Antvireo, Stripe-chested Antwren, Creamy-bellied Antwren (EC), Wing-barred Piprites (EC), Yellow-bellied Elaenia (EC), Slaty-capped Flycatcher (EC), Plumbeous-crowned Tyrannulet (EC), Red-billed Tyrannulet (EC), Peruvian Tyrannulet, Scale-crested Pygmy-Tyrant, Common Tody-Flycatcher, Yellow-olive Flycatcher (RE), Yellow-breasted Flyctacher, Wood-Pewee spec. (EC), Alder Flycatcher (RE), Long-tailed Tyrant, Dusky-capped Flycatcher, Pale-edged Flycatcher (EC), Lemon-browed Flycatcher, Sulphur-bellied Flycatcher, Tropical Kingbird, Yellow-cheeked Becard, White-winged Becard, Blue-and-white Swallow, Thrush-like Wren, Southern House Wren, Gray-breasted Wood-Wren, Swainson’s Thrush, Black-billed Thrush, Green Jay, Red-eyed Vireo, Yellow-green Vireo, Olivaceous Greenlet, Tropical Parula, Blackburnian Warbler, Cerulean Warbler (EC), Canada Warbler, Slate-throated Whitestart, Russet-crowned Warbler, Three-striped Warbler, Bananaquit, Magpie Tanager, Guira Tanager, Yellow-crested Tanager, Scarlet Tanager, Summer Tanager, White-winged Tanager, Silver-beaked Tanager, Blue-gray Tanager, Palm Tanager, Blue-winged Mountain-Tanager, Bronze-green Euphonia, Orange-bellied Euphonia, Blue-naped Chlorophonia, Turquoise Tanager, Paradise Tanager, Golden-eared Tanager, Yellow-bellied Tanager, Spotted Tanager, Bay-headed Tanager, Blue-necked Tanager, Black-faced Dacnis, Blue Dacnis, Blue-black Grassquit, Yellow-bellied Seedeater, Yellow-browed Sparrow, Rufous-collared Sparrow, Grayish Saltator, Buff-throated Saltator.

3-4 Feb 06: Satipo Road

From Satipo in the lowlands, the first bus up this road into the highlands leaves at ca. 9.00 a.m. Note that regular Huancayo-bound busses do not take this direct route, but go via Chanchamayo despite the long detour. I did not get off at lower elevations along Satipo Road due to time constraints, but anywhere below the temperate zone is heavily degraded anyway. The bus dropped me off at Puente Carrizales at noon, so first I hid my heavy baggage in the vegetation to be flexible during birding. The afternoon sufficed for seeing most of the specialties, e.g. quite a few Fire-throated Metaltails besides five other stunning hummingbird species, a Plain-colored Seedeater, loads of good mountain-tanagers and several Eye-ringed Thistletails. However, the local form of Rufous Antpitta eluded me despite playback.

When it got dark, I had planned on hitching a ride to the next village, but the lack of passing vehicles meant that I had to drag my 40kg luggage up the mountain in the drizzle all the way to a couple of roadside houses a few kilometres up from Puente Carrizales, where people wouldn’t open the door for me. Eventually, a truck stopped, but they only offered me a space on their back, where I must have spent the coldest three hours of my trip, half-squashed by my luggage, which was pushing me down into a crevice amidst the potato sacks. The hell ride finally came to an end in Runatullo, where I had an excellent trout dinner and stayed with Seňora Carmen.

The next morning I wanted to visit the scrub at Manzanilla, but unfortunately Runatullo is already way past Manzanilla, and there is no public transport back. It took me until 10.00 a.m. to find someone willing to do the 1-hr trip to Manzanilla for S./70, because most car owners were extremely wary of strangers (strangers meant terrorists in the past decade). Because of the car arrangement, I was limited to 1 hr at Manzanilla, which was enough to see Striated Earthcreeper, Stripe-headed Antpitta, Tufted Tit-Tyrant and White-browed Conebill, as well as a silent white-diademed type of tapaculo that had a brown rearside with heavy black barring. Reading Valqui, I assumed this to be the undescribed Millpo Tapaculo, but it turns out that the birds around Manzanilla scrub could also be Tschudi’s, as Millpo should mainly be higher up in rocky puna without scrub cover (Dan Lane, pers. comm.). However, the plumage of the bird I saw is more consistent with Millpo. I am therefore leaving identification open.

From Runatullo, I took a bus back to Huancayo. Most of these busses come from Andamarca along another road that merges with Satipo Road from the east somewhere around Runatullo. Andamarca road is of great ornithological interest due to the presence of an undescribed thornbird and populations of Black-spectacled Brush-Finch (amongst others), but unfortunately I ran out of time. A rental vehicle would have been of great advantage for this leg.

Site list for Satipo Road:

PC – Puente Carrizales
M – Manzanilla
R – Runatullo

Tapaculo spec. (M; 3500m in rocky scrub, medium-sized, rear of body all dirt-brown, i.e. tail, vent and lower back; rest of body medium-gray with light/white forecrown, like drawing of Diademed, or like balding pattern; poss. face a bit darker; pearly light spots formed slight wingbar, so probably juv.; possibly this bird sang “jurrah jidd jurrah” repeated several times _ _ - _ _ (though in retrospect more likely to have come from other species) -> Tschudi’s or Millpo Tap.??), Andean Goose, Andean Lapwing, Andean Gull, Violet-throated Starfrontlet (PC), Great Sapphirewing (PC, M), Giant Hummingbird (R), Amethyst-throated Sunangel (PC), Coppery-naped Puffleg (PC), Purple-backed Thornbill (PC), Fire-throated Metaltail (PC), Andean Flicker (colony at R), Striated Earthcreeper (M), Creamy-crested Spinetail, Eye-ringed Thistletail (PC), Streaked Tuftedcheek (PC), Stripe-headed Antpitta (M), Barred Fruiteater (PC), White-throated Tyrannulet (PC), Tufted Tit-Tyrant (M), D’Orbigny’s Chat-Tyrant (R), Rufous-breasted Chat-Tyrant (PC), Brown-backed Chat-Tyrant (M), Barred Becard (PC), Peruvian Wren (PC), Southern House Wren (M), Mountain Wren (PC), Great Thrush, Spectacled Whitestart (PC), Citrine Warbler (PC), Cinereous Conebill (R), White-browed Conebill (M), Blue-black Conebill (PC), Grass-green Tanager (PC), Golden-collared Tanager, White-browed Hemispingus (PC), Superciliaried Hemispingus (PC), Scarlet-bellied Mountain-Tanager (PC), Buff-breasted Mountain-Tanager (PC), Tit-like Dacnis (M), Chestnut-bellied Mountain-Tanager (PC), Peruvian Sierra-Finch (M), Plumbeous Sierra-Finch (M), Plain-colored Seedeater (PC 1), Black-throated Flowerpiercer, Masked Flowerpiercer, Slaty Brush-Finch, Golden-billed Saltator.

5 Feb 05: Lima Pelagic

Taking a bus from Huancayo, I arrived in Lima just barely before Gunnar Engblom’s pelagic was scheduled to leave. Despite an assault and attempted theft of my backpack at an obscure Lima bus-stop at 4.00 a.m., I did make it onto the pelagic. The highlight was the presence of huge flocks of up to five storm-petrel species (though one remained unidentified, see list below).

Site List for Lima Pelagic:
Humboldt Penguin, Waved Albatross (ca. 10), White-chinned Petrel (ca. 20-30), Pink-footed Shearwater (2), Sooty Shearwater (ca. 5), Wilson’s Storm-Petrel (few), White-vented Storm-Petrel (hundreds), Wedge-rumped Storm-Petrel (dozens), Hornby’s Storm-Petrel (dozens), Markham’s/Black Storm-Petrel (unidentified; tail didn’t appear too deeply forked, carpal bars indistinct but apparently reaching joint; first ID’ed as Markham’s but after pelagic G. Engblom asserted bars should be much more conspicuous in that species), Peruvian Diving-Petrel, Peruvian Pelican, Peruvian Booby, Neotropic Cormorant, Red-legged Cormorant, Guanay’s Cormorant, Turkey Vulture, Blackish Oystercatcher, American Oystercatcher, Ruddy Turnstone, Pomarine Jaeger (ca. 10), Parasitic Jaeger (1-2), Band-tailed Gull, Gray Gull (ca. 5), Kelp Gull, Franklin’s Gull, Sabine’s Gull (3), Swallow-tailed Gull (ca. 3), Elegant Tern, Sandwich Tern (1-2), Common Tern, Black Tern (1), Inca Tern, Peruvian Seaside-Cinclodes (2).

9 Feb 05: Yungay

A badly-serviced and fully crammed evening colectivo from coastal Pativilca to Huaraz took a shocking 8 hr for a distance that is normally covered in 3 hr. Therefore, I arrived at Yungay only just before dawn, foregoing sleep and opting to go straight out into the field. At Yungay’s Plaza de Armas, I hired a good-value taxi for S./35 to stay with me for the best part of the day.

A morning was spent around the National Park entrance up near Llanganuco. I didn’t go up higher into the National Park because I mainly wanted to focus on the Rufous-backed Inca-Finch, which is sometimes reported from the entrance scrub. Early morning is imperative for this skulker. Having arrived slightly late at the site, I gladly had a brief view of one individual in the late morning after intensive searching. During the search, I found a host of other interesting species in this area, such as Striated Earthcreeper, Baron’s Spinetail, the Andean clade of White-crested Elaenia, Tit-like Dacnis, Plain-tailed Warbling-Finch, Rufous-eared Brush-Finch and three good hummingbird species.

After lunch with the taxi driver, I spent the early afternoon walking around scrub and cactus growth next to Pueblo Libre a short drive from Yungay, which – after ca. 1 hr – finally produced good views of the undescribed taxon of Pale-tailed Canastero, though not much else.

Site list for Yungay:

L – entrance to the Llanganuco Area of Huascarán National Park
P – scrub around Pueblo Libre

Variable Hawk (L), Band-tailed Pigeon (L), Shining Sunbeam (L), Giant Hummingbird (L), Black Metaltail (L), Purple-collared Woodstar (P), Andean Flicker (L), Striated Earthcreeper (L), Bar-winged Cinclodes (L), Baron’s Spinetail (L), Pale-tailed Canastero (ssp. nov., P), Red-crested Cotinga (L), White-crested Elaenia (L), Yellow-billed Tit-Tyrant (P), Short-tailed Field-Tyrant (P), Brown-bellied Swallow (L), Southern House Wren, Great Thrush (L), Cinereous Conebill, Tit-like Dacnis (L), Peruvian Sierra-Finch (L), Ash-breasted Sierra-Finch (L), Rufous-backed Inca-Finch (L), Plain-tailed Warbling-Finch (L), Plain-colored Seedeater (L), Black-throated Flowerpiercer, Rufous-eared Brush-Finch (L), Rufous-collared Sparrow, Golden-billed Saltator (L), Golden-bellied Grosbeak (L), Peruvian Meadowlark.

10 Feb 06: Chao

Though Chao is not that far from Yungay, I had to retrace my steps back southwards to Pativilca by night bus and then go north on the Panamericana for lack of a direct bus connection from Yungay/Huaraz to the north coast. Arriving in Chao by 9.00 a.m., I spent the remaining hours of the day at the desert scrub site pointed out in Valqui’s guide. Though I had encountered most specialties by the late morning, I opted for extending my walking radius and checking more scrub patches to find Tumbes Tyrant, a species which thoroughly eluded me here. Instead, noisy parties of the undescribed taxon of Necklaced Spinetail were easy to come by. One to two pairs of Peruvian Plantcutter usually gave away their presence in most scrub patches by means of their strange call. In contrast, Rufous Flycatcher and a family of the beautiful Rufescent (=coastal Bran-colored) Flycatcher were only encountered in two and one patches, respectively. Some of the agricultural land in this area held Plain-breasted Ground-Dove (amongst the Croaking Ground-Doves) and Dull-colored Grassquit (amongst the seedeaters and Blue-black Grassquits). At nightfall, I searched for the coastal race of Band-winged Nightjar in vain, but found numerous Lesser Nighthawks.

Site list for Chao:
Least Bittern (1), Black Vulture, Turkey Vulture, American Kestrel, Black-necked Stilt, Peruvian Thick-knee (2), Killdeer, Eared Dove, Pacific Dove, Plain-breasted Ground-Dove, Croaking Ground-Dove, Groove-billed Ani, Burrowing Owl, Lesser Nighthawk, Amazilia Hummingbird, Peruvian Sheartail, Coastal Miner, “new Necklaced Spinetail” (taxon novum), Peruvian Plantcutter, Southern Beardless Tyrannulet, Mouse-colored Tyrannulet, Rufescent Flycatcher, Vermilion Flycatcher, Short-tailed Field-Tyrant, Rufous Flycatcher, Blue-and-white Swallow, Chestnut-collared Swallow, Barn Swallow, Fasciated Wren, Superciliated Wren, Long-tailed Mockingbird, House Sparrow, Hooded Siskin, Lesser Goldfinch, Bananaquit, Cinereous Conebill, Cinereous Finch, Collared Warbling-Finch, Blue-black Grassquit, Parrot-billed Seedeater, Chestnut-throated Seedeater, Dull-colored Grassquit, Saffron Finch, Rufous-collared Sparrow, Streaked Saltator, Peruvian Meadowlark, Shiny Cowbird.

11 Feb 06: Sinsicap

I took an early morning colectivo from Trujillo to Simbal in the hope of onward transportation to Sinsicap, but ended up having to hire a vehicle for S./90 because there are only very irregular public busses to Sinsicap. To make matters worse, the vehicle had to drop me off 3km before Sinsicap because of a muddy stretch of road.

The whole Sinsicap side-trip ended up in a big rush because of a dearth of public transport: The trip was mainly aimed at seeing the western maculata race of Speckled Hummingbird, which may merit species status considering that the nominate race can be found as close as Porculla Pass without any noticeable plumage introgression. The trip was also aimed at seeing Unicolored Tapaculo. I succeeded in finding the hummer, as they are reasonably common in secondary tree growth, even in the shockingly degraded Eucalyptus groves. However, I did not succeed in finding the tapaculo, as the driver couldn’t take me up as far as the stream crossings indicated in Valqui’s book. By the time I had arrived at the stream crossings on foot (ca. 11.00 a.m.), activity had died down. I now faced the choice of either taking a mid-day bus back to the coast or of having to stay here for up to 3 days without public transport; I opted for leaving due to time constraints, although a prolonged stay would have given me the chance not only of the tapaculo, but also of looking for Koepcke’s Screech-owl at night and hiking all the way to the Russet-bellied Spinetail grove (see Valqui).

Sinsicap’s farmer inhabitants stand out from other Peruvian mountain villagers in their lack of Indian influence and their peculiar European Spanish accent (lisping the letter z). Though most of the land up here must have been cultivated for a long time, isolated streamside patches look amazingly epiphytic and give you an inkling of what the habitat must have looked like hundreds of years ago in this western Andean forest biome. Most of the sensitive birds of this realm must have vanished long ago. The only notable species I found during my limited time apart from the hummingbird was a Black-necked Woodpecker and a flock of ca. 30 Mountain Parakeets.

Site list for Sinsicap:
Black Vulture, Turkey Vulture, American Kestrel, Craoking Ground-Dove, Mountain Parakeet (ca. 30), Pacific Parrotlet, Sparkling Violetear, Amazilia Hummingbird, Western Speckled Hummingbird (ssp. maculata), Purple-collared Woodstar, Black-necked Woodpecker (1), Red-crested Cotinga, Southern Beardless Tyrannulet, Southern House Wren, Long-tailed Mockingbird, Great Thrush, Hooded Siskin, Cinereous Conebill, Rusty Flowerpiercer, Bay-crowned Brush-Finch, Golden-bellied Grosbeak, Scrub Blackbird.

12 Feb 06: Abra Porculla

Early-morning transport from my hostel base in Olmos to Porculla was problematic, but heavy fog around the pass only lifted at about 8.00 a.m. anyway, so there was no rush. The heavily degraded secondary forest scrub above the village is quite remarkable in that it has been visited by ornithologists from the very early days when it was still lush, yet despite degradation all the goodies still appear to be here. The local specialty Porculla Hermit, which is sometimes upgraded to species level these days, is quite common, and I didn’t have too many problems encountering up to three different Piura Chat-Tyrants in the course of one morning. Possibly the most endangered of the local endemics is Rufous-necked Foliage-gleaner, which needs at least a few old-growth trees to subsist, but even that requirement is getting harder and harder to fulfil around here. I only saw this bird with difficulty using playback, after climbing down a precarious slope into a lush ravine where thick average tree girth indicated a little patch of primary habitat. A bamboo patch in this ravine is the spot where other trip reports mention the occasional sighting of Blue Seedeater, but during my visit the only bamboo birds around were a flock of Plushcap. Mixed flocks contained Line-cheeked Spinetail, Chapman’s Antshrike, Elegant Crescent-chest and a few surprise Rufous-winged Tyrannulets. Ubiquitous Chestnut-crowned Antpittas call from everywhere and are not so difficult to see.

Site list for Porculla:
Black Vulture, Turkey Vulture, American Kestrel, Band-tailed Pigeon, Eared Dove, Porculla Hermit, Amazilia Hummingbird, Speckled Hummingbird, Ecuadorian Piculet, Pacific Hornero, Line-cheeked Spinetail, Rufous-necked Foliage-gleaner, Chapman’s Antshrike, Chestnut-crowned Antpitta, Elegant Crescent-chest, Southern Beardless Tyrannulet, Black-and-white Becard, Dusky-capped Flycatcher, Piura Chat-Tyrant (2-3), Smoke-colored Pewee, Rufous-winged Tyrannulet, Mouse-colored Tyrannulet, Blue-and-white Swallow, Southern House Wren, Great Thrush, Hooded Siskin, Tropical Parula, Slate-throated Whitestart, Three-banded Warbler, Rufous-chested Tanager, Thick-billed Euphonia, Silver-backed Tanager, Plushcap, Ash-breasted Sierra-Finch, Bay-crowned Brush-Finch, White-winged Brush-Finch, Stripe-headed Brush-Finch, Rufous-collared Sparrow, Black-cowled Saltator, Shiny Cowbird.

13 Feb 06: Quebrada Frejolillo at Limón (Olmos)

I only spent a single, very expensive, but extremely productive day at this prime site, better known as “the last guan stronghold”. I had contacted Fernando Angulo of the Pava Aliblanca Center to announce my coming. Since he was in Lima, he referred me to the center’s warden Lizandro Oyola, who helped with the difficult task of finding a driver/vehicle to take me to Limón. At Limón, it is wise to ask Lino Rico to guide you around, since the guans can easily be missed without knowing their whereabouts. Lino has an intimate knowledge of the local birds and their calls, and he knows all of them by their Spanish names. He is very good company, but unfortunately for me (and fortunately for him) he has been a little spoiled by the generous tips of visiting tour groups, and expected me (a single student) to pay the equivalent of five rich Americans. So in the end, including his guiding fee and an all too expensive hire car, this day turned out exceptionally expensive at S./240.

February (rainy season) is a suboptimal time for seeing the White-winged Guan, since everything is in bloom and they disperse up the slopes. So I was glad when we finally sighted one or two individuals in the late morning. This season is equally bad for my second target bird at this site, Tumbes Tyrant, because they disperse out into the more arid flatter vegetation and are less reliable than in the dry season, when you easily see them in certain groves. Therefore, I was exceedingly happy when we finally saw a single individual in the early afternoon several kilometres from Limón along the track back towards Olmos. Without Lino’s perseverance and vocal knowledge, this bird would have eluded me.

Other dry-forest specialties that are usually reported in good numbers were equally scarce on my visit: I only saw one perched Tumbes Hummingbird and a low number of Gray-and-white Tyrannulets, Tumbes Sparrows and White-headed Brush-Finches. On the other hand, the season was good for certain species that are absent in Limón during the dry season, such as Henna-hooded Foliage-gleaner, which was seen well, and even a few highly seasonal Black-and-white Tanagers. Scrub Nightjars were flushed in good numbers pre-dawn during the car ride into Limón, but also while walking during the day.

Site list for Limón:
(Pale-browed Tinamou: heard only), White-winged Guan (1-2), Peruvian Thick-knee, Pacific Dove, Croaking Ground-Dove, White-tipped Dove, Red-masked Parakeet, Pacific Parrotlet, Burrowing Owl (3), Scrub Nightjar (many), Tumbes Hummingbird (1), Amazilia Hummingbird, Black-tailed Trogon, Blue-crowned Motmot, Ecuadorian Piculet, Scarlet-backed Woodpecker, Golden-olive Woodpecker, Lineated Woodpecker, Pacific Hornero, Henna-hooded Foliage-gleaner, Streak-headed Woodcreeper, Collared Antshrike, Elegant Crescent-chest, Southern Beardless Tyrannulet, Baird’s Flycatcher, Short-tailed Field-Tyrant, Tumbes Tyrant (1), Vermilion Flycatcher, Yellow-olive Flycatcher, Tawny-crowned Pygmy-Tyrant, Gray-and-white Tyrannulet, Pacific Elaenia, Mouse-colored Tyrannulet, Speckle-breasted Wren, Southern House Wren, Long-tailed Mockingbird, Plumbeous-backed Thrush, Tropical Gnatcatcher, White-tailed Jay, Masked Yellowthroat, Gray-and-gold Warbler, Bananaquit, Black-and-white Tanager, Blue-gray Tanager, Thick-billed Euphonia, Collared Warbling-Finch, Parrot-billed Seedeater, White-winged Brush-Finch, White-headed Brush-Finch, Black-capped Sparrow, Tumbes Sparrow, Golden-bellied Grosbeak, Peruvian Meadowlark, Scrub Blackbird, White-edged Oriole.

15 Feb, 18-25 Feb 06: Tumbes

My stay coincided with major rainfall that caused various landslides along the entry road and made access to the Reserved Zone very difficult. During my stay, heavy rainfall commenced around 11.00 a.m. on most days and carried on until late at night and sometimes even until dawn. This rainfall regime made fieldwork exceedingly difficult.

The road from Pampas del Hospital to the new research station/lodge at Quebrada Faical (which just received the finishing touch by the work crews) was blocked for vehicle traffic. Therefore I rode from Pampas del Hospital to Campo Verde on a donkey, which took 2 days that were very unproductive, since I was horse-riding with fever and could not pay attention to birds. During several rainy days at Campo Verde and Cotrina, fieldwork was very troublesome on account of frequent rainfall.

After Campo Verde, I was forced to walk back to Quebrada Faical and El Caucho on my own with all the 40kg baggage on my back, since it would have taken days to call in donkeys. This was one of the wettest days, and the turbulent weather accounted for the falling of the well-known naranjo tree that has previously served the locals as a halfway marker along the trail from Faical to Campo Verde. I arrived in Faical in the late evening completely rained out and with all items in my backpack entirely wet. My muscles never really recovered from this hell of a hike, and the heavy 2-month muscle pain during a later dengue fever infection in Loreto (see below) must have doubtless originated from this day’s exercise.

I mist-netted around El Caucho for another 3 days before calling in donkeys from Pampas del Hospital and leaving El Caucho on foot (with the donkeys carrying my luggage). It was difficult to get the donkeys past some of the big landslides on the one-day hike back to Pampas del Hospital.

Despite these great logistical problems, good birds were seen in abundance. Ochre-bellied Doves were very vocal and seemed abundant along the stretch between Quebrada Faical and Campo Verde, generally being replaced by Pallid Doves from Campo Verde towards Cotrina, and by White-tipped Doves towards El Caucho. Both Rufous-headed Chachalaca and Crested Guan were seen on 3 occasions between Quebrada Faical and Campo Verde, including a guan sighting in close vicinity to Quebrada Faical whence they are not often reported. I sighted Gray-capped Cuckoo on several occasions in different areas, but two sightings of Black-billed Cuckoo near El Caucho may actually be the first records of this species for this site. Two different pairs of Peruvian Screech-owl were seen well near El Caucho, as well as one daytime sighting of a perched and flushed Scrub Nightjar in the same area. A Porculla Hermit was seen well near El Caucho. I saw Red-rumped Woodpecker on more than five occasions, even in the vicinity of Quebrada Faical where they must be rare. A single Blackish-headed Spinetail (seen well) was very vocal early in the morning but then went cryptic for the rest of the day just behind the military post at El Caucho. A pair of Gray-headed Antbird was seen twice at the same location in thick bamboo around the highest parts along the trail to Quebrada Faical, not far from Campo Verde. A juvenile Pacific Royal Flycatcher was accompanied by an adult in lush streamside growth between El Caucho and Quebrada Faical. Around the same area, a pair of Slaty Becard were observed attending a nest. Three different flocks of Saffron Siskin were spotted in more degraded forest along the entry road on the way out. Yellow-bellied Siskin was noted on one occasion close to Campo Verde. Black-and-white Tanagers were not as common as they had been reported by Gunnar Engblom just a couple of weeks earlier, but I still sighted them on about 6-8 occasions, mostly near Quebrada Faical and on the way out.

A single day was spent accompanying an INRENA warden on a routine patrol through the Manglares de Tumbes. The regular mangrove-associated birds were seen; however, rather than going through the trouble of obtaining permission to visit the reserved zone, I would advise birders to visit the mangroves at Puerto Pizarro and do one of the local fisherman boat trips for better chances at some of the rarer specialties (e.g. wood-rails) as well as for higher numbers of breeding waterbirds

Site list for Tumbes:

cm – common, oc. – occasion(s)
M – Manglares de Tumbes (25 Feb)
C – Campo Verde/Cotrina (18-23 Feb)
F – Faical/El Caucho (21-25 Feb)

(Little Tinamou: heard only, between C & F), Pale-browed Tinamou (mostly F), Neotropic Cormorant (M), Magnificent Frigatebird (M), Cocoi Heron (M), Great Egret (M), Snowy Egret (M), Tricolored Heron (M), Little Blue Heron (M), Striated Heron (M), White Ibis (M), Roseate Spoonbill (M), Chilean Flamingo (M), White-cheeked Pintail (200 M), Black Vulture (cm), Turkey Vulture (cm), King Vulture (1 F), Swallow-tailed Kite (cm), Plumbeous Kite (C), Crane Hawk (1, Pampas del Hospital), Great Black Hawk (1 F, 1 C), Harris’ Hawk (1 F), Short-tailed Hawk (cm), Collared Forest-Falcon (2 F), Rufous-headed Chachalaca (3 oc., C, F), Crested Guan (2 oc. C, 1 F), Clapper Rail (1 M), Black-necked Stilt (M), Wilson’s Plover (M), Whimbrel (M), Spotted Sandpiper (M), Willet (M), Least Sandpiper (M), Franklin’s Gull (M), Royal Tern (M), Scaled Pigeon (cm betw. F and C), (Ruddy Pigeon: heard only, C), Ecuadorian Ground-Dove (F), Blue Ground-Dove (cm), White-tipped Dove (F), Ochre-bellied Dove (mostly between F & C), Pallid Dove (C), Red-masked Parakeet (mostly between C & F), Bronze-winged Parrot (C), Black-billed Cuckoo (2 oc., F), Gray-capped Cuckoo (F), Squirrel Cuckoo (F), Groove-billed Ani (cm F), Barn Owl (1 downtown Tumbes), Peruvian Screech-owl (F; 2 pairs seen well), (Spectacled Owl: heard only, F), Scrub Nightjar (1 F), White-collared Swift (F), Tumbes Swift (along entry road to F), Lesser Swallow-tailed Swift (as previous), Western Long-tailed Hermit (commoner towards C), Porculla Hermit (1 F), Violet-bellied Hummingbird (C), Amazilia Hummingbird (commoner towards F), White-vented Plumeleteer (C), Black-tailed Trogon (F), Green Kingfisher (M, F), Blue-crowned Motmot (F), Ecuadorian Piculet (F), Red-rumped Woodpecker (>5oc., most C, also F), Golden-olive Woodpecker (C), Guayaquil Woodpecker (C), Pacific Hornero (mostly F), (Slaty Spinetail: 2 caught dead in C, none seen alive), Blackish-headed Spinetail (1 F), Streaked Xenops (mostly C), Henna-hooded Foliage-gleaner (cm F), Plain-brown Woodcreeper (C), Olivaceous Woodcreeper (mostly C, also F), Strong-billed Woodcreeper (2 oc. C), Streak-headed Woodcreeper (F), Red-billed Scythebill (1 oc. C), Collared Antshrike (F), Plain Antvireo (cm), White-backed Fire-eye (ca. 5 oc. C), Gray-headed Antbird (2 oc. C), Watkin’s Antpitta (1 between C and F), White-bearded Manakin (0,1 at C), Southern Beardless Tyrannulet (mostly F), Mouse-colored Tyrannulet (M), Pacific Elaenia (F), Greenish Elaenia (cm C, also F; distinctive sharp high-pitched deflected note), Gray-and-white Tyrannulet (1 F), (Ochre-bellied Flycatcher: 1 caught dead in C, never seen alive), Loja Tyrannulet (1 oc. C), Scale-crested Pygmy-Tyrant (cm), Common Tody-Flycatcher (cm), Yellow-olive Flycatcher (cm), Pacific Royal Flycatcher (1 ad., 1 juv., F), Black-tailed Flycatcher (1 F), Gray-breasted Flycatcher (cm C, also F), Tumbes Pewee (F), Masked Water-Tyrant (M), Ochraceous Attila (1 Pozo del Pato), Dusky-capped Flycatcher (1 oc. C), Sooty-crowned Flycatcher (cm F), Boat-billed Flycatcher (entry road to F), Baird’s Flycatcher (entry road to F), Streaked Flycatcher (cm), Snowy-throated Kingbird (M), Tropical Kingbird (M), Thrush-like Schiffornis (mostly C, also F), Black-and-white Becard (3 oc. F), Slaty Becard (1 pair at nest, F), One-colored Becard (3 oc. F), Gray-breasted Martin (F), Southern Rough-winged Swallow (M, F), Fasciated Wren (F), Tumbes Speckle-breasted Wren (cm), Southern House Wren (cm), Gray-breasted Wood-Wren (C), Spotted Nightingale-Thrush (3 oc. C), Plumbeous-backed Thrush (entry road to F), Ecuadorian Thrush (cm), Tropical Gnatcatcher (F), White-tailed Jay (F), Red-eyed Vireo (cm), Rufous-browed Peppershrike (cm F), Yellow-bellied Siskin (1 oc. C), Saffron Siskin (3 oc. entry road to F), Tropical Parula (cm), Slate-throated Whitestart (1 oc. between C and F), Gray-and-gold Warbler (cm), Three-banded Warbler (C), Bananaquit (cm), Black-and-white Tanager (ca. 6-8 oc., mainly near F), Ashy-throated Bush-Tanager (3 oc. C), White-shouldered Tanager (cm), Highland Hepatic Tanager (cm), Blue-gray Tanager (cm), Orange-crowned Euphonia (ca. 6 oc. C), Thick-billed Euphonia (cm), Bay-headed Tanager (C), Silver-throated Tanager (1 oc. C), Mangrove Warbler (M), Crimson-breasted Finch (2 oc. F), Blue-black Grassquit (mostly F), Variable Seedeater (F), Yellow-bellied Seedeater (1 oc. C), Parrot-billed Seedeater (M), Saffron Finch (mostly F), Stripe-headed Brush-Finch (cm C), Orange-billed Sparrow (1 oc. C), Black-capped Sparrow (cm F), Streaked Saltator (mostly between C & F), Buff-throated Saltator (mostly C), Golden-bellied Grosbeak (mostly between C &F), Blue-black Grosbeak (C), Peruvian Meadowlark (entry road to F), Scrub Blackbird (entry road to F), Great-tailed Grackle (M), Shiny Cowbird (mostly M), Yellow-tailed Oriole (F), Yellow-rumped Cacique (F).

28 Feb, 1-6 Mar 06: Buenaventura (Ecuador)

As I needed to cross the border for a visa renewal, I decided to go to Buenaventura, because of its great proximity to Tumbes and its superb avifauna. Things have changed greatly here since I last visited five years ago, and the site now boasts an excellent (though expensive) bird lodge with hummingbird feeders, a trail system and a nearby umbrellabird lek (that I didn’t have time to visit). I stayed at a hotel in Piňas for about 1/10 of the price, but the lodge staff kindly let me take advantage of their trails and hummingbird feeders for a little daily fee. My stay partly coincided with a visit by some of the funcionarios of Fundación Jocotoco, including Bob Ridgely, Lelis Navarrete, “Pancho” and two of the people that had contributed to various land purchases in Buenaventura. (The track that connects the lodge with the main roads has just been named in honor of one of them, Ben Olewine). I spent some of the days birding in the very pleasant company of this fabulous group of people.

The priority at this site was El Oro Parakeet, which was extremely hard to get good perched views of. They are scarce along the main road, and to stand a chance of seeing them, the best strategy for me was to turn left (north) at the shrine and keep going for a few kilometres all the way to an isolated forest patch (where I also saw three Red-billed Parrots). The second priority was El Oro Tapaculo, which was one of the most frustrating birds of the entire trip: I never saw it despite a concentrated effort of a few days that involved judicious playback at two of their territorial sites (one of which is a few meters into “Tapaculo Trail”, the new birding trail opposite the shrine). They are extremely non-responsive at this time of year. However, along Tapaculo Trail, I had good views of Rufous-fronted Wood-Quail, Song Wren and Scaled Antpitta instead.

On the last day I sighted a Speckled Tanager in a mixed flock near the warden’s house along the main road a few kilometres down from the pass (see description in below site list for details). This is a new species for Ecuador. Robert Ridgely and Lelis Navarrete had told me about two sightings of this species by other birders around the same area. To the best of my knowledge, this must have been the third sighting of Speckled Tanager in Ecuador. The bird only shows in mixed flocks along the main road at the elevation around Warden Valdomiro’s house, or along the entrance track to the lodge (a.k.a. Ben Olewine Track) at a comparable altitude. Note that the same mixed flock contained plenty of juvenile tanagers of other species that were hard to identify. However, my sighting of the Speckled Tanager refers to an adult bird that clearly displayed all the characteristic marks of this species.

Ever since Fundación Jocotoco put up feeders, Buenaventura has become the scene of some quite dramatic hummingbird range extensions. For instance, the rare Chocó endemic Velvet-purple Coronet regularly comes to their feeders now. I saw 19 hummingbird species at this site (most of which frequented the feeders), and it is amazing to think that a good proportion of them have never been recorded in Peru even though it is only a few kilometres further south (as the hummingbird flies).

Mixed flocks were rich in Buenaventura (see site list); some of the most outstanding species involved a Bronze-olive Pygmy-Tyrant, 2 sightings of Scaled Fruiteater and frequent Club-winged Manakins. Surprisingly, the Tumbesian endemics Gray-backed Hawk and Rufous-headed Chachalaca were seen on a daily basis (they had eluded me completely on my last visit).

Site list for Buenaventura:
Black Vulture, Turkey Vulture, Swallow-tailed Kite, Plumbeous Kite, Barred Hawk (1), Gray-backed Hawk (1-3 daily), Roadside Hawk, Northern Crested Caracara, Rufous-headed Chachalaca (1-3 almost daily), Rufous-fronted Wood-Quail (one covey), Red-masked Parakeet, El Oro Parakeet (groups of 6-10 seen on min. 4 occasions; seen perched), Red-billed Parrot (3), Bronze-winged Parrot, Squirrel Cuckoo, (Black-and-white Owl: heard only), Pauraque, Gray-rumped Swift, White-tipped Sicklebill (2 oc.), Baron’s Hermit, White-whiskered Hermit, White-necked Jacobin, Brown Violetear, Green Thorntail (many at feeder, 1 off feeder), Emerald-bellied Woodnymph, Violet-bellied Hummingbird, Rufous-tailed Hummingbird, Velvet-purple Coronet (1 male always at feeder; 1 male off feeder repeatedly at same spot), Andean Emerald, White-vented Plumeleteer (2-3 at feeder on 2 oc.), Fawn-breasted Brilliant (rare, feeders only), Green-crowned Brilliant (many at feeders, also off feeders), Brown Inca (2 oc. off feeders), Violet-tailed Sylph (common), Wedge-billed Hummingbird (2 oc. off feeders), Purple-crowned Fairy (2 oc. off feeders), Long-billed Starthroat (only feeders), Rufous Motmot, Crimson-rumped Toucanet, Pale-mandibled Aracari, Olivaceous Piculet (2 oc.), Black-cheeked Woodpecker (at feeder), Smoky-brown Woodpecker, Golden-olive Woodpecker (1 oc.), Lineated Woodpecker (1,1), Guayaquil Woodpecker (1,1), Pacific Hornero, Azara’s Spinetail, Slaty Spinetail, Line-cheeked Spinetail, Plain Xenops, Streaked Xenops, Scaly-throated Foliage-gleaner, Lineated Foliage-gleaner (1), Plain-brown Woodcreeper (1), Wedge-billed Woodcreeper, Spotted Woodcreeper (common), Streak-headed Woodcreeper (1 oc.), Montane Woodcreeper (1 oc.), Uniform Antshrike (seen 1 oc.), Russet Antshrike (seen 3 oc.), Plain Antvireo (common), Slaty Antwren (common), Immaculate Antbird (a few oc.), Scaled Antpitta (seen 2 oc.), (Plain-backed Antpitta: heard only), (El Oro Tapaculo: heard only), Scaled Fruiteater (2 oc.), Club-winged Manakin (common), Golden-winged Manakin (3 oc. only female), Greenish Elaenia, Olive-striped Flycatcher (2 oc.), Slaty-capped Flycatcher (3-4 oc.), Bronze-olive Pygmy-Tyrant (1), Loja Tyrannulet (a few oc.), Scale-crested Pygmy-Tyrant (common), Common Tody-Flycatcher, White-throated Spadebill (ca. 5 oc.), Ornate Flycatcher (common), Bran-colored Flyctacher (ca. 3 oc.), Sulphur-rumped Flycatcher (ca. 6 oc.), Smoke-colored Pewee, Black Phoebe, Dusky-capped Flycatcher, Social Flycatcher, Tropical Kingbird, Song Wren, Fasciated Wren, Bay Wren, Southern House Wren, Mountain Wren, Gray-breasted Wood-Wren, Blue-and-white Swallow, Southern Rough-winged Swallow, Andean Solitaire, Swainson’s Thrush, Pale-vented Thrush, Ecuadorian Thrush, Brown-capped Vireo, Lesser Greenlet, Yellow-bellied Siskin, Olive-crowned Yellowthroat, Tropical Parula, Blackburnian Warbler, Slate-throated Whitestart, Three-banded Warbler, Bananaquit, Common Bush-Tanager, Ashy-throated Bush-Tanager, Highland Hepatic Tanager, Scarlet Tanager, White-winged Tanager, Lemon-rumped Tanager, Blue-gray Tanager, Palm Tanager, Fawn-breasted Tanager (3 oc.), Orange-crowned Euphonia (a few oc.), Orange-bellied Euphonia, Thick-billed Euphonia, Golden Tanager, Silver-throated Tanager, Rufous-throated Tanager, Flame-faced Tanager, Speckled Tanager (1 ind. in mixed flock at warden Valdomiro’s house; bluish panel to wing; upperparts, vent and flanks green, remaining underparts white, heavily speckled on underparts and spotted on upperparts, extensive black lores creating masked face appearance), Bay-headed Tanager, Blue-necked Tanager, Beryl-spangled Tanager, Golden-naped Tanager, Green Honeycreeper, Variable Seedeater, Yellow-bellied Seedeater, Black-and-white Seedeater, Saffron Finch, Tricolored Brush-Finch, Stripe-headed Brush-Finch, Orange-billed Sparrow, Black-striped Sparrow, Rufous-collared Sparrow, Buff-throated Saltator, Black-winged Saltator, Scrub Blackbird, Yellow-tailed Oriole.

7 Mar 06: Piura City Birding

I briefly stopped off my long bus trip from the Ecuadorian border to Huancabamba for three pleasant morning hours to look for Tumbes Swallow in Piura. This bird’s name is quite misleading, since – as birding rumours have it – the species might not even occur in Tumbes Departament (despite reports from the Manglares de Tumbes in Valqui’s guide which may refer to old erroneous records). The site where most birders see it is Bosque Pomac near Chiclayo; however, I had no time to go there, and therefore I tracked down these swallows at the second best site I could come up with, which is – quite incredibly – downtown Piura! Only a few blocks from the Plaza de Armas, a big bridge over the river leads to a small “parque” on the other side, where about 10 individuals were busily flying around in the early morning and afforded great views. Note that the bridge boasts a memorial board acknowledging the people that died during its construction. The birds did not stay for long, and by 9.00 a.m. they had evaporated down the river.

Site list for Piura:
Tumbes Swallow (ca. 10 in parque in city), Chestnut-collared Swallow, Gray-breasted Martin, Cattle Egret, Snowy Egret, Cocoi Heron, Striated Heron, Black-winged Stilt, Pacific Hornero, Pacific Dove, Gray-headed Gull, Spotted Sandpiper, Groove-billed Ani.

8 Mar 06; Huancabamba (H)

As in 1998 – when I last visited – the 200-odd kilometres from Piura to Huancabamba still take more than 12 hr by bus, and the onward trip to Jaén was – again – a major adventure with precarious landslides that completely blocked up-coming traffic. In 1998, during the big El Niňo, this stretch (Huancabamba – Tabaconas – Jaén) took me 2 ½ days, and it could have easily taken as long this time if it hadn’t been for our audacious driver, who insisted on doing it within 20 hr. He bravely overcame landslides where most other drivers opted to wait for the bulldozers to show up in 1-2 days, so we regularly passed long lines of cars queuing up around the landslides.

On account of this lousy road connection, Huancabamba is easily the most isolated city-sized settlement in Peru. Famous for its “brujos” (warlocks and witches), Huancabamba lies next to the Chinguela Ridge which marks the boundary between the wet east-slope and the dry interior valleys of the Andes. However, the town itself is embedded in a valley that is heavily cultivated, and most tree growth is nowadays in the form of trashed Eucalyptus groves.

Birdwatchers used to see Gray-winged Inca-Finch a couple of kilometres outside of town en route towards Sapalache, and I spent a whole morning there to look for it. At the time of my visit, this was the site of a bigger landslide that forced Sapalache-bound vehicles to take a detour along a steeper track. However, there are only very tiny patches of native-looking scrub left around here, with the biggest (ca. 1-2 ha) on a slope that is too steep to farm. Though the inca-finch may still be present, I failed to find it here. Instead I had a beautifully perched Spot-throated Hummingbird, a small flock of overflying Scarlet-fronted Parakeets and busy flocks of Pacific Parrotlet, which are doubtless near their upper elevational limit here. Even though the area is quite high, there is a distinct Maraňon avifaunal influence, with Maraňón Gnatcatcher and the streaky race of Streaked Saltator present. Equally, a Masked Yellowthroat in this scrub area seemed to have little black on the face and may have been of the Maraňón race peruviana. The agricultural plots were lively with seedeaters, amongst which I got great views at a few Dull-colored Grassquits.

Site list see below underneath chapter of Jaén Area.

8-9 Mar 06; Sapalache – Carmen de la Frontera Road (S)

A road that cuts across the Chinguela Ridge links the dry valley around Sapalache (ca. 2-3 hr from Huancabamba) with the wet lowlands at Carmen de la Frontera near the Ecuadorian border. This road used to give access to a fascinating elevational cross-section of forest that stretches from the páramo zone along the ridge down to subtropical forest. Three decades ago, this area was the destination of a famous ornithological expedition that found numerous new bird species for Peru and even one new to science (the Neblina Metaltail). As little as one decade ago (in 1998), I witnessed how great expanses of forest were still present on the eastern slope of the ridge, though farmers had already cleared most remnants on the western side and were obviously gearing up in the east. This time, I was deeply saddened when I saw that there is no more primary forest left anywhere along this road – perhaps apart from tiny distant patches. The lower parts of the eastern slope towards Carmen de la Frontera are completely clear-cut.

Because of the lack of decent habitat, I only remained for one late afternoon and an early morning, staying with the ladies who cook for by-passing vehicles in the uppermost house near the pass (west side). Accommodation consisted of a floor space shared with a family of cui (guinea pigs; they taste good). Vehicles are scarce and pass only 1-4 times a day, and mostly in the morning. Having done the full-day hike from Sapalache to the pass in 1998, I did not want to repeat this mistake with all my heavy baggage and therefore needed to hire a taxi to take me up here in the afternoon. The following day, I just birded on the east side till the first vehicle (transporting a funny bunch of goldminers) approached from Carmen de la Frontera and took me along.

Despite the wholesale clearance, the secondary growth that has by now grown back along the road in the temperate zone on both sides of the pass turned out to be sufficient for a surprising variety of birds. Temperate hummingbirds don’t seem to have suffered too much from deforestation, as I had several sightings of Neblina Metaltail (mostly on the western side of the pass), as well as Buff-winged Starfrontlet, Little Sunangel and Glowing Puffleg (all three mostly on the eastern side). Other good species in the temperate secondary growth on the east side included a sole White-capped Parrot and Chestnut-naped Antpitta (the latter heard only), while flocks contained Mouse-colored Thistletail, Many-striped Canastero, Rufous-headed Pygmy-Tyrant, Black-capped Tyrannulet and a variety of good tanagers (see site list). Both Pale-naped and Cloud-forest Brush-Finch could be seen in vicinity to each other. However, despite a good selection of birds that can still be seen around Sapalache, habitat degradation must have been catastrophic for the local avifauna, and all the more sensitive species will be gone by now.

Site list see below underneath chapter of Jaén Area.

11 Mar 06; Jaén Area: Chirinos Road & Las Juntas (LJ)

As my visit to the Marañón Valley was within the few annual weeks of rain, all the tracks and trails in the Jaén Area were extremely muddy and difficult to walk on. In fact, the three-wheeled mototaxi I hired in Puerto Tamborapa the first morning did not make it all the way up Chirinos Road to the intersection indicated in Valqui’s guide, so I had to walk the last bit. Most of the little forest patch at this intersection has fallen victim to what reporters described as the “biggest landslide in the whole of Peru”. A couple of months before my visit, the entire side of a hill came down in a huge huaico and buried a few houses and the best part of this forest patch underneath it. TV crews showed up to film the disaster. The families that lived in those houses just barely escaped the avalanche as the noise forwarned them of the imminent landslide. Even though a hectare or two of the forest have remained intact, and despite playback, I failed to find Maranon Spinetail, possibly because it is no longer present, or because it was too sunny by the time I arrived (ca. 9.30 am). The only notable species I saw in this patch was Purple-throated Euphonia, though agricultural land further down the road (around Puerto Tamborapa) harboured good flocks of finch-like birds such as Drab Seedeater and Red-crested Finch.

During a late-afternoon visit to Las Juntas, I found out that the contact person mentioned in Valqui’s book no longer lives here. Nevertheless, the neighbours successfully pointed me towards the entrance of Valqui’s trail, which is used by locals to drive their cattle up and down the slope. Despite cows, vegetation here is much better than at the Chirinos Road site, and I soon located an inquisitive pair of Maranon Spinetail and a few Sooty-crowned Flycatchers of the Maranon interior race, though not much else. A brief stroll around the paddies here at dusk only produced glimpses of unidentified rails and crakes.

Site list see below underneath chapter of Jaén.

13 Mar 06; Jaén Area: Chamaya Canyon (Ch) & paddy fields just north of Jaén (J)

A morning visit to some of the rice paddies just north of town was disappointing in terms of the lack of rails and crakes, but other – more common – specialties were sighted, such as Ecuadorian Ground-Dove, White-lined Tanager, Purple-throated Euphonia and Dull-colored Grassquit, apart from a variety of waterbirds.

An afternoon stint to the desert scrub around Chamaya Canyon, only a couple of kilometres from the intersection with the main Chiclayo – Tarapoto highway, was not at the best time of day, yet it still turned up all the goodies: I only had brief looks at an adult Little Inca-Finch, but I got minute-long views of two juvenile Little Inca-Finches that sported an unfamiliar plumage that I could not find in any of the field guides (see description in list below). Even so, they were readily recognizable as inca-finches. Besides this species, the cactus-clad hillsides were alive with Spot-throated Hummingbird, the Maranon race of Collared Antshrike, Tawny-crowned Pygmy-Tyrant and Maranon Gnatcatcher. I puzzled quite a bit over a couple of unusually light-brown-capped individuals of the interior race of Sooty-crowned Flycatcher, but their vocalizations were identical to the ones posted on www.xeno-canto for this race; moreover, the only other Myiarchus in this area (Dusky-capped) should have a dark-gray cap in its local race.

Site list for Huancabamba (H), Sapalache – Carmen de la Frontera Road (S), Chirinos Road and Las Juntas (LJ), Chamaya Canyon (Ch) and Jaén paddyfields (J):

Great Egret (J), Snowy + Cattle Egret (J), Striated Heron (J, LJ), Black + Turkey Vulture, Roadside Hawk, Northern Crested Caracara (from bus en route Piura – Huancabamba), Eared Dove (H), Ecuadorian Ground-Dove (LJ, J), Croaking Ground-Dove, (J, Ch), Blue Ground-Dove (J, LJ), White-tipped Dove (LJ, Ch), Scarlet-fronted Parakeet (H), Pacific Parrotlet (H, LJ, J), White-capped Parrot (S), Groove-billed Ani (J, LJ, Ch), (Pauraque: heard only, LJ), Sparkling Violetear (H), Spot-throated Hummingbird (H, Ch), Collared Inca (S), Buff-winged Starfrontlet (S), Little Sunangel (S), Glowing Puffleg (S), Tyrian Metaltail (S), Neblina Metaltail (S), Ringed Kingfisher (J), Andean Flicker (S), Pacific Hornero, Maranon Spinetail (2 LJ), Mouse-colored Thistletail (S), Many-striped Canastero (S), Rufous-fronted Thornbird (LJ, Ch, J), Pearled Treerunner (S), Streaked Tuftedcheek (S), Collared Antshrike (Ch), (Chestnut-naped Antpitta: heard only, S), Barred Fruiteater, Southern Beardless Tyrannulet (H, LJ), Mouse-colored Tyrannulet (LJ), Yellow-bellied Elaenia (J), Rufous-headed Pygmy-Tyrant (S), Black-capped Tyrannulet (S), White-throated Tyrannulet (S), White-banded Tyrannulet (S), Tawny-crowned Pygmy-Tyrant (Ch), Scale-crested Pygmy-Tyrant (LJ), Common Tody-Flycatcher (LJ), Tropical Pewee (H), Vermilion Flyctacher (LJ, J), Rufous-breasted Chat-Tyrant (S), Brown-backed Chat-Tyrant (S), Black-billed Shrike-Tyrant (1 en route Sondor – Tabaconas), Sooty-crowned Flycatcher (LJ, Ch), Tropical Kingbird, Brown-bellied Swallow (S), Fasciated Wren (Ch), Southern House Wren (H), Long-tailed Mockingbird (Ch), Chiguanco Thrush (H), Great Thrush (S), Maranon Gnatcatcher (H, Ch), Green Jay (LJ), House Sparrow (J), Red-eyed Vireo (LJ), Hooded Siskin (H), Masked Yellowthroat (H; minimal face mask, => ssp. peruviana?), Spectacled Whitestart (S), Citrine Warbler (S), Black-crested Warbler (S), Bananaquit (H, J), Blue-backed Conebill (S), Black-headed Hemispingus (S), Black-capped Hemispingus (S), White-lined Tanager (J), Highland Hepatic Tanager (H, LJ), Blue-gray Tanager, Hooded + Lacrimose + Scarlet-bellied Mountain-Tanager (all S), Golden-crowned Tanager (S), Purple-throated Euphonia (LJ, J), Masked + Glossy Flowerpiercer (S), Plushcap (S), Red-crested Finch (LJ), Plumbeous Sierra-Finch (S), Ash-breasted Sierra-Finch (H), Little Inca-Finch (Ch; 1 ad., 2 juv.; juv. plumage had breast streaks, black bill with yellow base, streaky on upperparts, but retained other adult features, e.g. white outertail), Blue-black Grassquit (LJ, J), Black-and-white Seedeater (H), Drab Seedeater (LJ), Chestnut-throated Seedeater (J, LJ), Band-tailed Seedeater (H), Dull-colored Grassquit (H, J), Saffron Finch, Pale-naped Brush-Finch (S), Cloud-Forest Brush-Finch (S), Streaked Saltator (streaky race, H, J), Golden-bellied Grosbeak (Ch), Yellow-browed Sparrow (J), Peruvian Meadowlark (LJ), Yellow-tailed Oriole (LJ).

15-16 Mar 06: Pedro Ruiz

An unnecessary side excursion to Chachapoyas was accompanied by heavy rainfall, a flooded road, two sunken busses, a couple of dead people, and a nightly transbordo, during which the daring ones amongst us took our belongings and walked through the flooded area, with our backpacks up our heads and water up to our crotches – not knowing whether onward transportation was going to await us at the other end. Back in Pedro Ruiz, a whole afternoon was spent in roadside scrub all the way to Suyubamba ca. 6 km above town in the fruitless search of Little Woodstar. Few flowers were in bloom, and locals seemed to confirm that this is not a good time for picaflores. However, some of the lusher roadside growth yielded an unexpected composition of birds, including mixed flocks that contained quite a few regional endemics, namely Buff-bellied Tanager, the sclateri race of Speckle-breasted Wren, the nigriceps race of Black-capped Sparrow, the cryperythrus race of Bran-colored Flycatcher, as well as other notable species, such as Purple-throated Euphonia, Yellow-cheeked Becard, Yellow-bellied Elaenia, Dull-colored Grassquit and Black-and-white Seedeater. At dusk, huge swift aggregations appeared in the sky, with Chestnut-collared, White-collared and White-tipped Swift all represented. See the Pomacochas section for more information on the Mitred Parakeets I saw around here.

No site list; please refer to trip list at the end.

16 Mar 06: Pomacochas

I just scheduled a brief morning for the Pomacochas area (a short way up from Pedro Ruiz), as I had to be in Rioja soon for my next fieldwork site. The early morning was invested into the lakeside in the hope of rails and crakes, but I failed to connect with good viewing areas, so the only notable bird here remained Grassland Yellow-Finch. A little later in the morning I took a mototaxi to the flowering shrubs Valqui describes as the prime site for Marvelous Spatueltail, and though I had problems locating the site straight away, sure enough I soon saw a good male (besides numerous Green Violetears). The whole area had some great though patchy forest cover when I last visited in 1998, but now only the tiniest of forest patches remain. Even Valqui’s brand-new map is already outdated in that the forest beyond the spatuletail bushes has shrunk to less than a hectare (though it yielded an Emerald Toucanet). The Rio Chido Trail is now a vehicle track, and good forest can no longer be seen from the road entrance.

In the mornings, the whole area from Pomacochas all the way down to Pedro Ruiz is ripe with Aratinga flocks of up to 80 birds. Aratinga identification in this area requires great care in view of the new taxon descriptions in a recent publication (Arndt, T. 2006. A revision of the Aratinga mitrata complex, with the description of one new species, two new subspecies and species-level status of Aratinga alticola. J. Orn. 147: 73-86). Despite the lack of a telescope, I could definitely see individuals whose frontal red extended to the eye, with isolated speckles below/behind the eye; these individuals conform to the newly-described Mitred Parakeet subspecies A. mitrata chlorogenys. However, most other individuals – though not seen terribly well, seemed to have a very restricted red area on their head. Though Arndt (2006) would allow the conclusion that these individuals conform to his newly described Hocking’s Parakeet (Aratinga hockingii), they all sounded identical to the Mitred Parakeets. I fail to see how Arndt diagnosed his new species from immature Mitreds. I therefore tentatively consider these other individuals to be juvenile/immature Mitred Parakeets.

No site list; please refer to trip list at the end.

17 Mar 06: Posic Road in Rioja

During my dealings with the hospitable INRENA people in Rioja, I had enough time to briefly sneak away from the office (at the entry to Posic Road) one morning and walk a bit along Posic Road, as suggested by Valqui. Activity was good, but most birds were just very common species of secondary habitat. Best was a male Fiery-capped Manakin, followed by several Rusty-fronted Tody-Flycatchers, Lettered Aracaris, Short-crested Flycatchers, the odd Chestnut-bellied Seedeater and representatives of the relict savannah avifauna of this area, including Rufous-fronted Thornbird, Burnished-buff Tanager and White-lined Tanager.

No site list; please refer to trip list at the end.

17-20 Mar 06: Afluente

I was greatly saddened when I first perceived the amount of local habitat destruction, which has completely transformed this area since the last time I visited in 1998. Back then, considerable parts of the Chiclayo – Tarapoto highway from Abra Patricia down to Afluente were still forested along the road. Nowadays there is hardly any primary forest left along the road itself, and clear-cutting has accelerated up most of the slopes, sometimes all the way to the ridges as far as the eye can see. In Afluente at the lower end of the elevational spectrum, forest was hard to come by and had to be actively sought out. A good trail to try is the path that leads up the stream at the upper end of town, which splits several times but allows access to relatively undisturbed bits. Don’t be fooled into thinking that everything beyond here is pristine, because satellite maps in the INRENA office in Rioja show that most of the next watershed (which is hidden out of sight by the ridges) is densely populated by new-comers from the mountains that have set up a network of villages, trails, schools and churches within a decade – within the Bosque de Protección, without the knowledge of INRENA, but with the blessing of just about every other government department… Note that some of the people in Afluente are rather averse to strangers that come with an environmental objective, so you should definitely make sure your baggage is stored with a local person of your trust (unless staying at a hotel in Nueva Cajamarca). The dueña of one of the last houses towards the upper end of town is sympathetic to birders and flirts with the thought of opening up accommodation for independent travellers. She is easily recognizable by her extremely dwarf-like stature.

Within two full (and wet) days of fieldwork around here, little was seen. Good hummers included Ecuadorian Piedtail, White-tipped Sicklebill and Green Hermit. An overflying Black-mandibled Toucan was the only one of the trip. Dark-breasted Spinetail sings all around the village, doubtless benefiting from man’s actions. Mixed flocks in the forest bits were much less rich than a decade ago, with the best species including Fulvous-breasted Flatbill, Marble-faced Bristle-Tyrant, Olive-striped Flycatcher, Ash-browed Spinetail, Olivaceous Woodcreeper and Olivaceous Greenlet. Out in the disturbed bits, there were Olive-chested Flycatchers and Golden-faced Tyrannulets. Huallaga Tanagers have – by now – invaded the entire region far up the road.

No site list; please refer to trip list at the end.

20-25 Mar, 4-5 Apr 06: Abra Patricia Area; LSU Trail near Juan Rojas’ house, Comunidad Alto Nieva

The entire region upwards from Afluente all the way to the pass towards Pomacochas is widely known in birders’ circles as Abra Patricia (which is actually the name of the pass itself). This area used to be extremely good birdwatching a decade ago. Now you will struggle to find primary forest along the road, and human encroachment has substantially increased in most of the little communities along the road. The lower half of this birding stretch is within the Bosque de Proteccion Alto Mayo (hereafter simply referred to as “the Bosque”), which affords the area virtually no protection at all. In fact, satellite images reveal that habitat degradation is worse within the boundaries of “the Bosque” than along the upper stretches of the road, as many of the hidden watersheds and side valleys further down are already entirely deforested.

For future birders, Abra Patricia may come to be one of those areas where birding is much better outside of government-regulated reserves, as virtually all the area between “the Bosque” and the pass has been purchased by an NGO called ECOAN that wants to turn it into a private reserve with wardens and (eventually within the next 2-5 years) a bird lodge. To this end, construction of a track into a more secluded side valley has begun, since little good habitat remains along the road. Nature seems to have benefitted from the fact that the upper parts of “Abra Patricia Road” were privately owned, so the NGO could buy the land, which does not seem to be possible within the government-owned “Bosque”, where posesionarios (=squatters) hold on to their land with no formal ownership.

As I had obtained a research permit from INRENA, my field stay was bound by the borders of “the Bosque”, so I spent little time (maybe just a single day) walking along the road in the new private reserve. The only birds I saw around here and not further down were Rufous-vented Whitetip and Lulu’s Tody-Tyrant (both in patches near the community of Alto Nieva). Most time was spent in the pleasant company of Hector Quispe from INRENA (Rioja) and Juan Perez Rojas (who is erroneously referred to as Juan Rojas in Valqui’s book) along the so-called LSU trail (see Valqui). (Note that Juan Perez may now be working for the NGO further up the road, so he may no longer be available as a guide in “the Bosque” for the LSU trail). The LSU trail affords a rare opportunity to get access into a good spectrum of pristine upper subtropical and temperate rainforest within the boundaries of “the Bosque”, and this doubtless has to do with the fact that Juan’s family and the second land-owner within that side-valley have precluded other squatters from entering over the years, whereas in other side-valleys land has been partitioned among 10-50 times as many people. We camped in the big clearing (see Valqui’s map) for almost a week (lots of Rufous-rumped Antwrens at the edge), and I spent most time in upper subtropical forest around here, though I hiked up to the LSU “antvireo campsite” on one occasion – of course failing to find the Xenoglaux.

Despite frequent rains, cool temperatures and little activity, birds were spectacular. The higher temperate forest towards the upper camp was stunning and very productive, yielding a single Black-streaked Puffbird, Long-tailed Antbird, a conspicuous Chestnut-crowned Gnateater, several Olivaceous Pihas, good views at Red-ruffed Fruitcrow (which was only heard at its spot around the lower camp), a Flavescent Flycatcher and an Olive-tufted Flycatcher.

At the upper camp itself, several White-eared Solitaires were loudly vocalizing, with one bird regularly entering a nest. Bar-winged Wood-Wren was mainly restricted to areas of dwarfish ridgetop growth or regenerating growth from landslides. One Fasciated Tiger-Heron was spotted along the main stream. In terms of Aratinga, White-eyed Parakeet is seen far up to 2000m and possibly beyond in this watershed. Other noteworthy birds (mainly in the upper subtropical zone) included Red-billed Parrot, Rufescent Screech-owl (heard only – too lazy to tape out, bad on me!), Green-fronted Lancebill, Fawn-breasted and Violet-fronted Brilliant, Chestnut-breasted Coronet, Booted Racquet-tail, Bronzy and Collared Inca, both quetzal species syntopically, Versicolored Barbet, Emerald Toucanet, Spotted Barbtail, Striped Treehunter, Strong-billed Woodcreeper, Uniform Antshrike, Slaty Antwren, Rufous-vented Tapaculo (heard only), Green-and-black Fruiteater, Golden-winged Manakin, Marble-faced and Variegated Bristle-Tyrant, Mottle-cheeked and Ashy-headed Tyrannulet, Fulvous-breasted Flatbill, Pale-edged and Lemon-browed Flycatcher, Yellow-cheeked and Barred Becard, Sharpe’s Wren, Pale-eyed Thrush, Rufous-crested and Vermilion Tanager, Lacrimose and Blue-winged Mountain-Tanager, Yellow-throated and Orange-eared Tanager, Bronze-green Euphonia, Deep-blue Flowerpiercer and Chestnut-capped Brushfinch.

No site list; please refer to trip list at the end.

5-7 Apr 06: Aguas Verdes

This site is yet a bit further down the elevational gradient from Afluente, and it is yet another site that has greatly changed within the last decade. Of the areas listed in Valqui’s book, most are now a far way from undisturbed forest. I concentrated on the trail that goes up from Señor Francisco’s house. Although this path still goes past a forest patch on the first slope, beyond that first hill it gets worse. You certainly get the impression that alibi patches of forest have been left along the slopes facing the road, while beyond there things look bleak. Señor Francisco confirmed that he is the owner of that last patch of forest and chooses not to cut it, but even so illegal logging by neighbours is making life difficult for him.

On account of the presidential election, Señor Francisco was not at home during the first day of my stay, so I stayed at the pleasant Restaurant Edén instead, whose dueña is known to accommodate people. Most species seen at this site were common birds of secondary habitat, no doubt on account of degradation. The best birds were seen in Señor Francisco’s forest patch, such as a pair of Rufous-capped Nunlets, a Ferruginous Pygmy-Owl vocalizing (and mobbed) in broad daylight, Green Hermit, Golden-collared Toucanet, Lineated Woodpecker, two Lined Antshrikes, White-crowned Tapaculo (singing only), Slaty-capped Flycatcher and Southern Nightingale-Wren. Secondary growth along the road and the first few hundred meters of Señor Francisco’s trail yielded – most notably – a pair of Chestnut-vented Conebills and Yellow Tyrannulet, but also Blue-tailed Emerald, Dark-breasted Spinetail, Yellow-breasted Flycatcher, a migrating Olive-sided Flycatcher (besides Alder Flycatchers, Blackburnian Warblers, Swainson’s Thrushes and unidentified wood-pewees), White-winged Becard, Thrush-like Wren, White-lined and Huallaga Tanager, Thick-billed Euphonia, Lesser Seedfinch, Dull-colored Grassquit and Striolated Puffbird (heard only).

No site list; please refer to trip list at the end.

31 Mar – 1 Apr, 8 Apr 06: Morro de Calzada (=“Calzada”)

This is a fascinating island of semi-pristine habitat in the heavily settled Rioja/Moyobamba area. It can easily be worked from either city with a rented vehicle, though public transport will only take you to the big intersection halfway between both cities and you will either have to walk or hire a mototaxi from there, pending availability. Early-morning access is accordingly tricky for budget travellers. I came here on 2 ½ days, and climbed up to the top on two of them, though it is probably better to concentrate on the lowest bit of forest if you plan on coming several times. As Valqui correctly points out, activity at this site declines steeply after 8.00 a.m., so with a car of your own you may even just drop by for an early-morning visit. In fact, few species were seen during the remainder of the day at all. Most of the goodies listed by Valqui stayed conspicuously out of sight during my visits, which – apart from personal short-comings – may have been exacerbated by the extremely low activity during my visit.

Definitely one of the biggest surprises was a Koepcke’s Hermit seen around the first 500m of trail past the entrance. The individual I saw had a white stripe from its beard downwards parting the tawny underparts in two; its malar and postocular as well as its elongated central tail feathers were distinctly white. Though the species is not listed by Valqui, and although hermit identification is tricky, Koepcke’s Hermit does occur in similar habitat and elevation in relative vicinity along the Tarapoto – Yurimaguas Road, and the description should rule out any other locally sympatric congener.

Tape playback was extremely helpful in locating Cinereous-breasted Spinetail in the savannah-like open habitat on top of Morro de Calzada. The first 500m of trail after the entrance are amongst the most interesting part of the reserve, especially the gradient between forest and thick savannah, where mixed flocks included Scarlet-breasted Fruiteater, White-browed Purpletuft, Yellow Tyrannulet, Golden-headed Manakin and many Swainson’s Thrushes. This entire area, and even degraded patches a bit outside the reserve, held Pale-breasted Thrush, Black-faced Tanager, Stripe-necked and Pearly-vented Tody-Tyrant.

Some good species were actually seen in remnant vegetation in the heavily altered pasture land along the entrance track to Morro de Calzada, such as flocks of the distinct gustavi race of Cobalt-winged Parakeet, or White-lined and Red-shouldered Tanager. I never really managed to arrive early enough before dawn for owling, though on one morning time just sufficed for hearing Band-bellied Owl.

Other noteworthy species included Black Caracara, White-tailed and Blue-crowned Trogon, Bluish-fronted Jacamar, Swallow-wing, Lettered and Chestnut-eared Aracari, Yellow-ridged Toucan, Lafresanye’s Piculet, Red-stained Woodpecker, Lineated Woodcreeper, White-flanked Antwren, Warbling Antbird, Slaty-capped Flycatcher, White-winged Becard, Black-capped Donacobius, Southern Nightingale-Wren, Tropical Gnatcatcher, Canada Warbler, White-lored Euphonia, Dull-colored Grassquit and Striolated Puffbird (heard only).

No site list; please refer to trip list at the end.

10 Apr 06: Túnel Area (Carretera Tarapoto – Yurimaguas) (=“Tunel”)

By the time I reached Tarapoto, sickliness had set in, and I lost a day to fever and muscle pain, doubtless still a souvenir from my disaster-prone days in Tumbes. After the presidential elections, which I witnessed in Tarapoto, I finally dared another sortie, paying the full fare to Yurimaguas to ensure an early arrival and be dropped off at one fifth of the distance at the infamous “Tunel” (see Valqui’s book). Despite lingering sickness, I spent a pleasant day walking down from the Tunel towards Yurimaguas all the way to a little settlement where habitat abruptly deteriorates – and back up again. Unfortunately, I missed all three target birds at this site (Plumbeous Euphonia, Blackish Pewee, Dotted Tanager), and I would advise people to spend more time in the target elevation and habitat around the tunnel itself rather than walk all the way down to lower ground. Nevertheless, a share of good species was sighted, such as a soaring White Hawk, a couple of Koepcke’s Hermits, a female Violet-headed Hummingbird, Golden-tailed Sapphire, a single silent Striolated Puffbird, a family party of Ivory-billed Aracari (the local race of which used to be split off as Brown-mandibled), Scarlet-breasted Fruiteater, Cliff Flycatcher, Slaty-capped Shrike-Vireo, good views of a surprise Olive Tanager, Yellow-throated Bush-Tanager (at the highest point around the tunnel), Yellow-crested Tanager, Rufous-bellied Euphonia and Slate-colored Grosbeak.

A number of species usually associated with lowland forest were seen in unexpetced microhabitat, such as Little Woodpecker (here far from varzea) and great looks at a Dusky-chested Flycatcher that accompanied a mixed flock (unexpected at this elevation).

Other notable species included Fork-tailed Woodnymph, Bluish-fronted Jacamar, Red-stained Woodpecker, Blue-crowned Manakin, Olive-striped Flycatcher, Ochre-bellied and Slaty-capped Flycatcher, Golden-faced Tyrannulet, Yellow-breasted and Ornate Flycatcher, an unidentified wood-pewee, Rufous-tailed and Crowned Slaty Flycatcher, Southern Nightingale-Wren (heard only), Swainson’s Thrush, Blackburnian and Canada Warbler, as well as a Moriche Oriole down near the settlement.

No site list; please refer to trip list at the end.

11 Apr 06: Juan Guerra (near Tarapoto)

Before my flight to Iquitos, I had barely a morning and noon left to check out the peculiar dry-forest avifauna south and east of Tarapoto. With more time, it would have definitely been worth going further afield to the former LSU camp site (Upaquihua) suggested in Valqui’s book, yet I had to make do with Juan Guerra, a town now linked with Tarapoto by tarmac road. The crews were just beginning to extend the tarmac further from Juan Guerra towards Juanjui, but this may take years.

I mainly concentrated on the little streamside forest patch to the left of Juan Guerra as you leave town towards Juanjui (see Valqui), where the target subspecies, Huallaga Slaty-Antshrike, was finally seen by playing the pre-recorded loudsongs of several other slaty-antshrikes. A Planalto Hermit along the entrance track to this patch came as a surprise; the species has been newly recorded for this part of South America by a recent LSU expedition to the area, though Valqui does not list it for Juan Guerra itself. However, my field notes read “...large hermit with tawny underparts, no white stripe from throat downwards detected; underparts particularly intense-tawny on belly; white middle tail-feather extension seemed particularly long…”. This description – coupled with the dry habitat, elevation and geographical setting the bird was seen in – should rule out all other congeners. Mixed flocks in this forest patch held Stripe-chested Antwren, while streamside vegetation and more open bits along the entrance track produced Rusty-backed Antwren (after playback), as well as Buff-breasted and Coraya Wren. Remembering to bring a pre-recording of Chestnut-throated Spinetail would definitely have helped to find this elusive species around here, but eventually I had to give up on it.

Around noon, I gave the left-hand track from Puente Colombia along Rio Mayo a go, though by this time activity was dismal and the habitat there is even more degraded. Nevertheless, Black-tailed Flycatcher, Pearly-vented Tody-Tyrant and Rusty-fronted Tody-Flycatcher were welcome additions around here. The Mayo River at the bridge held five swallow species, most notably White-winged and White-banded Swallow. Other notable species seen during this day include: Hook-billed Kite, Speckled Chachalaca, Plain-breasted Ground-Dove, White-eyed Parakeet, Greater Ani, Short-tailed Swift, Bluish-fronted Jacamar, Black-fronted Nunbird, Lettered Aracari, Rufous-fronted Thornbird, Great Antshrike, Barred Antshrike, Southern Beardless and Mouse-colored Tyrannulet, Yellow-breasted Flycatcher, Variegated Flycatcher, White-winged Becard, Rufous-browed Peppershrike, Tropical Gnatcatcher, Black-faced Tanager, Thick-billed Euphonia, Lesser Seedfinch and Oriole Blackbird.

No site list; please refer to trip list at the end.

12 Apr – 21 Apr, 24 Apr – 2 May, 12 May 06: Allpahuayo-Mishana (=“Allp-M”)

Less than a decade ago, José Álvarez – a then priest in spe – discovered an amazing undescribed avifauna in what had been deemed to be unproductive sandy-soil forest at the gates of Iquitos. He teamed up with other people, most notably Bret Whitney, and they went on to describe about a handful of new species and document spectacular range extensions for almost two dozen. In the following years, it was due to the intense political work by José Álvarez and a number of other local conservationists (such as Ítalo Mesones) that the area was not handed over to agricultural development but was declared a national park. The fight continues, as Allpahuayo-Mishana National Park (hereafter referred to as Allp-M) is still under intense threat by illegal activities.

A short-term visit to Allp-M would definitely benefit from the field knowledge of Juan Díaz (see Valqui’s book), who is very knowledgeable about the birds of the area. I ended up going out with him a couple of times (in and outside of Allp-M); he is great company and extremely worthwhile to have with you.

INRENA had kindly given me a research permit for Allp-M, so I scheduled two weeks at the end of April for fieldwork around here. The timing was not ideal: April (at the end of the rainy season) is possibly one of the worst months to visit, since bird activity is reported to be at a low. During my stay, song activity was close to zero, and even the dawn chorus was characterized by long bouts of silence at most times. Additionally, frequent rain showers and a very high malaria risk make fieldwork less enjoyable at this time. Indeed, at the end of my stay in Allp-M, I succumbed to a heavy tropical infection marked by fever, prolonged muscle pain, extreme fatigue and a throat-ear infection. Initially I suspected malaria, which was rampant in the area during my stay. However, several blood tests in Iquitos revealed symptoms consistent with dengue fever (e.g. low platelet count), despite the atypical prolonged course of the disease. In the end, the muscle pain and fatigue remained for two months up until after I left Peru, and the disease forced me to call off all fieldwork plans for southern Peru in May. I ended up staying in Iquitos until 26 May (mostly apathic in a hotel room, though I did get out into the field sporadically, see next chapters). During this time, I regularly visited a private clinic (Ana Stahl Clinic). I strongly advise against government hospitals in Iquitos.

However, some great time was had in Allp-M before this tropical infection broke out. I stayed at the warden’s house at KM 28, not the new park center at KM 26.8. For your best chance at white-sand endemics, you definitely need to visit the big varillal at KM 25. Of the specialties, I found Allpahuayo Antbird to be the trickiest one, since the “demonstrational pair” near the trail entrance at KM 25 is no longer present. Indeed, they have extremely specific microhabitat requirements and an incredibly patchy distribution, so I only succeeded in finding a pair with Juan Diaz’s “stake-out assistance”.

Many people report struggling to find Iquitos Gnatcatcher. Finding this bird is a matter of spending time in the right habitat scanning high-canopy flocks, but if time is scarce, this species can easily be missed. I had three great and prolonged sightings of vocalizing birds, twice a pair and once a singleton. One of these sightings was while I had no orientation as to where I was, but the remaining two of these sightings were made near the trail intersection where Valqui reports Cinnamon-crested Spadebill on his map (henceforth referred to as the “spadebill intersection”). Note that –according to Juan Diaz – the spadebill pair that used to be here is now absent, and the species has not been recorded again in the reserve.

Zimmer’s Antbird was readily seen along the first 500m of trail at KM25 (all the way to Valqui’s “bend”) and in the chamizal (see Valqui), but is difficult without a tape. The small size and inconspicuous vocalization of Mishana Tyrannulet make it an extremely difficult bird to locate. The only ever (two) good views I had of it were in the chamizal where trees are low, as it is very reluctant to come down from the canopy in the higher varillal. Ancient Antwren is similar in that respect, but seems to be more common overall and can be picked up more easily by vocalization; indeed it is the only varillal endemic that I even saw in the little white-sand patches at KM 28.

The chamizal was the only area where I saw the distinct duidae taxon of Fuscous Flycatcher, and Juan Diaz advises they are very sparse in accessible parts of Allp-M. The whole general area of the chamizal and the first 500m of trail in the varillal at KM 25 were the best bet for most white-sand specialties, such as Yellow-browed Antbird (common), Pearly Antshrike (2 occ., though I didn’t figure out its call), Brown-banded Puffbird (2 occ.), Pied Puffbird (1 occ., not a varillal species per se), Yellow-throated Woodpecker (ca. 4 occ., frequents sandy soil in Allp-M), Ruddy Spinetail (ca. 4 occ., in sandy soil here in Allp-M), Rufous-capped Anttrush (3 occ., always silent; terra firme bird that also likes sandy soil), Pompadour Cotinga (ca. 4 occ.) and Yellow-throated Flycatcher (2 occ.).

However, other white-sand species were primarily or only seen at the spadebill intersection or a little bit in from there (on the trail that goes off to the right), such as Plumbeous Euphonia (2 occ.), Saffron-crested Tyrant-Manakin (reasonably common once call is learnt), Neopipo’s vocalizations (never saw it) and Zimmer’s Tody-Tyrant (common by voice though rarely seen well)… In fact the trail bit between the Agricultural Trial Station and the spadebill intersection often had antswarms (Bicolored Antbird, once also a White-plumed and a female Lunulated Antbird), and was otherwise remarkable on account of its raucous Black-headed Parrots, a heard-only Thrush-like Antpitta, Yellow-backed Tanager (3 occ.) and frequent Yellow-billed Jacamars (ca. 5 occ.).

The forest along many parts of the trail at KM 28 is of a different plant composition, therefore bird species were different from KM 25. Some of the species I primarily or exclusively saw here (and not at KM 25) are – most notably – Black-faced Hawk (1 occ.), Lined Forest-Falcon (1 occ.), Gould’s Jewelfront (5 occ.), but also Cinereous Tinamou, Black-throated Hermit, Ivory-billed Aracari (apparently of the southern Amazonian “Brown-mandibled” plumage type, though Allp-M is north of the river!), Scaly-breasted Woodpecker (1), Buff-throated Woodcreeper, Cinereous Antshrike, Stipple-throated Antwren (ca. 5 occ.), Warbling Antbird (1 occ.), Reddish-winged Bare-eye (1 occ.), Rusty-belted Tapaculo (1 occ.), Dwarf Tyrant-Manakin (heard only), Southern Nightingale-Wren and Coraya Wren.

Other noteworthy species seen in the general area include Zone-tailed Hawk (1), Short-tailed Hawk, Black-bellied Cuckoo, Tropical and Tawny-bellied Screech-owl, Crested Owl (the latter heard only), Straight-billed Hermit, White-necked Jacobin, Paradise Jacamar, Chestnut Woodpecker, Lineated (1), Red-necked (1) and Crimson-crested (1) Woodpecker, Plain Xenops, Buff-throated Foliage-gleaner, Staright-billed and Plain-brown Woodcreeper, Lineated Woodcreeper, Fasciated Antshrike, Mouse-colored and Plain-winged Antshrike, Plain-throated Antwren, Gray Antwren, Black-faced Antbird, Spot-winged Antbird (2 occ. at stream crossings) Scale-backed Antbird, White-browed Purpletuft, Screaming Piha, White-crowned, Blue-crowned and Golden-headed Manakin, Wing-barred Piprites, Yellow-crowned Tyrannulet, Forest Elaenia, Double-banded Pygmy-Tyrant, Ochre-bellied Flycatcher, Rufous-tailed Flatbill (1), Yellow-margined and Gray-crowned Flycatcher, Citron-bellied Attila (only 1 seen, though heard commonly), Swainson’s Flycatcher (2 at the Trial Station), Sulphury Flycatcher (2 occ.), Thrush-like Schiffornis (2 occ., never vocalizing), Black-capped (common) and White-winged (1) Becard, Dusky-capped Greenlet, White-necked Thrush, White-vented and Rufous-bellied Euphonia, Opal-rumped and Opal-crowned Tanager, as well as Short-billed and Purple Honeycreeper.

No site list; please refer to trip list at the end.

12 Apr, 4 May, 24 May 06: Quistococha

I visited this oxbow lake (now a touristy recreational resort) just outside the gates of Iquitos on three occasions, mostly during my dengue-like infection – on days when I felt slightly better and wanted to escape my hotel room in Iquitos. Most of the commoner secondary-growth species listed for Allp-M were also seen here, and additionally a few common water-associated birds (such as Ringed Kingfisher), but generally the birding was low-key, with the best species possibly Cinnamon-throated Woodcreeper, Speckled Chachalaca and Laughing Falcon. I never saw the Amazonian Parrotlets recorded around here, though other parrots were numerous. A tape effort to see palmcreeper was equally unsuccessful.

On another front, a curious incident happened on my second visit when staff of the recreational zoo noticed their jaguar had been killed overnight and its head severed. All employees were assembled and the man responsible for the jaguar cage was fired to set an example.

No site list; please refer to trip list at the end.

10 May 06: River Island Trip along Amazon near Iquitos (=“Iquitos”)

River islands in the Amazon and its bigger tributaries have increasingly been recognized as a discrete habitat for an endemic Amazonian avifauna. However, most of these birds are only likely to be seen on a specialized boat trip, and it always helps to have someone along who knows the vocalizations and exact habitat requirements of the target species, since they differ in terms of which successional stages they inhabit. On one morning I hired a boat (by the hour) and went out with Juan Diaz along the Amazon opposite from Iquitos Harbour. We succeeded in seeing most of the species I was interested in studying more closely: Olive-spotted Hummingbird, Lesser Hornero, White-bellied and Parker’s Spinetail, Red-and-white Spinetail, Black-and-white Antbird, River Tyrannulet, Spotted Tody-Flycatcher, River Island Fuscous Flycatcher, White-headed Marsh-Tyrant and Bicolored Conebill. Orange-headed Tanagers can even be seen from riverside restaurants along the Boulevard in Iquitos. Other remarkable species included Lesser Yellow-headed Vulture, Zone-tailed Hawk, Yellow-headed Caracara, White-backed Stilt, Yellow-billed Tern, Large-billed Tern, Little Woodpecker, White-browed Purpletuft, Vermilion Flycatcher, White-eyed Attila, Chestnut-bellied Seedeater and Grayish Saltator.

No site list; please refer to trip list at the end.

14-21 May 06: Explorama Lodge, ACTS Field Station (=“Expl-L”)

Two weeks into my dengue-like infection, I grew increasingly restless as I felt precious field time being wasted to disease. I had a permit from the Explorama people for the private reserves at Explorama Lodge and the ACTS field station. So when the doctors had prescribed some trial medication, and when it was time to wait for lab results to come in, I felt as if I could dare leave Iquitos for a 6-day reduced-fee student package to these two lodges. The medication turned out useless, and a few of the days in the field resulted very painful and tough. Nevertheless, I don’t regret taking advantage of this unique opportunity to visit the lodges, as I managed to find an amazing variety of good species in spite of the muscle pain and fatigue.

ACTS: It was disappointing to see that even out here in ACTS pristine habitat was restricted to the boundaries of the private reserve, which is surrounded by a 3-meter-wide treeless line along its perimeter. Outside this line, habitat has been transformed into plantations or secondary growth. Four of the six days were spent at the field station. ACTS has nearby access to the amazing half-kilometer Canopy Walkway. Though the walkway was crowded in the late mornings by tourists from the nearby ExplorNapo Lodge, early mornings and the odd afternoon activity peak would provide fantastic looks at canopy dwellers otherwise only seen as specks in the sky: The best species were doubtless Dugand’s and Moustached (=Short-billed) Antwren (in the same trees as Pygmy Antwrens!), while other canopy birds included Black-headed and Blue-headed Parrot, Black-bellied Cuckoo, Yellow-ridged and Couvier’s Toucan, Dusky-capped Greenlet, Slender-footed Tyrannulet, Yellow-margined Flycatcher and a surprise pair of Yellow-breasted Flycatchers (possibly unexpected here, but seen and heard well).

One of the big specialties here at ACTS is Nocturnal Curassow, which has to be found during spot-lighting at night. May is a bad time, as they go without calling for several nights on end. I ended up telling the walkway wardens (who spend all night out at the walkway) to wake me once they hear an individual. Indeed, on the very last night, one started calling at 22.00 p.m. and we managed to track it down and see two individuals well. Unfortunately, other night-birds were not as co-operative, so I only heard (but did not see) Black-banded Owl, Tawny-bellied Screech-owl, Long-tailed Potoo and Common Potoo.

A few hundred meters down the main trail from ACTS to ExplorNapo is the territory of an Ochre-striped Antpitta, which eventually came in to playback. This area also provided looks at a pair of Rusty-breasted Nunlets on two different days. Mixed flocks in this area held Grayish Mourner (heard only), Collared Gnatwren and Tawny-crowned Greenlets. Further down, where the trail passes a long boardwalk, is where I had my only Slate-colored Antbird and excellent views of a male Black-necked Red Cotinga. The trail down the little tributary from ACTS towards ExplorNapo had good treefalls by the stream, where some of the highlights included Black-throated Brilliant, a single Chestnut-capped Puffbird and Purple-throated Euphonia. The border line towards the nearby Indian community was a rewarding area, and the only place where I saw and heard a male Black Bushbird and a male Blue-backed Manakin. Similarly, the western border towards the plantation along the Napo is where playback provided good views of a Black-headed Antbird.

A paddling trip up the main tributary from ExplorNapo and into some varzea along the small tributary that connects with ACTS provided some great riverside and varzea birds, such as Bat Falcon, great looks at a vocalizing Ruddy Pigeon, White-bearded Hermit, Green-and-rufous Kingfisher, Speckled Spinetail, Long-billed Woodcreeper (heard only), Black-chinned Antbird and White-shouldered Antbird. A lot of time was spent paddling around trying to get good views of Orange-eyed Flycatchers that were constantly vocalizing around the boat dock area at ExplorNapo and a couple of hundred meters up the river. However, they just would not come into tape very well, so I had to content myself with modest views.

The ACTS lodge clearing held White-bearded Manakin. Antswarms in the forest attracted White-plumed and Bicolored Antbirds, on one occasion also Black-spotted Bare-eyes. Chestnut-belted Gnateater and Rusty-belted Tapaculo were seen and heard almost daily in higher ground once their call was learnt. Other good birds at ACTS included Greater Yellow-headed Vulture, Black and Red-throated Caracara, Speckled Chachalaca, Gray-fronted Dove, Straight-billed Hermit, White-nacked Jacobin, Fork-tailed Woodnymph, Golden-tailed Sapphire, Violaceous and White-tailed Trogon, Yellow-billed and Paradise Jacamar, Ivory-billed Aracari (this time the true northern Amazonian type), Many-banded Aracari, Golden-collared Toucanet, Red-stained Woodpecker, Yellow-throated Wodpecker, Chestnut and Cream-colored Woodpecker, Chestnut-winged Hookbill, Olive-backed Foliage-gleaner, Amazonian Barred and Black-banded Woodcreeper, Fasciated Antshrike, Plain-winged Antshrike, Spot-winged Antshrike, Saturnine Antshrike (commonly mixed with Cinereous Antshrike), Plain-throated and White-flanked Antwren, Gray Antwren, Black-faced and Warbling Antbird, Sooty and Scale-backed Antbird, Black-faced and Noble Antthrush (both heard only), Thrush-like Antpitta (common), White-crowned Manakin, Blue-crowned and Golden-headed Manakin, Dwarf Tyrant-Manakin, Yellow-crowned Tyrannulet, Ochre-bellied Flycatcher, Sepia-capped Flycatcher, Double-banded Pygmy-Tyrant, Gray-crowned Flycatcher (heard only), Ruddy-tailed Flycatcher, Dusky-chested Flycatcher, Crowned Slaty-Flycatcher, Thrush-like Schiffornis, Chestnut-crowned Becard, Coraya Wren, Southern Nightingale-Wren (heard only), White-necked Thrush, Fulvous Shrike-Tanager, Fulvous-crested and Flame-crested Tanager, Red-crowned Ant-Tanager, White-vented and Rufous-bellied Euphonia, Masked Crimson and Swallow Tanager, Slate-colored Grosbeak, Bue-black Grosbeak and Moriche Oriole.

Explorama: At Explorama Lodge, habitat is much less pristine than at ACTS, with mostly secondary forest around. An afternoon was spent along the circular trail that goes into some higher terra-firme-like forest, though little was seen apart from Crimson-crested Woodpecker, Plain Xenops and Gray Antbird (the latter of which was also seen at ACTS).

Flooded forest down at the lodge could not be entered as the water level was at a 4-year high, but limited viewing from the boardwalks provided Buff-breasted Wren. At the generator building, a pair of Turdus thrush was seen attending a juvenile that had peculiarly got caught in the fork of a branch. I picked up the juvenile and released it, but the adults stayed around and gave constant alarm calls, which I taped. I identified these thrushes as the species that is probably going to be depicted as Turdus spec. nov. in the forthcoming Peruvian guide by Schulenberg and O’Neill. This thrush seems to be an overlooked member of the Bare-eyed Thrush superspecies that is vocally distinct and approaches Hauxwell’s Thrush in plumage coloration (fide Dan Lane, personal communication). The adult birds I saw were characterized by an essentially all fox-brown plumage (except for a white vent and belly). The vent had darkish vermiculations, the throat was white with blackish stripes. The red eye seemed to lack a distinct eye-ring, and the tail was – at best – only slightly darker in tone than the rest of the upperparts. Bill color was strongly dependent on light conditions even at close range of up to 5 m, varying from all horn-gray in dark shade to yellowish on the distal two thirds of the bill in bright light.

The main attraction at Explorama is a boat trip to the river islands along the Amazon and up into some varzea forest. It is imperative to have all your targets’ vocalizations ready to play, and to have a general idea of where to find which species. Ill-prepared, I saw much fewer riverside specialists during this sortie than when I went out with Juan Diaz in Iquitos. A couple of White-eared Jacamars proved the highlight, followed by Olive-spotted Hummingbird and a few Scarlet-crowned Barbets, while other goodies included Black-collared Hawk, Lesser Yellow-headed Vulture, Wattled Jacana, Large-billed Tern, Blue-winged Parrotlet, a lot of Canary-winged Parakeets, Lesser Hornero, Dark-breasted Spinetail, Bare-necked Fruitcrow, Large Elaenia, River Island Fuscous Flycatcher, White-eyed Attila, austral migratory Streaked Flycatchers, Red-capped Cardinal and Yellow-hooded Blackbird.

No site list; please refer to trip list at the end.

31 May 06: Ticlio Pass

As most of May was spent in Iquitos trying to recuperate from my infection, there was no more time to visit south-eastern Peru for some more fieldwork. The last few days in Lima were invested in follow-up exams at a better hospital and wrapping up things with our study collaborators. Fortunately, I was able to arrange for one last morning in the field, going up to Ticlio Pass along the Central Highway (by bus) with Swedish expatriate Martin Dahl to search for Diademed Sandpiper-Plover. He knew the approximate location where they are sporadically seen in a boggy side valley a few hundred meters off the main road a short way before the pass. We failed, but saw instead ca. 5 Puna Snipe and one Gray-breasted Seedsnipe. This area was also replete with White-winged Diuca-Finch and cinclodes; we tallied at least eight different individuals of White-bellied Cinclodes, next to numerous Bar-winged and White-winged Cinclodes and a single White-fronted Ground-Tyrant. We eventually walked further down from here in search of Junin Canastero, which we encountered in areas of denser bunchgrass stands. A patch of boggy ground down here was very productive with Andean Tit-Spinetail, Taczanowski’s Ground-Tyrant, as well as Peruvian and Plumbeous Sierra-Finch. Rocky bits nearby yielded a Cordilleran Canastero, Black-breasted Hillstar and Chiguanco Thrush.

No site list; please refer to trip list at the end.


My visit to Peru could not have been as successful as it was without the help, assistance and input of so many people. I would like to express my gratitude to Dan Lane (Louisiana) for giving me feedback on numerous ornithological questions and queries I had in the course of my field stay, even in situations where he had little time to answer. Thomas Schulenberg gave Dan permission to provide me with copies of the plates of their forthcoming opus on Peruvian birds, and I thank both of them for their kind help.

I am indebted to the people at INRENA, in particular Señora Espinosa in Lima, Eduardo de la Cadena in Oxapampa, Señor García in Tumbes and Jorge Paredes in Rioja, but also all the other local INRENA jefes for granting me research permits. Eric Cosio from Lima was instrumental in the process of obtaining these permits and pointing me in the right direction whenever I got to a dead end; he and his partner Waltraud kindly invited me to an excellent dinner at their home while I was in Lima. Armando Valdes of Cayetano Heredia University deserves warm thanks for collaborating on this project. Alexis Nuñez provided me with a lot of good advice in the planning stages. His partner Narda Casaverde and her family welcomed me into their home during my time in Lima and were great hosts.

In Lima, Melina Raffael and Gloria Betzabe helped me speed up things considerably with their appreciated assistance and local knowledge. Gunnar Engblom kindly granted me a reduced fee for participation at his great Lima Pelagic. Fernando Angulo was invaluable in organizing my visit to Quebrada Limón near Olmos. The military personnel at El Caucho and Campo Verde in Tumbes Reserve let me stay at their posts free of charge and gave me food. Robert Ridgely, Lelis Navarrete and the remaining Jocotoco group are gratefully acknowledged for letting me tag along on their jeep for a couple of days in Buenaventura, and for providing great field company and invaluable bird information. Hector Quispe deserves warm thanks for his field companionship in Abra Patricia and for letting me stay at his apartment in Rioja. Juan Pérez at Abra Patricia made our field visit work out smoothly. Julissa Zegarra is warmly acknowledged for helping with fieldwork in the Rioja area. Juan Diaz was of invaluable assistance in locating difficult birds around Iquitos, and was great company. I thank Pepe Alvarez for his warm hospitality and for his collaboration in the project. Lizzie Chuk and Amidey Ferreira showed me good areas in Quistococha. The Explorama people did a great job in granting me a reduced-price student access permit to ACTS in less time than usual. The wardens at Allpahuayo-Mishana (Neiser, Don Alfredo, Julio) welcomed me into their headquarters and kindly shared their food with me. And without the priceless advice and mediation by Yesenia Morales I would probably still be queuing up with fever at a government-run hospital in Iquitos. Thanks to Martin Dahl for sharing a pleasant day in the field at Ticlio Pass on my last full day.


All species seen!

1. Pale-browed Tinamou – Crypturellus transfasciatus: Tumbes
2. Cinereous Tinamou – Crypturellus cinereus: Allp-M
3. Andean Tinamou – Nothoprocta pentlandii: Zárate
4. Humboldt Penguin – Spheniscus humboldti: Paracas, Lima Pelagic
5. Great Grebe – Podiceps major: Lima
6. Least Grebe – Tachybaptus dominicus: Villa Rica
7. Pied-billed Grebe – Podilymbus podiceps: Lima
8. Waved Albatross – Phoebastria irrorata: Lima Pelagic
9. White-chinned Petrel – Procellaria aequinoctialis: Lima Pelagic
10. Pink-footed Shearwater – Puffinus creatopus: Lima Pelagic
11. Sooty Shearwater – Puffinus griseus: Lima Pelagic
12. Wilson’s Storm-Petrel – Oceanites oceanicus: Lima Pelagic
13. Storm-Petrel spec. – Oceanodroms spec.: Lima Pelagic; either Markham’s or Black Storm-Petrel; tail didn’t appear too deeply forked, carpal bars indistinct but apparently reaching joint; first identified as Markham’s but after pelagic G. Engblom asserted bars should be much more conspicuous in that species
14. White-vented Storm-Petrel – Oceanites gracilis: Lima Pelagic
15. Wedge-rumped Storm-Petrel – Oceanodroma tethys: Lima Pelagic
16. Hornby’s Storm-Petrel – Oceanodroma hornbyi: Lima Pelagic
17. Peruvian Diving-Petrel – Pelecanoides garnotii: Lima Pelagic
18. Peruvian Pelican – Pelecanus thagus: Lima, Paracas
19. Peruvian Booby – Sula variegata: Paracas, Lima Pelagic
20. Neotropic Cormorant – Phalacrocorax brasilianus: Tumbes, Lima, Paracas
21. Guanay Cormorant – Phalacrocorax bougainvillii: Paracas, Lima Pelagic
22. Red-legged Cormorant – Phalacrocorax gaimardi: Paracas, Lima Pelagic
23. Magnificent Frigatebird – Fregata magnificens: Tumbes
24. Cocoi Heron – Ardea cocoi: Tumbes, Piura
25. Great Egret – Casmerodius albus: Tumbes, Lima, Paracas, Jaén, Iquitos
26. Snowy Egret – Egretta thula: Tumbes, Lima, Paracas, Piura, Jaén
27. Tricolored Heron – Egretta tricolour: Tumbes
28. Little Blue Heron – Egretta caerulea: Tumbes, Lima
29. Cattle Egret – Bubulcus ibis: Lima, Paracas, Piura, Jaén, Calzada, Juan Guerra
30. Striated Heron – Butorides striatus: Tumbes, Lima, Paracas, Villa Rica, Piura, Jaén Area, Iquitos
31. Black-crowned Night-Heron – Nycticorax nycticorax: Paracas, Lima, Villa Rica
32. Fasciated Tiger-Heron – Tigrisoma fasciatum: Yanachaga, Abra Patricia
33. Least Bittern – Ixobrychus exilis: Chao
34. White Ibis – Eudocimus albus: Tumbes
35. Puna Ibis – Plegadis ridgwayi: Lima
36. Roseate Spoonbill – Ajaia ajaja: Tumbes
37. Chilean Flamingo – Phoenicopterus chilensis: Tumbes
38. Andean Goose – Chloephaga melanoptera: Satipo Rd
39. White-cheeked Pintail – Anas bahamensis: Tumbes, Lima
40. Cinnamon Teal – Anas cyanoptera: Lima
41. Andean Condor – Vultur gryphus: Pampa Galeras, Zárate
42. Black Vulture – Coragyps atratus: coast, Maranon Valley, east slope, Iquitos
43. Turkey Vulture – Cathartes aura: coast, east slope, Maranon Valley, Iquitos
44. Lesser Yellow-headed vulture – Cathartes burrovianus: Iquitos, Expl-L
45. Greater Yellow-headed Vulture – Cathartes melambrotus: Expl-L
46. King Vulture – Sarcoramphus papa: Tumbes
47. Osprey – Pandion haliaetus: Lima, Paracas
48. Swallow-tailed Kite – Elanoides forficatus: Tumbes, Buenaventura, Abra Patricia, Juan Guerra, Tunel, Iquitos, Expl-L
49. Plumbeous Kite – Ictinia plumbea: Tumbes, Buenaventura, Allp-M, Expl-L
50. Double-toothed Kite – Harpagus bidentatus: Allp-M
51. Hook-billed Kite – Chondrohierax uncinatus: Yanachaga, Juan Guerra
52. Crane Hawk – Geranospiza caerulescens: Tumbes
53. Barred Hawk – Leucopternis princeps: Buenaventura
54. Gray-backed Hawk – Leucopternis occidentalis: Buenaventura
55. White Hawk – Leucopternis albicollis: Tunel
56. Black-faced Hawk – Leucopternis melanops: Allp-M
57. Great Black Hawk – Buteogallus urubitinga: Tumbes
58. Black-collared Hawk – Busarellus nigricollis: Expl-L
59. Harris’ Hawk – Parabuteo unicinctus: Tumbes, Paracas, Lima
60. Zone-tailed Hawk – Buteo albonotatus: Allp-M, Iquitos
61. Short-tailed Hawk – Buteo brachyurus: Tumbes, Allp-M
62. Variable Hawk – Buteo polyosoma: Yungay
63. Roadside Hawk – Buteo magnirostris: Villa Rica, Buenaventura, Maranon Valley, Abra Patricia, Calzada, Tunel, Juan Guerra, Allp-M, Iquitos, Expl-L
64. Black-chested Buzzard-eagle – Geranoaetus melanoleucus: Lomas de Lachay, Jatumpampa
65. Laughing Falcon – Herpetotheres cachinnans: Quistococha
66. Collared Forest-Falcon – Micrastur semitorquatus: Tumbes
67. Lined Forest-Falcon – Micrastur gilvicollis: Allp-M
68. American Kestrel – Falco sparverius: Lomas de Lachay, Lima, Paracas, Zárate, Chao, Sinsicap, Porculla
69. Peregrine – Falco peregrinus: Paracas
70. Orange-breasted Falcon – Falco deiroleucus: Yanachaga, Villa Rica
71. Bat Falcon – Falco rufigularis: Expl-L
72. Aplomado Falcon – Falco femoralis: Jatumpampa
73. Mountain Caracara – Phalcoboenus megalopterus: Pampa Galeras
74. Northern Crested Caracara – Caracara cheriway: Buenaventura, Huancabamba
75. Black Caracara – Daptrius ater: Calzada, Allp-M, Expl-L
76. Red-throated Caracara – Daptrius americanus: Expl-L
77. Yellow-headed Caracara – Milvago chimachima: Allp-M, Iquitos
78. Rufous-headed Chachalaca – Ortalis erythroptera: Tumbes, Buenaventura
79. Speckled Chachalaca – Ortalis guttata: Villa Rica, Juan Guerra, Quistococha, Expl-L
80. Sickle-winged Guan – Chamaepetes goudotii: Villa Rica
81. Spix’s Guan – Penelope jacquacu: Allp-M
82. Crested Guan – Penelope purpurascens: Tumbes
83. White-winged Guan – Penelope albipennis: Limón
84. Nocturnal Curassow – Nothocrax urumutum: Expl-L
85. Rufous-fronted Wood-Quail – Odontophorus erythrops: Buenaventura
86. Clapper Rail – Rallus longirostris: Tumbes
87. Common Moorhen – Gallinula chloropus: Lima, Villa Rica
88. Andean Coot – Fulica ardesiaca: Lima
89. Wattled Jacana – Jacana jacana: Expl-L
90. Least Seedsnipe – Thinocorus rumicivorus: Lomas de Lachay
91. Gray-breasted Seedsnipe – Thinocorus orbignyianus: Pampa Galeras, Ticlio
92. Peruvian Thick-knee – Burhinus superciliaris: Lima, Chao, Limón
93. American Oystercatcher – Haematopus palliatus: Lima, Paracas
94. Blackish Oystercatcher – Haematopus ater: Lima Pelagic
95. Black-necked Stilt – Himantopus mexicanus: Tumbes, Chao, Piura
96. White-backed Stilt – Himantopus melanurus: Iquitos
97. Andean Lapwing – Vanellus resplendens: Pampa Galeras, Satipo Rd, Ticlio
98. Killdeer – Charadrius vociferous: Lima, Paracas, Chao
99. Semipalmated Plover – Charadrius semipalmatus: Paracas
100. Snowy Plover – Charadrius alexandrinus nivosus: Paracas
101. Wilson’s Plover – Charadrius wilsonia: Tumbes
102. Puna Snipe – Gallinago andina: Ticlio
103. Whimbrel – Numenius phaeopus: Tumbes, Paracas
104. Spotted Sandpiper – Actitis macularia: Tumbes, Lima, Paracas, Villa Rica, Piura
105. Willet – Tringa semipalmata: Tumbes, Lima
106. Least Sandpiper – Calidris minutilla: Tumbes
107. Semipalmated Sandpiper – Calidris pusilla: Paracas
108. Western Sandpiper – Calidris mauri: Paracas
109. Sanderling – Calidris alba: Paracas
110. Ruddy Turnstone – Arenaria interpres: Lima, Paracas
111. Pomarine Jaeger – Stercorarius pomarinus: Lima Pelagic
112. Parasitic Jaeger – Stercorarius parasiticus: Lima Pelagic
113. Band-tailed Gull – Larus belcheri: Lima, Paracas
114. Gray Gull – Larus modestus: Paracas, Lima Pelagic
115. Kelp Gull – Larus dominicanus: Lima, Paracas
116. Gray-headed Gull – Larus cirrocephalus: Lima, Paracas, Piura
117. Franklin’s Gull – Larus pipixcan: Tumbes, Lima, Paracas
118. Andean Gull – Larus serranus: Satipo Rd
119. Sabine’s Gull – Xema sabini: Lima Pelagic
120. Swallow-tailed Gull – Creagrus furcatus: Lima Pelagic
121. Sandwich Tern – Sterna sandvicensis: Lima, Paracas
122. Royal Tern – Sterna maxima: Tumbes, Paracas
123. Elegant Tern – Sterna elegans: Lima Pelagic
124. Common Tern – Sterna hirundo: Lima Pelagic
125. Peruvian Tern – Sterna lorata: Paracas
126. Yellow-billed Tern – Sterna superciliaris: Iquitos
127. Black Tern – Chlidonias niger: Lima Pelagic
128. Large-billed Tern – Phaetusa simplex: Iquitos, Expl-L
129. Inca Tern – Larosterna inca: Paracas, Lima Pelagic
130. White-throated Quail-Dove – Geotrygon frenata: Yanachaga
131. Ruddy Quail-Dove – Geotrygon montana: Allp-M
132. Scaled Pigeon – Patagioenas speciosa: Tumbes
133. Band-tailed Pigeon – Patagioenas fasciata: Zárate, Yanachaga, Yungay, Porculla, Abra Patricia
134. Plumbeous Pigeon – Patagioenas plumbea: Allp-M
135. Ruddy Pigeon – Patagioenas subvinacea: Expl-L
136. Eared Dove – Zenaida auriculata: Lomas de Lachay, Lima, Chao, Porculla, Huancabamba
137. Pacific Dove – Zenaida meloda: Lima, Paracas, Zárate, Chao, Limón, Piura
138. Ecuadorian Ground-Dove – Columbina buckleyi: Tumbes, Jaén Area
139. Plain-breasted Ground-Dove – Columbina minuta: Chao, Juan Guerra
140. Croaking Ground-Dove – Columbina cruziana: Lomas de Lachay, Lima, Paracas, Zárate, Chao, Sinsicap, Limón, Jaén Area
141. Ruddy Ground-Dove – Columbina talpacoti: Villa Rica, Rioja, Calzada, Juan Guerra, Allp-M
142. Bare-faced Ground-Dove – Metriopelia ceciliae: Lomas de Lachay
143. Blue Ground-Dove – Claravis pretiosa: Tumbes, Jaén Area, Calzada, Allp-M
144. White-tipped Dove – Leptotila verreauxi: Tumbes, Villa Rica, Limón, Jaén Area, Calzada, Tunel
145. Ochre-bellied Dove – Leptotila ochraceiventris: Tumbes
146. Pallid Dove – Leptotila pallida: Tumbes
147. Gray-fronted Dove – Leptotila rufaxilla: Expl-L
148. Pacific Parrotlet – Forpus coelestis: Lima, Sinsicap, Limón, Huancabamba, Jaén Area
149. Blue-winged Parrotlet – Forpus xanthopterygius: Expl-L
150. White-eyed Parakeet – Aratinga leucophthalmus: Villa Rica, Abra Patricia, Aguas Verdes, Juan Guerra
151. Scarlet-fronted Parakeet – Aratinga wagleri: Lima, Huancabamba
152. Mitred Parakeet – Aratinga mitrata: Pedro Ruiz, Pomacochas
153. Red-masked Parakeet – Aratinga erythrogenys: Tumbes, Limón, Buenaventura
154. Dusky-headed Parakeet – Aratinga weddellii: Allp-M, Iquitos
155. Mountain Parakeet – Bolborhynchus aurifrons: Lima, Sinsicap
156. Cobalt-winged Parakeet – Brotogeris cyanoptera: (gustavi) Calzada; (cyanoptera) Allp-M, Quistococha, Expl-L, Iquitos
157. Canary-winged Parakeet – Brotogeris versicolurus: Expl-L
158. El Oro Parakeet – Pyrrhura orcesi: Buenaventura
159. Bronze-winged Parrot – Pionus chalcopterus: Tumbes, Buenaventura
160. Red-billed Parrot – Pionus sordidus: Buenaventura, Abra Patricia
161. White-capped Parrot – Pionus seniloides: Sapalache
162. Blue-headed Parrot – Pionus menstruus: Expl-L
163. Black-headed Parrot – Pionites melanocephalus: Allp-M, Expl-L
164. Black-billed Cuckoo – Coccyzus erythropthalmus: Tumbes
165. Gray-capped Cuckoo – Coccyzus lansbergi: Tumbes
166. Squirrel Cuckoo – Piaya cayana: Tumbes, Yanachaga, Villa Rica, Buenaventura, Afluente, Aguas Verdes, Calzada, Juan Guerra, Tunel, Allp-M, Expl-L
167. Black-bellied Cuckoo – Piaya melanogaster: Allp-M, Expl-L
168. Greater Ani – Crotophaga major: Juan Guerra, Expl-L
169. Groove-billed Ani – Crotophaga sulcirostris: Tumbes, Lima, Paracas, Chao, Piura, Jaén Area, Pedro Ruiz
170. Smooth-billed Ani – Crotophaga ani: Yanachaga, Villa Rica, Calzada, Aguas Verdes, Juan Guerra, Tunel, Allp-M, Iquitos, Expl-L
171. Barn Owl – Tyto alba: Tumbes, Rioja
172. Burrowing Owl – Athene cunicularia: Chao, Limón
173. Peruvian Screech-owl – Megascops roboratus: Tumbes
174. Koepcke’s Screech-owl – Megascops koepckeae: Zárate
175. Tropical Screech-owl – Megascops choliba: Allp-M
176. Tawny-bellied Screech-owl – Megascops watsonii: Allp-M
177. Ferruginous Pygmy-Owl – Glaucidium brasilianum: Aguas Verdes
178. Scrub Nightjar – Caprimulgus anthonyi: Tumbes, Limón
179. Band-winged Nightjar – Caprimulgus longirostris: Pampa Galeras
180. Pauraque – Nyctidromus albicollis: Buenaventura
181. Lesser Nighthawk – Chordeiles acutipennis: Chao
182. White-collared Swift – Streptoprocne zonaris: Tumbes, Pedro Ruiz, Aguas Verdes
183. Chestnut-collared Swift – Cypseloides rutilus: Pedro Ruiz, Calzada
184. Tumbes Swift – Chaetura ocypetes: Tumbes
185. Short-tailed Swift – Chaetura brachyuran: Juan Guerra, Allp-M
186. Gray-rumped Swift – Chaetura cinereiventris: Buenaventura, Rioja
187. White-tipped Swift – Aeronautes montivagus: Pedro Ruiz, Tunel
188. Lesser Swallow-tailed Swift – Panyptila cayennensis: Tumbes, Expl-L
189. Fork-tailed Palm Swift – Tachornis squamata: Rioja, Calzada, Aguas Verdes, Allp-M
190. Baron’s Hermit – Phaethornis baroni: Tumbes, Buenaventura
191. White-whiskered Hermit – Phaethornis yaruqui: Buenaventura
192. White-bearded Hermit – Phaethornis hispidus: Expl-L
193. Green Hermit – Phaethornis guy: Afluente, Aguas Verdes
194. Black-throated Hermit – Phaethornis atrimentalis: Allp-M
195. Koepcke’s Hermit – Phaethornis koepckeae: Calzada, Tunel
196. Planalto Hermit – Phaethornis pretrei: Juan Guerra
197. Straight-billed Hermit – Phaethornis bourcieri: Allp-M, Expl-L
198. Porculla Hermit – Phaethornis (griseogularis) porcullae: Tumbes, Porculla
199. White-tipped Sicklebill – Eutoxeres aquila: Buenaventura, Afluente
200. Green-fronted Lancebill – Doryfera ludovicae: Abra Patricia
201. White-necked Jacobin – Florisuga mellivora: Buenaventura, Calzada, Allp-M, Expl-L
202. Purple-crowned Fairy – Heliothryx barroti: Buenaventura
203. Long-billed Starthroat – Heliomaster longirostris: Buenaventura
204. Violet-bellied Hummingbird – Damophila julie: Tumbes, Buenaventura
205. Violet-headed Hummingbird – Klais guimeti: Tunel
206. Bearded Mountaineer – Oreonympha nobilis: Jatumpampa
207. Oasis Hummingbird – Rhodopis vesper: Lomas de Lachay
208. Andean Emerald – Amazilia franciae: Buenaventura
209. Amazilia Hummingbird – Amazilia amazilia: Tumbes, Lima, Chao, Sinsicap, Porculla, Limón
210. Rufous-tailed Hummingbird – Amazilia tzacatl: Buenaventura
211. Tumbes Hummingbird – Leucippus baeri: Limón
212. Spot-throated Hummingbird – Leucippus taczanowskii: Huancabamba, Jaén Area
213. Olive-spotted Hummingbird – Leucippus chlorocercus: Iquitos, Expl-L
214. White-vented Plumeleteer – Chalybura buffonii: Tumbes, Buenaventura
215. Black-breasted Hillstar – Oreotrochilus melanogaster: Ticlio
216. Speckled Hummingbird – Adelomyia melanogenys: (melanogenys) Yanachaga, Villa Rica, Porculla, Abra Patricia; (maculata) Sinsicap
217. Fawn-breasted Brilliant – Heliodoxa rubinoides: Buenaventura, Abra Patricia
218. Violet-fronted Brilliant – Heliodoxa leadbeateri: Abra Particia
219. Green-crowned Brilliant – Heliodoxa jacula: Buenaventura
220. Black-throated Brilliant – Heliodoxa schreibersii: Expl-L
221. Sparkling Violetear – Colibri coruscans: Villa Rica, Sinsicap, Huancabamba
222. Green Violetear – Colibri thalassinus: Pomacochas
223. Brown Violetear – Colibri delphinae: Buenaventura
224. Ecuadorian Piedtail – Phlogophilus hemileucurus: Afluente
225. Chestnut-breasted Coronet – Boissonneaua matthewsii: Yanachaga, Abra Patricia
226. Velvet-purple Coronet – Boissonneaua jardini: Buenaventura
227. Bronzy Inca – Coeligena coeligena: Yanachaga, Abra Patricia
228. Brown Inca – Coeligena wilsoni: Buenaventura
229. Collared Inca – Coeligena torquata: Yanachaga, Sapalache, Abra Patricia
230. Violet-throated Starfrontlet – Coeligena violifer: Satipo Rd
231. Buff-winged Starfrontlet – Coeligena lutetiae: Sapalache
232. Great Sapphirewing – Pterophanes cyanopterus: Satipo Rd
233. Giant Hummingbird – Patagona gigas: Satipo Rd, Yungay
234. Sword-billed Hummingbird – Ensifera ensifera: Yanachaga
235. Shining Sunbeam – Aglaeactis cupripennis: Yungay
236. Amethyst-throated Sunangel – Heliangelus amethysticollis: Yanachaga, Satipo Rd
237. Little Sunangel – Heliangelus micraster: Sapalache
238. Emerald-bellied Puffleg – Eriocnemis alinae: Yanachaga
239. Coppery-naped Puffleg – Eriocnemis sapphiropygia: Satipo Rd
240. Glowing Puffleg – Eriocnemis vestitus: Sapalache
241. Purple-backed Thornbill – Ramphomicron microrhynchum: Satipo Rd
242. Booted Racquet-tail – Ocreatus underwoodii: Villa Rica, Abra Patricia
243. Marvellous Spatuletail – Loddigesia mirabilis: Pomacochas
244. Black Metaltail – Metallura phoebe: Zárate, Yungay
245. Tyrian Metaltail – Metallura tyrianthina: Yanachaga, Sapalache
246. Neblina Metaltail – Metallura odomae: Sapalache
247. Fire-throated Metaltail – Metallura eupogon: Satipo Rd
248. Wedge-billed Hummingbird – Schistes geoffroyi: Buenaventura
249. Long-tailed Sylph – Aglaiocercus kingi: Yanachaga, Abra Patricia
250. Violet-tailed Sylph – Aglaiocercus coelestis: Buenaventura
251. Rufous-vented Whitetip – Urosticte rufocrissa: Abra Patricia
252. Emerald-bellied Woodnymph – Thalurania hypochlora: Buenaventura
253. Fork-tailed Woodnymph – Thalurania furcata: Tunel, Allp-M, Expl-L
254. Golden-tailed Sapphire – Chrysuronia oenone: Tunel, Expl-L
255. Gould’s Jewelfront – Heliodoxa aurescens: Allp-M
256. Green Thorntail – Popelairia conversii: Buenaventura
257. Blue-tailed Emerald – Chlorostilbon mellisugus: Villa Rica, Aguas Verdes
258. Purple-collared Woodstar – Myrtis fanny: Lomas de Lachay, Lima, Yungay, Sinsicap
259. Peruvian Sheartail – Thaumastura cora: Chao
260. Black-mandibled Toucan – Ramphastos ambiguus: Afluente
261. Yellow-ridged Toucan – Ramphastos vitellinus: Calzada, Expl-L
262. Couvier’s Toucan – Ramphastos tucanus couvieri: Allp-M, Expl-L
263. Blue-banded Toucanet – Aulacorhynchus coeruleicinctis: Yanachaga
264. Chestnut-tipped Toucanet – Aulacorhynchus derbianus: Villa Rica
265. Crimson-rumped Toucanet – Aulacorhynchus haematopygus: Buenaventura
266. Emerald Toucanet – Aulacorhynchus prasinus: Pomacochas, Abra Patricia
267. Golden-collared Toucanet – Selenidera reinwardtii: Aguas Verdes, Allp-M, Expl-L
268. Pale-mandibled Aracari – Pteroglossus erythropygius: Buenaventura
269. Lettered Aracari – Pteroglossus inscriptus: Rioja, Calzada, Juan Guerra, Allp-M
270. Many-banded Aracari – Pteroglossus pluricinctus: Allp-M, Expl-L
271. Chestnut-eared Aracari – Pteroglossus castanotis: Calzada, Allp-M
272. Ivory-billed Aracari – Pteroglossus azara: (mariae) Tunel, Allp-M (this race?); (flavirostris) Expl-L
273. Gray-breasted Mountain-Toucan – Andigena hypoglauca: Yanachaga
274. White-tailed Trogon – Trogon viridis: Calzada, Allp-M, Expl-L
275. Blue-crowned Trogon – Trogon curucui: Calzada
276. Violaceous Trogon – Trogon violaceus: Allp-M, Expl-L
277. Black-tailed Trogon – Trogon melanurus: Tumbes, Limón
278. Crested Quetzal – Pharomachrus antisianus: Abra Patricia
279. Golden-headed Quetzal – Pharomachrus auriceps: Abra Patricia
280. Chestnut-capped Puffbird – Bucco macrodactylus: Expl-L
281. Black-streaked Puffbird – Malacoptila fulvogularis: Abra Patricia
282. Brown-banded Puffbird – Notharchus ordii: Allp-M
283. Pied Puffbird – Notharchus tectus: Allp-M
284. Striolated Puffbird – Nystalus striolatus: Tunel
285. Swallow-wing – Chelidoptera tenebrosa: Calzada, Allp-M
286. Rufous-capped Nunlet – Nonnula ruficapilla: Aguas Verdes
287. Rusty-breasted Nunlet – Nonnula rubecula: Expl-L
288. Black-fronted Nunbird – Monasa nigrifrons: Juan Guerra, Expl-L
289. White-fronted Nunbird – Monasa morphoeus: Allp-M, Expl-L
290. Bluish-fronted Jacamar – Galbula cyanescens: Calzada, Tunel, Juan Guerra
291. Yellow-billed Jacamar – Galbula albirostris: Allp-M, Expl-L
292. Paradise Jacamar – Galbula dea: Allp-M, Expl-L
293. White-eared Jacamar – Galbalcyrhynchus leucotis: Expl-L
294. Gilded Barbat – Capito auratus: Calzada, Abra Patricia, Tunel, Allp-M, Expl-L
295. Scarlet-crowned Barbet – Capito aurovirens: Expl-L
296. Versicolored Barbet – Eubucco versicolor: Abra Patricia
297. Green Kingfisher – Chloroceryle americana: Tumbes
298. Green-and-rufous Kingfisher – Chloroceryle inda: Expl-L
299. Ringed Kingfisher – Megaceryle torquata: Jaén Area, Quistococha, Iquitos, Expl-L
300. Blue-crowned Motmot – Momotus momota: Tumbes, Limón
301. Highland Motmot – Momotus aequatorialis: Yanachaga
302. Rufous Motmot – Baryphthengus martii: Buenaventura, Allp-M
303. Ecuadorian Piculet – Picumnus sclateri: Tumbes, Porculla, Limón
304. Olivaceous Piculet – Picumnus olivaceus: Buenaventura
305. Ocellated Piculet – Picumnus dorbignyanus: Villa Rica
306. Lafresnaye’s Piculet – Picumnus lafresnayi: Calzada
307. Red-rumped Woodpecker – Veniliornis kirkii: Tumbes
308. Red-stained Woodpecker – Veniliornis affinis: Calzada, Tunel, Allp-M, Expl-L
309. Little Woodpecker – Veniliornis passerinus: Tunel, Iquitos
310. Scarlet-backed Woodpecker – Veniliornis callonotus: Limón
311. Yellow-throated Woodpecker – Piculus flavigula: Allp-M, Expl-L
312. Golden-olive Woodpecker – Piculus rubiginosus: Tumbes, Villa Rica, Limón, Buenaventura, Abra Patricia
313. Crimson-mantled Woodpecker – Piculus rivolii: Yanachaga
314. Smoky-brown Woodpecker – Picoides fumigatus: Buenaventura, Abra Patricia
315. Yellow-tufted Woodpecker – Melanerpes cruentatus: Villa Rica, Calzada, Aguas Verdes, Allp-M, Expl-L, Iquitos
316. Black-cheeked Woodpecker – Melanerpes pucherani: Buenaventura
317. Andean Flicker – Colaptes rupicola: Satipo Rd, Yungay, Sapalache
318. Black-necked Woodpecker – Colaptes atricollis: Sinsicap
319. Lineated Woodpecker – Dryocopus lineatus: Limón, Buenaventura, Aguas Verdes, Allp-M
320. Guayaquil Woodpecker – Campephilus gayaquilensis: Tumbes, Buenaventura
321. Red-necked Woodpecker – Campephilus rubricollis: Allp-M
322. Crimson-crested Woodpecker – Campephilus melanoleucos: Allp-M, Expl-L
323. Scaly-breasted Woodpecker – Celeus grammicus: Allp-M
324. Chestnut Woodpecker – Celeus elegans: Allp-M, Expl-L
325. Cream-colored Woodpecker – Celeus flavus: Expl-L
326. Thick-billed Miner – Geositta crassirostris: Lomas de Lachay
327. Grayish Miner – Geositta maritima: Lomas de Lachay
328. Coastal Miner – Geositta peruviana: Lomas de Lachay, Paracas, Chao
329. Striated Earthcreeper – Upucerthia serrana: Satipo Rd, Yungay
330. Peruvian Seaside-Cinclodes – Cinclodes taczanowskii: Paracas, Lima Pelagic
331. Bar-winged Cinclodes – Cinclodes fuscus: Yungay, Ticlio
332. White-winged Cinclodes – Cinclodes atacamensis: Ticlio
333. White-bellied Cinclodes – Cinclodes palliatus: Ticlio
334. Cactus Canastero – Asthenes cactorum: Lomas de Lachay
335. Dark-winged Canastero – Asthenes arequipae ssp. nov.: Pampa Galeras
336. Pale-tailed Canastero – Asthenes huancavelicae: (huncavelicae) Jatumpampa; (ssp. nov.) Yungay
337. Cordilleran Canastero – Asthenes modesta: Pampa Galeras, Ticlio
338. Canyon Canastero – Asthenes pudibunda: Zárate
339. Junin Canastero – Asthenes virgata: Ticlio
340. Many-striped Canastero – Asthenes flammulata: Sapalache
341. Rufous-fronted Thornbird – Phacellodomus rufifrons: Jaén Area, Rioja, Calzada, Juan Guerra
342. Pacific Hornero – Furnarius cinnamomeus: Tumbes, Porculla, Limón, Buenaventura, Piura, Jaén Area
343. Lesser Hornero – Furnarius minor: Iquitos, Expl-L
344. Eye-ringed Thistletail – Schizoeaca palpebralis: Satipo Rd
345. Mouse-colored Thistletail – Schizoeaca griseomurina: Sapalache
346. Azara’s Spinetail – Synallaxis azarae: Villa Rica, Buenaventura
347. Slaty Spinetail – Synallaxis brachyura: Buenaventura
348. Cabanis’ Spinetail – Synallaxis cabanisi: Villa Rica
349. Dark-breasted Spinetail – Synallaxis albigularis: Afluente, Abra Patricia, Aguas Verdes, Expl-L
350. Cinereous-breasted Spinetail – Synallaxis hypospodia: Calzada
351. Plain-crowned Spinetail – Synallaxis gujanensis: Villa Rica
352. Maranon Spinetail – Synallaxis maranonica: Jaén Area
353. Blackish-headed Spinetail – Synallaxis tithys: Tumbes
354. White-bellied Spinetail – Synallaxis propinqua: Iquitos
355. Ruddy Spinetail – Synallaxis rutilans: Allp-M
356. Rufous Spinetail – Synallaxis unirufa: Yanachaga
357. new Necklaced Spinetail taxon – Synallaxis [stictothorax]: Chao
358. Ash-browed Spinetail – Cranioleuca curtata: Yanachaga, Villa Rica, Afluente
359. Baron’s Spinetail – Cranioleuca baroni: Yungay
360. Line-cheeked Spinetail – Cranioleuca antisiensis: Porculla, Buenaventura
361. Creamy-crested Spinetail – Cranioleuca albicapilla: Satipo Rd
362. Parker’s Spinetail – Cranioleuca vulpecula: Iquitos
363. Speckled Spinetail – Cranioleuca gutturata: Expl-L
364. Red-and-white Spinetail – Certhiaxis mustelina: Iquitos
365. Andean Tit-Spinetail – Leptasthenura andicola: Ticlio
366. Rusty-crowned Tit-Spinetail – Leptasthenura pileata: (latistriata) Pampa Galeras; (pileata) Zárate
367. Streaked Tit-Spinetail – Leptasthenura striata albigularis: Jatumpampa
368. Pearled Treerunner – Margarornis squamiger: Yanachaga, Sapalache
369. Streaked Tuftedcheek – Pseudocolaptes boissonneautii: Yanachaga, Satipo Rd, Sapalache, Abra Patricia
370. Streaked Xenops – Xenops rutilans: Tumbes, Yanachaga, Villa Rica, Buenaventura, Afluente
371. Plain Xenops – Xenops minutus: Buenaventura, Calzada, Allp-M, Expl-L
372. Equatorial Graytail – Xenerpestes singularis: Abra Patricia
373. Spotted Barbtail – Premnoplex brunnescens: Abra Patricia
374. Montane Foliage-gleaner – Anabacerthia striaticollis: Villa Rica
375. Scaly-throated Foliage-gleaner – Anabacerthia variegaticeps: Buenaventura
376. Buff-throated Foliage-gleaner – Automolus ochrolaemus: Allp-M
377. Olive-backed Foliage-gleaner – Automolus infuscatus: Expl-L
378. Buff-browed Foliage-gleaner – Syndactyla rufosuperciliata: Yanachaga
379. Rufous-necked Foliage-gleaner – Syndactyla ruficollis: Porculla
380. Lineated Foliage-gleaner – Syndactyla subalaris: Buenaventura
381. Henna-hooded Foliage-gleaner – Hylocryptus erythrocephalus: Tumbes, Limón
382. Chestnut-winged Hookbill – Ancistrops strigilatus: Expl-L
383. Striped Treehunter – Thripadectes holostictus: Abra Patricia
384. Tyrannine Woodcreeper – Dendrocincla tyrannina: Yanachaga
385. Plain-brown Woodcreeper – Dendrocincla fuliginosa: Tumbes, Buenaventura, Allp-M
386. Olivaceous Woodcreeper – Sittasomus griseicapillus: Tumbes, Villa Rica, Afluente, Calzada
387. Wedge-billed Woodcreeper – Glyphorynchus spirurus: Buenaventura, Calzada, Allp-M, Expl-L
388. Long-tailed Woodcreeper – Deconychura longicauda: Allp-M
389. Amazonian Barred Woodcreeper – Dendrocolaptes certhia: Allp-M, Expl-L
390. Black-banded Woodcreeper – Dendrocolaptes picumnus: Expl-L
391. Strong-billed Woodcreeper – Xiphocolaptes promeropirhynchus: Tumbes, Abra Patricia
392. Spotted Woodcreeper – Xiphorhynchus erythropygius: Buenaventura
393. Olive-backed Woodcreeper – Xiphorhynchus triangularis: Abra Patricia
394. Straight-billed Woodcreeper – Xiphorhynchus picus: Allp-M
395. Buff-throated Woodcreeper – Xiphorhynchus guttatus: Allp-M
396. Streak-headed Woodcreeper – Lepidocolaptes souleyetii: Tumbes, Limón, Buenaventura
397. Montane Woodcreeper – Lepidocolaptes lacrymiger: Yanachaga, Buenaventura
398. Lineated Woodcreeper – Lepidocolaptes albolineatus: Calzada, Allp-M
399. Cinnamon-throated Woodcreeper – Dendrexetastes rufigula: Quistococha
400. Red-billed Scythebill – Campylorhamphus trochilirostris: Tumbes
401. Great Antshrike – Taraba major: Juan Guerra
402. Collared Antshrike – Sakesphorus bernardi: Tumbes, Limón, Jaén Area
403. Fasciated Antshrike – Cymbilaimus lineatus: Allp-M, Expl-L
404. Pearly Antshrike – Megastictus margaritatus: Allp-M
405. Uniform Antshrike – Thamnophilus unicolor: Buenaventura, Abra Patricia
406. Variable Antshrike – Thamnophilus caerulescens: Yanachaga
407. Plain-winged Antshrike – Thamnophilus schistaceus: Allp-M, Expl-L
408. Mouse-colored Antshrike – Thamnophilus murinus: Allp-M
409. Barred Antshrike – Thamnophilus doliatus: Juan Guerra
410. Chapman’s Antshrike – Thamnophilus zarumae: Porculla
411. Huallaga Slaty Antshrike – Thamnophilus punctatus huallagae: Juan Guerra
412. Chestnut-backed Antshrike – Thamnophilus palliatus: Villa Rica
413. Lined Antshrike – Thamnophilus tenuepunctatus: Aguas Verdes
414. Russet Antshrike – Thamnistes anabatinus: Buenaventura
415. Spot-winged Antshrike – Pygiptila stellaris: Expl-L
416. Cinereous Antshrike – Thamnomanes caesius: Allp-M, Expl-L
417. Saturnine Antshrike – Thamnomanes saturninus: Expl-L
418. Plain Antvireo – Dysithamnus mentalis: Tumbes, Villa Rica, Buenaventura, Abra Patricia, Aguas Verdes
419. Black Bushbird – Neoctantes niger: Expl-L
420. White-backed Fire-eye – Pyriglena leuconota: Tumbes, Abra Patricia
421. Reddish-winged Bare-eye – Phlegopsis erythroptera: Allp-M
422. Black-spotted Bare-eye – Phlegopsis nigromaculata: Expl-L
423. White-plumed Antbird – Pithys albifrons: Allp-M, Expl-L
424. Bicolored Antbird – Gymnopithys leucaspis: Allp-M, Expl-L
425. Lunulated Antbird – Gymnopithys lunulata: Allp-M
426. Black-and-white Antbird – Myrmochanes hemileucus: Iquitos
427. Scale-backed Antbird – Hylophylax poecilinota: Allp-M, Expl-L
428. Gray-headed Antbird – Myrmeciza griseiceps: Tumbes
429. Immaculate Antbird – Myrmeciza immaculata: Buenaventura
430. Zimmer’s Antbird – Myrmeciza castanea: Allp-M
431. White-shouldered Antbird – Myrmeciza melanoceps: Expl-L
432. Sooty Antbird – Myrmeciza fortis: Expl-L
433. Black-faced Antbird – Myrmoborus myotherinus: Allp-M, Expl-L
434. Spot-winged Antbird – Percnostola leucostigma: Allp-M
435. Slate-colored Antbird – Percnostola schistacea: Expl-L
436. Allpahuayo Antbird – Percnostola arenarum: Allp-M
437. Black-headed Antbird – Percnostola rufifrons: Expl-L
438. Gray Antbird – Cercomacra cinerascens: Expl-L
439. Black-chinned Antbird – Hypocnemoides melanopogon: Expl-L
440. Warbling Antbird – Hypocnemis cantator: Calzada, Allp-M, Expl-L
441. Yellow-browed Antbird – Hypocnemis hypoxantha: Allp-M
442. Long-tailed Antbird – Drymophila caudata: Yanachaga, Abra Patricia
443. Creamy-bellied Antwren – Herpsilochmus motacilloides: Villa Rica
444. Ancient Antwren – Herpsilochmus gentryi: Allp-M
445. Dugand’s Antwren – Herpsilochmus dugandi: Expl-L
446. Rufous-rumped Antwren – Terenura callinota: Abra Patricia
447. Rusty-backed Antwren – Formicivora rufa: Juan Guerra
448. Stripe-chested Antwren – Myrmotherula longicauda: Villa Rica, Juan Guerra
449. Pygmy Antwren – Myrmotherula brachyura: Expl-L
450. Moustached Antwren – Myrmotherula ignota obscura: Expl-L
451. Gray Antwren – Myrmotherula menetriesii: Allp-M, Expl-L
452. Slaty Antwren – Myrmotherula schisticolor: Buenaventura, Abra Patricia
453. White-flanked Antwren – Myrmotherula axillaris: Calzada, Allp-M, Expl-L
454. Plain-throated Antwren – Myrmotherula hauxwelli: Allp-M, Expl-L
455. Stipple-throated Antwren – Myrmotherula haematonota: Allp-M
456. Rufous-capped Antthrush – Formicarius colma: Allp-M
457. Thrush-like Antpitta – Myrmothera campanisona: Expl-L
458. Ochre-striped Antpitta – Grallaria dignissima: Expl-L
459. Watkin’s Antpitta – Grallaria watkinsi: Tumbes
460. Chestnut-crowned Antpitta – Grallaria ruficapilla: Porculla
461. Scaled Antpitta – Grallaria guatimalensis: Buenaventura
462. Stripe-headed Antpitta – Grallaria andicola: Satipo Rd
463. Yanachaga Rufous Antpitta – Grallaria spec. nov.: Yanachaga
464. Rusty-breasted Antpitta – Grallaricula ferrugineipectus: Yanachaga
465. Chestnut-crowned Gnateater – Conopophaga castaneiceps: Abra Patricia
466. Chestnut-belted Gnateater – Conopophaga aurita: Expl-L
467. Elegant Crescent-chest – Melanopareia elegans: Porculla, Limón
468. Rusty-belted Tapaculo – Liosceles thoracicus: Allp-M, Expl-L
469. Rufous-vented Tapaculo – Scytalopus femoralis: Yanachaga
470. Tapaculo spec. – Scytalopus spec.: Satipo Rd, rocky scrub near Manzanilla; either Tschudi’s (S. acutirostris) or Millpo (S. sp. nov.); plumage and possibly elevation/habitat should rule out Tschudi’s, but await publication of description to counter-check
471. Blue-backed Manakin – Chiroxiphia pareola: Expl-L
472. White-bearded Manakin – Manacus manacus: Tumbes, Expl-L
473. Club-winged Manakin – Machaeropterus deliciosus: Buenaventura
474. Fiery-capped Manakin – Machaeropterus pyrocephalus: Rioja
475. Golden-winged Manakin – Masius chrysopterus: Buenaventura, Abra Patricia
476. Golden-headed Manakin – Pipra erythrocephala: Calzada, Allp-M, Expl-L
477. White-crowned Manakin – Pipra pipra: Allp-M, Expl-L
478. Blue-crowned Manakin – Lepidothrix coronata: Tunel, Allp-M, Expl-L
479. Dwarf Tyrant-Manakin – Tyranneutes stolzmanni: Expl-L
480. Saffron-crested Tyrant-Manakin – Neopelma chrysocephalum: Allp-M
481. Wing-barred Piprites – Piprites chloris: Villa Rica, Allp-M
482. Southern Beardless Tyrannulet – Camptostoma obsoletum: Tumbes, Lima, Chao, Sinsicap, Porculla, Limón, Huancabamba, Jaén Area, Juan Guerra
483. Mouse-colored Tyrannulet – Phaeomyias murina: Tumbes, Chao, Porculla, Limón, Jaén Area, Juan Guerra
484. Yellow-crowned Tyrannulet – Tyrannulus elatus: Calzada, Allp-M, Expl-L
485. Black-capped Tyrannulet – Phyllomyias nigrocapillus: Yanachaga, Sapalache
486. Plumbeous-crowned Tyrannulet – Phyllomyias plumbeiceps: Villa Rica
487. Ashy-headed Tyrannulet – Phyllomyias cinereiceps: Abra Patricia
488. Yellow-bellied Elaenia – Elaenia flavogaster: Villa Rica, Jaén Area, Pedro Ruiz, Rioja
489. Large Elaenia – Elaenia spectabilis: Expl-L
490. White-crested Elaenia – Elaenia albiceps: Yungay
491. Pacific Elaenia – Myiopagis subplacens: Tumbes, Limón
492. Greenish Elaenia – Myiopagis viridicata: Tumbes, Buenaventura
493. Forest Elaenia – Myiopagis gaimardii: Allp-M
494. Gray-and-white Tyrannulet – Pseudelaenia leucospodia: Tumbes, Limón
495. Mishana Tyrannulet – Zimmerius villarejoi: Allp-M
496. Slender-footed Tyrannulet – Zimerius gracilipes: Expl-L
497. Red-billed Tyrannulet – Zimmerius cinereicapillus: Villa Rica
498. Peruvian Tyrannulet – Zimmerius viridiflavus: Yanachaga, Villa Rica
499. Loja Tyrannulet – Zimmerius flavidifrons: Tumbes, Buenaventura
500. Golden-faced Tyrannulet – Zimmerius chrysops: Abra Patricia, Afluente, Tunel
501. White-banded Tyrannulet – Mecocerculus stictopterus: Yanachaga, Sapalache
502. White-throated Tyrannulet – Mecocerculus leucophrys: Satipo Rd, Sapalache
503. Rufous-winged Tyrannulet – Mecocerculus calopterus: Porculla
504. River Tyrannulet – Serpophaga hypoleuca: Iquitos
505. Flavescent Flycatcher – Myiophobus flavicans: Yanachaga, Abra Patricia
506. Ochraceous-breasted Flycatcher – Myiophobus ochraceiventris: Yanachaga
507. Rufescent Flycatcher – Myiophobus rufescens: Chao
508. Bran-colored Flycatcher – Myiophobus fasciatus crypterythrus: Buenaventura, Pedro Ruiz
509. Olive-chested Flycatcher – Myiophobus cryptoxanthus: Afluente, Abra Patricia
510. Tawny-crowned Pygmy-Tyrant – Euscarthmus meloryphus: Limón, Jaén Area
511. Scale-crested Pygmy-Tyrant – Lophotriccus pileatus: Tumbes, Villa Rica, Buenaventura, Jaén Area
512. Double-banded Pygmy-Tyrant – Lophotriccus vitiosus: Allp-M, Expl-L
513. Rufous-headed Pygmy-Tyrant – Pseudotriccus ruficeps: Yanachaga, Sapalache
514. Bronze-olive Pygmy-Tyrant – Pseudotriccus pelzelni: Buenaventura
515. Black-throated Tody-Tyrant – Hemitriccus granadensis: Yanachaga
516. Stripe-necked Tody-Tyrant – Hemitriccus striaticollis: Calzada
517. Pearly-vented Tody-Tyrant – Hemitriccus margaritaceiventer: Calzada, Juan Guerra
518. Zimmer’s Tody-Tyrant – Hemitriccus minimus: Allp-M
519. Lulu’s Tody-Tyrant – Poecilotriccus luluae: Abra Patricia
520. Rusty-fronted Tody-Flycatcher – Todirostrum latirostre: Rioja, Juan Guerra
521. Common Tody-Flycatcher – Todirostrum cinereum: Tumbes, Villa Rica, Buenaventura, Jaén Area, Calzada, Aguas Verdes, Juan Guerra
522. Spotted Tody-Flycatcher – Todirostrum maculatum: Iquitos
523. Yellow-olive Flycatcher – Tolmomyias sulphurescens: Tumbes, Villa Rica, Limón
524. Orange-eyed Flycatcher – Tolmomyias traylori: Expl-L
525. Yellow-margined Flycatcher – Tolmomyias assimilis: Allp-M, Expl-L
526. Gray-crowned Flycatcher – Tolmomyias poliocephalus: Allp-M
527. Yellow-breasted Flycatcher – Tolmomyias flaviventris: Villa Rica, Aguas Verdes, Juan Guerra, Tunel, Expl-L
528. Fulvous-breasted Flatbill – Rhynchocyclus fulvipectus: Abra Patricia, Afluente
529. Rufous-tailed Flatbill – Ramphotrigon ruficauda: Allp-M
530. White-throated Spadebill – Platyrinchus mystaceus: Buenaventura
531. Pacific Royal Flycatcher – Onychorhynchus occidentalis: Tumbes
532. Ornate Flycatcher – Myiotriccus ornatus: Buenaventura, Abra Patricia, Tunel
533. Cinnamon Flycatcher – Pyrrhomyias cinnamomea: Yanachaga, Abra Patricia
534. Ruddy-tailed Flycatcher – Terenotriccus erythrurus: Allp-M, Expl-L
535. Black-tailed Flycatcher – Myiobius atricaudus: Tumbes, Juan Guerra
536. Sulphur-rumped Flycatcher – Myiobius sulphureipygius: Buenaventura
537. Chamizal Fuscous Flycatcher – Cnemotriccus duidae: Allp-M
538. (River Island) Fuscous Flycatcher – Cnemotriccus fuscatus: Expl-L, Iquitos
539. Olive-tufted Flycatcher – Mitrephanes olivaceus: Abra Patricia
540. Alder Flycatcher – Empidonax alnorum: Villa Rica, Aguas Verdes
541. Gray-breasted Flycatcher – Lathrotriccus griseipectus: Tumbes
542. Tumbes/Tropical Pewee – Contopus (cinereus) punensis: Tumbes, Huancabamba
543. Smoke-colored Pewee – Contopus fumigatus: Yanachaga, Porculla, Buenaventura, Abra Patricia
544. Olive-sided Flycatcher – Contopus cooperi: Aguas Verdes
545. Black Phoebe – Sayornis nigricans: Buenaventura, Abra Patricia
546. Rufous-tailed Tyrant – Knipolegus poecilurus: Abra Patricia, Calzada, Tunel
547. Cliff Flycatcher – Hirundinea ferruginea: Abra Patricia, Tunel
548. Inca Flycatcher – Leptopogon taczanowskii: Yanachaga
549. Slaty-capped Flycatcher – Leptopogon superciliaris: Villa Rica, Buenaventura, Calzada, Aguas Verdes, Tunel
550. Sepia-capped Flycatcher – Leptopogon amaurocephalus: Expl-L
551. Mottle-cheeked Tyrannulet – Phylloscartes ventralis: Yanachaga, Abra Patricia
552. Marble-faced Bristle-Tyrant – Pogonotriccus ophthalmicus: Abra Patricia, Afluente
553. Variegated Bristle-Tyrant – Pogonotriccus poecilotis: Abra Patricia
554. Yellow Tyrannulet – Capsiempis flaveola: Calzada, Aguas Verdes
555. Streak-necked Flycatcher – Mionectes striaticollis: Yanachaga, Abra Patricia
556. Olive-striped Flycatcher – Mionectes olivaceus: Buenaventura, Afluente, Tunel
557. Ochre-bellied Flycatcher – Mionectes oleaginous: Calzada, Tunel, Allp-M, Expl-L
558. Yellow-billed Tit-Tyrant – Anairetes flavirostris: Lima, Zárate, Yungay
559. Pied-crested Tit-Tyrant – Anairetes reguloides: Zárate
560. Tufted Tit-Tyrant – Anairetes parulus: Satipo Rd
561. White-fronted Ground-Tyrant – Muscisaxicola albifrons: Ticlio
562. Taczanowski’s Ground-Tyrant – Muscisaxicola griseus: Ticlio
563. Jelski’s Chat-Tyrant – Ochthoeca jelskii: Zárate
564. Golden-browed Chat-Tyrant – Ochthoeca pulchella: Yanachaga
565. Maroon-chested Chat-Tyrant – Ochthoeca thoracica: Yanachaga
566. Rufous-breasted Chat-Tyrant – Ochthoeca rufipectoralis: Yanachaga, Satipo Rd, Sapalache
567. D’Orbigny’s Chat-Tyrant – Ochthoeca oenanthoides: Pampa Galeras, Satipo Rd
568. Brown-backed Chat-Tyrant – Ochthoeca fumicolor: Satipo Rd, Sapalache
569. White-browed Chat-Tyrant – Ochthoeca leucophrys: Jatumpampa, Zárate
570. Piura Chat-Tyrant – Ochthoeca piurae: Porculla
571. Tumbes Tyrant – Tumbezia salvini: Limón
572. Rufous-bellied Bush-Tyrant – Myiotheretes fuscorufus: Yanachaga
573. Black-billed Shrike-Tyrant – Agriornis montana: near Sondor (Huancabamba)
574. Masked Water-Tyrant – Fluvicola nengeta: Tumbes
575. White-headed Marsh-Tyrant – Arundinicola leucocephala: Iquitos
576. Many-colored Rush-Tyrant – Tachuris rubrigastra: Lima
577. Short-tailed Field-Tyrant – Muscigralla brevicauda: Lomas de Lachay, Paracas, Yungay, Chao, Limón
578. Long-tailed Tyrant – Colonia colonus: Villa Rica, Abra Patricia, Afluente
579. Vermilion Flycatcher – Pyrocephalus rubinus: Lomas de Lachay, Lima, Paracas, Chao, Limón, Jaén Area, Iquitos
580. Ochraceous Attila – Attila torridus: Tumbes
581. Citron-bellied Attila – Attila citriniventris: Allp-M
582. White-eyed Attila – Attila bolivianus: Iquitos, Expl-L
583. Bright-rumped Attila – Attila spadiceus: Allp-M
584. Rufous Flycatcher – Myiarchus semirufus: Chao
585. Dusky-capped Flycatcher – Myiarchus tuberculifer: Tumbes, Villa Rica, Porculla, Buenaventura, Calzada, Aguas Verdes
586. Sooty-crowned Flycatcher – Myiarchus phaeocephalus: (phaeocephalus) Tumbes; (interior) Jaén Area
587. Pale-edged Flycatcher – Myiarchus cephalotes: Villa Rica, Abra Patricia
588. Short-crested Flycatcher – Myiarchus ferox: Rioja, Aguas Verdes, Juan Guerra, Allp-M
589. Swainson’s Flycatcher – Myiarchus swainsoni: Allp-M
590. Boat-billed Flycatcher – Megarynchus pitangua: Tumbes, Aguas Verdes, Juan Guerra, Tunel, Allp-M, Expl-L
591. Great Kiskadee – Pitangus sulphuratus: Calzada, Juan Guerra, Tunel, Allp-M, Expl-L, Iquitos
592. Lesser Kiskadee – Philohydor lictor: Allp-M
593. Baird’s Flycatcher – Myiodynastes bairdii: Tumbes, Limón
594. Streaked Flycatcher – Myiodynastes maculatus: (chapmani) Tumbes; (ssp?) Calzada, Tunel; (solitarius) Expl-L
595. Sulphur-bellied Flycatcher – Myiodynastes luteiventris: Villa Rica
596. Variegated Flycatcher – Empidonomus varius: Juan Guerra, Allp-M
597. Crowned Slaty Flycatcher – Griseotyrannus aurantioatrocristatus: Tunel, Allp-M, Expl-L
598. Sulphury Flycatcher – Tyrannopsis sulphurea: Allp-M
599. Social Flycatcher – Myiozetetes similis: Buenaventura, Rioja, Calzada, Aguas Verdes, Juan Guerra, Tunel, Allp-M, Expl-L, Iquitos
600. Dusky-chested Flycatcher – Myiozetetes luteiventris: Tunel, Expl-L
601. Gray-capped Flycatcher – Myiozetetes granadensis: Calzada, Allp-M, Expl-L, Iquitos
602. Lemon-browed Flycatcher – Conopias cinchoneti: Villa Rica, Abra Patricia
603. Yellow-throated Flyctacher – Conopias parva: Allp-M
604. Snowy-throated Kingbird – Tyrannus niveigularis: Tumbes
605. Tropical Kingbird – Tyrannus melancholicus: Tumbes, Lima, Yanachaga, Villa Rica, Buenaventura, Jaén Area, Abra Patricia, Calzada, Aguas Verdes, Tunel, Juan Guerra, Allp-M, Iquitos, Expl-L
606. Fork-tailed Flycatcher – Tyrannus savana: Allp-M
607. Thrush-like Schiffornis – Schiffornis turdinus: Tumbes, Allp-M, Expl-L
608. Barred Becard – Pachyramphus versicolor: Yanachaga, Satipo Rd, Abra Patricia
609. Yellow-cheeked Becard – Pachyramphus xanthogenys: Villa Rica, Pedro Ruiz, Abra Patricia
610. White-winged Becard – Pachyramphus polychopterus: Villa Rica, Calzada, Aguas Verdes, Juan Guerra, Allp-M
611. Black-capped Becard – Pachyramphus marginatus: Allp-M
612. Black-and-white Becard – Pachyramphus albogriseus: Tumbes, Porculla
613. Slaty Becard – Pachyramphus spodiurus: Tumbes
614. One-colored Becard – Pachyramphus homochrous: Tumbes
615. Chestnut-crowned Becrad – Pachyramphus castaneus: Expl-L
616. Masked Tityra – Tityra semifasciata: Calzada, Aguas Verdes, Allp-M, Expl-L
617. White-browed Purpletuft – Iodopleura isabellae: Calzada, Allp-M, Iquitos
618. Scarlet-breasted Fruiteater – Pipreola frontalis: Calzada, Tunel
619. Band-tailed Fruiteater – Pipreola intermedia: Yanachaga
620. Green-and-black Fruiteater – Pireola riefferii: Abra Patricia
621. Barred Fruiteater – Pipreola arcuata: Yanachaga, Satipo Rd, Sapalache
622. Scaled Fruiteater – Ampelioides tschudii: Buenaventura
623. Olivaceous Piha – Snowornis cryptolophus: Abra Patricia
624. Screaming Piha – Lipaugus vociferans: Allp-M
625. Pompadour Cotinga – Xipholena punicea: Allp-M
626. Black-necked Red Cotinga – Phoenicircus nigricollis: Expl-L
627. Peruvian Plantcutter – Phytotoma raimondii: Chao
628. White-cheeked Cotinga – Zaratornis stresemanni: Zárate
629. Red-crested Cotinga – Ampelion rubrocristata: Yungay, Sinsicap
630. Red-ruffed Fruitcrow – Pyroderus scutatus: Abra Patricia
631. Bare-necked Fruitcrow – Gymnoderus foetidus: Expl-L
632. Andean Cock-of-the-Rock – Rupicola peruviana: Abra Patricia
633. Gray-breasted Martin – Progne chalybea: Tumbes, Piura, Pedro Ruiz, Juan Guerra
634. Brown-chested Martin – Progne tapera: Juan Guerra, Allp-M
635. Barn Swallow – Hirundo rustica: Chao
636. Southern Rough-winged Swallow – Stelgidopteryx ruficollis: Tumbes, Buenaventura, Pedro Ruiz, Aguas Verdes, Juan Guerra, Allp-M, Iquitos, Expl-L
637. Chestnut-collared Swallow – Petrochelidon rufocollaris: Chao, Piura
638. Blue-and-white Swallow – Notiochelidon cyanoleuca: Lima, Paracas, Villa Rica, Chao, Porculla, Buenaventura, Abra Patricia, Aguas Verdes, Tunel
639. Brown-bellied Swallow – Notiochelidon murina: Yungay, Sapalache
640. White-banded Swallow – Atticora fasciata: Juan Guerra
641. Tumbes Swallow – Tachycineta stolzmanni: Piura
642. White-winged Swallow – Tachycineta albiventer: Juan Guerra, Allp-M
643. Yellowish Pipit – Anthus lutescens: Lima
644. White-capped Dipper – Cinclus leucocephalus: Abra Patricia
645. Black-capped Donacobius – Donacobius atricapilla: Calzada
646. Peruvian Wren – Cinnycerthia peruana: Yanachaga, Satipo Rd
647. Sharpe’s Wren – Cinnycerthia olivascens: Abra Patricia
648. Fasciated Wren – Campylorhynchus fasciatus: Tumbes, Chao, Buenaventura, Jaén Area
649. Thrush-like Wren – Campylorhunchus turdinus: Villa Rica, Aguas Verdes
650. Speckle-breasted Wren – Pheugopedius sclateri: (paucimaculatus) Tumbes, Limón; (sclateri) Pedro Ruiz
651. Superciliated Wren – Cantorchilus superciliaris: Chao
652. Bay Wren – Cantorchilus nigricapillus: Buenaventura
653. Coraya Wren – Pheugopedius coraya: Juan Guerra, Allp-M, Expl-L
654. Buff-breasted Wren – Cantorchilus leucotis: Juan Guerra, Expl-L
655. Mountain Wren – Troglodytes solstitialis: Yanachaga, Satipo Rd, Buenaventura
656. Southern House Wren – Troglodytes musculus: Tumbes, Lomas de Lachay, Lima, Paracas, Jatumpampa, Zárate, Villa Rica, Satipo Rd, Yungay, Sinsicap, Porculla, Limón, Buenaventura, Huancabamba, Pedro Ruiz, Pomacochas, Aguas Verdes, Juan Guerra
657. Gray-breasted Wood-Wren – Henicorhina leucophrys: Tumbes, Yanachaga, Villa Rica, Buenaventura, Abra Patricia
658. Bar-winged Wood-Wren – Henicorhina leucoptera: Abra Patricia
659. Southern Nightingale Wren – Microcerculus marginatus: Calzada, Aguas Verdes, Allp-M
660. Song Wren – Cyphorhinus phaeocephalus: Buenaventura
661. Collared Gnatwren – Microbates collaris: Expl-L
662. Andean Solitaire – Myadestes ralloides: Yanachaga, Buenaventura, Abra Patricia
663. White-eared Solitaire – Entomodestes leucotis: Yanachaga, Abra Patricia
664. Spotted Nightingale-Thrush – Catharus dryas: Tumbes
665. Swainson’s Thrush – Catharus ustulatus: Villa Rica, Buenaventura, Aguas Verdes, Calzada, Tunel
666. Pale-breasted Thrush – Turdus leucomelas: Calzada
667. Black-billed Thrush – Turdus ignobilis: Villa Rica, Rioja, Calzada, Aguas Verdes, Allp-M, Iquitos
668. Pale-vented Thrush – Turdus obsoletus: Buenaventura
669. Thrush spec. – Turdus sp. nov.: Expl-L
670. White-necked Thrush – Turdus albicollis: Allp-M, Expl-L
671. Chiguanco Thrush – Turdus chiguanco: Jatumpampa, Zárate, Huancabamba, Ticlio
672. Great Thrush – Turdus fuscater: Satipo Rd, Yungay, Sinsicap, Porculla, Sapalache
673. Plumbeous-backed Thrush – Turdus reevei: Tumbes, Limón
674. Ecuadorian Thrush – Turdus maculirostris: Tumbes, Buenaventura
675. Pale-eyed Thrush – Turdus leucops: Abra Patricia
676. Long-tailed Mockingbird – Mimus longicaudatus: Lima, Paracas, Zárate, Chao, Sinsicap, Limón, Jaén Area
677. Tropical Gnatcatcher – Polioptila plumbea: (bilineata) Tumbes, Limón; (plumbea) Calzada, Juan Guerra
678. Maranon Gnatcatcher – Polioptila maranonica: Huancabamba, Jaén Area
679. Iquitos Gnatcatcher – Polioptila clementsi: Allp-M
680. White-tailed Jay – Cyanocorax mystacalis: Tumbes, Limón
681. Green Jay – Cyanocorax yncas: Yanachaga, Villa Rica, Jaén Area, Abra Patricia
682. White-collared Jay – Cynolyca viridicyana: Yanachaga
683. Red-eyed Vireo – Vireo olivaceus: Tumbes, Villa Rica, Jaén Area, Pedro Ruiz, Calzada, Juan Guerra, Allp-M
684. Yellow-green Vireo – Vireo flavoviridis: Villa Rica
685. Brown-capped Vireo – Vireo leucophrys: Buenaventura, Abra Patricia
686. Dusky-capped Greenlet – Hylophilus hypoxanthus: Allp-M, Expl-L
687. Tawny-crowned Greenlet – Hylophilus ochraceiceps: Expl-L
688. Olivaceous Greenlet – Hylophilus olivaceus: Villa Rica, Afluente
689. Lesser Greenlet – Hylophilus decurtatus: Buenaventura
690. Rufous-browed Peppershrike – Cyclarhis gujanensis: Tumbes, Juan Guerra
691. Slaty-capped Shrike-Vireo – Vireolanius leucotis: Tunel
692. House Sparrow – Passer domesticus: Paracas, Lima, Chao, Jaén Area
693. Yellow-bellied Siskin – Carduelis xanthogastra: Tumbes, Buenaventura
694. Hooded Siskin – Carduelis magellanica: Lima, Pampa Galeras, Chao, Sinsicap, Porculla, Huancabamba
695. Saffron Siskin – Carduelis siemiradzkii: Tumbes
696. Lesser Goldfinch – Carduelis psaltria: Chao
697. Tropical Parula – Parula pitiayumi: Tumbes, Villa Rica, Porculla, Buenaventura, Calzada, Aguas Verdes, Tunel, Juan Guerra
698. Blackburnian Warbler – Dendroica fusca: Villa Rica, Buenaventura, Afluente, Aguas Verdes, Tunel
699. Cerulean Warbler – Dendroica cerulea: Villa Rica
700. Mangrove Warbler – Dendroica erythachorides peruviana: Tumbes
701. Canada Warbler – Wilsonia canadensis: Villa Rica, Afluente, Calzada, Tunel
702. Black-lored Yellowthroat – Geothlypis auricularis: (auricularis) Lima, Limón; (peruviana?) Huancabamba
703. Olive-crowned Yellowthroat – Geothlypis semiflava: Buenaventura
704. Slate-throated Whitestart – Myioborus miniatus: Tumbes, Villa Rica, Porculla, Buenaventura, Afluente, Abra Patricia, Aguas Verdes, Tunel
705. Spectacled Whitestart – Myioborus melanocephalus: Yanachaga, Satipo Rd, Sapalache
706. Gray-and-gold Warbler – Basileuterus fraseri: Tumbes, Limón
707. Three-banded Warbler – Basileuterus trifasciatus: Tumbes, Porculla, Buenaventura
708. Three-striped Warbler – Basileuterus tristriatus: Villa Rica, Abra Patricia
709. Citrine Warbler – Basileuterus luteoviridis: Yanachaga, Satipo Rd, Sapalache
710. Black-crested Warbler – Basileuterus nigrocristatus: Sapalache
711. Russet-crowned Warbler – Basileuterus coronatus: Yanachaga, Villa Rica, Abra Patricia
712. Bananaquit – Coereba flaveola: Tumbes, Villa Rica, Chao, Limón, Buenaventura, Huancabamba, Jaén Area, Calzada
713. Black-and-white Tanager – Conothraupis speculigera: Tumbes, Limón
714. Black-faced Tanager – Schistochlamys melanopis: Calzada, Juan Guerra
715. Magpie Tanager – Cissopis leveriana: Villa Rica, Abra Patricia, Rioja, Calzada, Aguas Verdes, Juan Guerra, Tunel, Allp-M
716. Ashy-throated Bush-Tanager – Chlorospingus canigularis: Tumbes, Buenaventura, Abra Patricia
717. Yellow-whiskered Bush-Tanager – Chlorospingus parvirostris: Abra Patricia
718. Yellow-throated Bush-Tanager – Chlorospingus flavigularis: Afluente, Tunel
719. Common Bush-Tanager – Chlorospingus ophthalmicus: Yanachaga, Buenaventura, Abra Patricia
720. Gray-hooded Bush-Tanager – Cnemoscopus rubrirostris: Yanachaga
721. White-browed Hemispingus – Hemispingus auricularis: Yanachaga, Satipo Rd
722. Black-capped Hemispingus – Hemispingus atropileus: Sapalache
723. Superciliaried Hemispingus – Hemispingus superciliaris: Yanachaga, Satipo Rd
724. Black-headed Hemispingus – Hemispingus verticalis: Sapalache
725. Drab Hemispingus – Hemispingus xanthophthalmus: Yanachaga
726. Olive Tanager – Chlorothraupis frenata: Tunel
727. White-shouldered Tanager – Tachyphonus luctuosus: Tumbes
728. White-lined Tanager – Tachyphonus rufus: Jaén Area, Rioja, Calzada, Aguas Verdes
729. Red-shouldered Tanager – Tachyphonus phoenicius: Calzada
730. Flame-crested Tanager – Tachyphonus cristatus: Allp-M, Expl-L
731. Fulvous-crested Tanager – Tachyphonus surinamus: Expl-L
732. Yellow-crested Tanager – Tachyphonus rufiventer: Villa Rica, Tunel
733. Fulvous Shrike-Tanager – Lanio fulvus: Expl-L
734. Red-crowned Ant-Tanager – Habia rubica: Expl-L
735. Highland Hepatic Tanager – Piranga lutea: Tumbes, Buenaventura, Huancabamba, Jaén Area
736. Scarlet Tanager – Piranga olivacea: Villa Rica, Buenaventura
737. Summer Tanager – Piranga rubra: Villa Rica
738. White-winged Tanager – Piranga leucoptera: Villa Rica, Buenaventura
739. Vermilion Tanager – Calochaetes coccineus: Abra Patricia
740. Masked Crimson Tanager – Ramphocelus nigrogularis: Allp-M, Expl-L
741. Silver-beaked Tanager – Ramphocelus carbo: Villa Rica, Tunel, Juan Guerra, Allp-M, Expl-L, Iquitos
742. Huallaga Tanager – Ramphocelus melanogaster: Afluente, Abra Patricia, Aguas Verdes, Calzada
743. Lemon-rumped Tanager – Ramphocelus icteronotus: Buenaventura
744. Blue-capped Tanager – Thraupis cyanocephala: Yanachaga, Abra Patricia
745. Blue-gray Tanager – Thraupis episcopus: Tumbes, Lima, Villa Rica, Limón, Buenaventura, Jaén Area, Abra Patricia, Rioja, Calzada, Aguas Verdes, Tunel, Juan Guerra, Allp-M, Expl-L, Iquitos
746. Palm Tanager – Thraupis palmarum: Villa Rica, Buenaventura, Rioja, Calzada, Aguas Verdes, Tunel, Juan Guerra, Allp-M, Iquitos, Expl-L
747. Blue-and-yellow Tanager – Thraupis bonariensis: Jatumpampa, Zárate
748. Rufous-crested Tanager – Creurgops verticalis: Abra Patricia
749. Guira Tanager – Hemithraupis guira: Villa Rica
750. Yellow-backed Tanager – Hemithraupis flavicollis: Allp-M
751. Orange-crowned Euphonia – Euphonia saturata: Tumbes, Buenaventura
752. Thick-billed Euphonia – Euphonia laniirostris: Tumbes, Porculla, Limón, Buenaventura, Aguas Verdes, Juan Guerra
753. Orange-bellied Euphonia – Euphonia xanthogaster: Yanachaga, Villa Rica, Buenaventura, Afluente, Abra Patricia
754. Purple-throated Euphonia – Euphonia chlorotica: Jaén Area, Pedro Ruiz, Expl-L
755. Rufous-bellied Euphonia – Euphonia rufiventris: Tunel, Allp-M, Expl-L
756. Plumbeous Euphonia – Euphonia plumbea: Allp-M
757. White-vented Euphonia – Euphonia minuta: Allp-M, Expl-L
758. Bronze-green Euphonia – Euphonia mesochrysa: Villa Rica, Abra Patricia
759. White-lored Euphonia – Euphonia chrysopasta: Calzada
760. Blue-naped Chlorophonia – Chlorophonia cyanea: Villa Rica
761. Rufous-chested Tanager – Thlypopsis ornata: Yanachaga, Porculla
762. Buff-bellied Tanager – Thlypopsis inornata: Pedro Ruiz
763. Orange-headed Tanager – Thlypopsis sordida: Iquitos
764. Orange-eared Tanager – Chlorochrysa calliparaea: Abra Patricia
765. Silver-backed Tanager – Tangara viridicollis: Porculla, Abra Patricia
766. Bay-headed Tanager – Tangara gyrola: Tumbes, Villa Rica, Buenaventura, Calzada, Tunel, Allp-M
767. Rufous-throated Tanager – Tangara rufigula: Buenaventura
768. Green-and-gold Tanager – Tangara schrankii: Calzada, Expl-L
769. Yellow-bellied Tanager – Tangara xanthogastra: Villa Rica, Tunel
770. Spotted Tanager – Tangara punctata: Villa Rica
771. Speckled Tanager – Tangara guttata: Buenaventura
772. Silver-throated Tanager – Tangara icterocephala: Tumbes, Buenaventura
773. Golden Tanager – Tangara arthus: Buenaventura, Abra Patricia, Afluente
774. Golden-eared Tanager – Tangara chrysotis: Villa Rica
775. Metallic-green Tanager – Tangara labradorides: Abra Patricia
776. Golden-naped Tanager – Tangara ruficervix: Buenaventura
777. Flame-faced Tanager – Tangara parzudakii: Yanachaga, Buenaventura, Afluente, Abra Patricia
778. Saffron-crowned Tanager – Tangara xanthocephala: Abra Patricia
779. Beryl-spangled Tanager – Tangara nigroviridis: Yanachaga, Buenaventura, Abra Patricia
780. Blue-and-black Tanager – Tangara vassorii: Yanachaga, Abra Patricia
781. Turquoise Tanager – Tangara mexicana: Villa Rica, Calzada, Tunel, Expl-L
782. Paradise Tanager – Tangara chilensis: Villa Rica, Calzada, Tunel, Allp-M, Expl-L
783. Opal-rumped Tanager – Tangara velia: Allp-M
784. Opal-crowned Tanager – Tangara callophrys: Allp-M
785. Blue-necked Tanager – Tangara cyanicollis: Villa Rica, Buenaventura, Abra Patricia, Afluente, Aguas Verdes
786. Masked Tanager – Tangara nigrocincta: Calzada, Tunel
787. Burnished-buff Tanager – Tangara cayana: Rioja
788. Swallow Tanager – Tersina viridis: Calzada, Expl-L
789. Green Honeycreeper – Chlorophanes spiza: Buenaventura, Calzada, Tunel, Allp-M, Expl-L
790. Purple Honeycreeper – Cyanerpes caeruleus: Calzada, Tunel, Allp-M, Expl-L
791. Short-billed Honeycreeper – Cyanerpes nitidus: Allp-M
792. Black-faced Dacnis – Dacnis lineata: Villa Rica, Calzada,Tunel, Allp-M, Expl-L
793. Blue Dacnis – Dacnis cayana: Villa Rica, Calzada, Tunel, Allp-M, Expl-L
794. Tit-like Dacnis – Xenodacnis parina: Satipo Rd, Yungay
795. Grass-green Tanager – Chlorornis riefferii: Yanachaga, Satipo Rd
796. Hooded Mountain-Tanager – Buthraupis montana: Yanachaga, Sapalache
797. Lacrimose Mountain-Tanager – Anisognathus lacrymosus: Yanachaga, Sapalache, Abra Patricia
798. Blue-winged Mountain-Tanager – Anisognathus somptuosos: Villa Rica, Abra Patricia
799. Scarlet-bellied Mountain-Tanager – Anisognathus igniventris: Satipo Rd, Sapalache
800. Buff-breasted Mountain-Tanager – Dubusia taeniata: Yanachaga, Satipo Rd
801. Chestnut-bellied Mountain-Tanager – Delothraupis castaneoventris: Satipo Rd
802. Fawn-breasted Tanager – Pipraeidea melanonota: Buenaventura
803. Yellow-scarfed Tanager – Iridosornis reinhardti: Yanachaga
804. Golden-collared Tanager – Iridosornis jelskii: Satipo Rd
805. Golden-crowned Tanager – Iridosornis rufivertex: Sapalache
806. Yellow-throated Tanager – Iridosornis analis: Abra Patricia
807. Plushcap – Catamblyrhynchus diadema: Yanachaga, Porculla, Sapalache
808. Cinereous Conebill – Conirostrum cinereum: Lomas de Lachay, Lima, Jatumpampa, Zárate, Satipo Rd, Yungay, Chao, Sinsicap
809. White-browed Conebill – Conirostrum ferrugineiventre: Satipo Rd
810. Blue-backed Conebill – Conirostrum sitticolor: Satipo Rd, Sapalache
811. Capped Conebill – Conirostrum albifrons: Yanachaga
812. Chestnut-vented Conebill – Conirostrum speciosum: Aguas Verdes
813. Bicolored Conebill – Conirostrum bicolor: Iquitos
814. Black-throated Flowerpiercer – Diglossa brunneiventris: Zárate, Satipo Rd, Yungay
815. Rusty Flowerpiercer – Diglossa sittoides: Yanachaga, Sinsicap
816. Glossy Flowerpiercer – Diglossa lafresnayii: Sapalache
817. Masked Flowerpiercer – Diglossa cyanea: Yanachaga, Satipo Rd, Sapalache, Abra Patricia
818. Deep-blue Flowerpiercer – Diglossa glauca: Abra Patricia
819. Crimson-breasted Finch – Rhodospingus cruentus: Tumbes
820. Red-crested Finch – Coryphospingus cucullatus: Jaén Area
821. Blue-black Grassquit – Volatinia jacarina: Tumbes, Lima, Paracas, Villa Rica, Chao, Jaén Area, Abra Patricia, Afluente, Rioja, Aguas Verdes, Calzada, Juan Guerra
822. Dull-colored Grassquit – Tiaris obscura: Chao, Huancabamba, Jaén Area, Pedro Ruiz, Calzada, Aguas Verdes
823. Lesser Seedfinch – Oryzoborus angolensis: Aguas Verdes, Juan Guerra
824. Variable Seedeater – Sporophila corvina: Tumbes, Buenaventura
825. Black-and-white Seedeater – Sporophila luctuosa: Buenaventura, Huancabamba, Pomacochas, Pedro Ruiz
826. Yellow-bellied Seedeater – Sporophila nigricollis: Tumbes, Villa Rica, Buenaventura, Pomacochas
827. Parrot-billed Seedeater – Sporophila peruviana: Tumbes, Lima, Chao, Limón
828. Chestnut-throated Seedeater – Sporophila telasco: Lima, Paracas, Chao, Jaén Area
829. Chestnut-bellied Seedeater – Sporophila castaneiventris: Rioja, Allp-M, Iquitos
830. Drab Seedeater – Sporophila simplex: Jaén Area
831. Band-tailed Seedeater – Catamenia analis: Lima, Jatumpampa, Zárate, Huancabamba
832. Plain-colored Seedeater – Catamenia inornata: Satipo Rd, Yungay
833. Band-tailed Sierra-Finch – Phrygilus alaudinus: Lomas de Lachay
834. Mourning Sierra-Finch – Phrygilus fruticeti: Jatumpampa, Zárate
835. Peruvian Sierra-Finch – Phrygilus punensis: Pampa Galeras, Satipo Rd, Yungay, Ticlio
836. Plumbeous Sierra-Finch – Phrygilus unicolor: Satipo Rd, Sapalache, Ticlio
837. Ash-breasted Sierra-Finch – Phrygilus plebejus: Pampa Galeras, Jatumpampa, Yungay, Porculla, Huancabamba
838. White-winged Diuca-Finch – Diuca speculifera: Ticlio
839. Rufous-backed Inca-Finch – Incaspiza personata: Yungay
840. Little Inca-Finch – Incaspiza watkinsi: Jaén Area
841. Saffron Finch – Sicalis flaveola: Tumbes, Lima, Chao, Buenaventura, Jaén Area, Juan Guerra
842. Grassland Yellow-Finch – Sicalis luteola: Lima, Paracas, Pomacochas
843. Raimondi’s Yellow-Finch – Sicalis raimondii: Lomas de Lachay
844. Slender-billed Finch – Xenospingus concolor: Paracas
845. Cinereous Finch – Piezorhina cinerea: Chao
846. Collared Warbling-Finch – Poospiza hispaniolensis: Lomas de Lachay, Lima, Zárate, Chao, Limón
847. Plain-tailed Warbling-Finch – Poospiza alticola: Yungay
848. Rufous-breasted Warbling-Finch – Poospiza rubecula: Zárate
849. Stripe-headed Brush-Finch – Buarremon torquatus: Tumbes, Yanachaga, Porculla, Buenaventura
850. Chestnut-capped Brush-Finch – Buarremon brunneinucha: Abra Patricia
851. Rusty-bellied Brush-Finch – Atlapetes nationi: Zárate
852. Bay-crowned Brush-Finch – Atlapetes seebohmi: Sinsicap, Porculla
853. White-winged Brush-Finch – Atlapetes leucopterus: Porculla, Limón
854. White-headed Brush-Finch – Atlapetes albiceps: Limón
855. Tricolored Brush-Finch – Atlapetes tricolor: Yanachaga, Buenaventura
856. Slaty Brush-Finch – Atlapetes schistaceus: Yanachaga, Satipo Rd
857. Pale-naped Brush-Finch – Atlapetes pallidinucha: Sapalache
858. Cloud-forest Brush-Finch – Atlapetes latinuchus: Sapalache, Abra Patricia
859. Rufous-eared Brush-Finch – Atlapetes rufigenis: Yungay
860. Rufous-collared Sparrow – Zonotrichia capensis: Lomas de Lachay, Lima, Zárate, Villa Rica, Yungay, Chao, Porculla, Buenaventura, Abra Patricia
861. Tumbes Sparrow – Aimophila stolzmanni: Limón
862. Yellow-browed Sparrow – Ammodramus aurifrons: Villa Rica, Jaén Area, Rioja, Calzada, Aguas Verdes, Juan Guerra, Allp-M, Iquitos, Expl-L
863. Orange-billed Sparrow – Arremon aurantiirostris: Tumbes, Buenaventura
864. Black-capped Sparrow – Arremon abeillei: (abeillei) Tumbes, Limón; (nigriceps) Pedro Ruiz
865. Black-striped Sparrow – Arremonops conirostris: Buenaventura
866. Streaked Saltator – Saltator striatipectus: Tumbes, Lima, Chao, Huancabamba, Jaén Area
867. Black-winged Saltator – Saltator atripennis: Buenaventura
868. Buff-throated Saltator – Saltator maximus: Tumbes, Villa Rica, Buenaventura, Aguas Verdes, Calzada, Tunel, Allp-M, Iquitos, Expl-L
869. Grayish Saltator – Saltator coerulescens: Villa Rica, Aguas Verdes, Juan Guerra, Iquitos
870. Golden-billed Saltator – Saltator aurantiirostris: Jatumpampa, Satipo Rd, Yungay
871. Black-cowled Saltator – Saltator nigriceps: Porculla
872. Slate-colored Grosbeak – Saltator grossus: Tunel, Expl-L
873. Golden-bellied Grosbeak – Pheucticus chrysogaster: Tumbes, Zárate, Yanachaga, Yungay, Sinsicap, Limón, Jaén Area, Pedro Ruiz
874. Blue-black Grosbeak – Cyanocompsa cyanoides: Tumbes, Expl-L
875. Red-capped Cardinal – Paroaria gularis: Expl-L
876. Peruvian Meadowlark – Sturnella bellicose: Tumbes, Lomas de Lachay, Lima, Paracas, Yungay, Chao, Limón, Jaén Area
877. Scrub Blackbird – Dives warszewiczi: Tumbes, Lima, Sinsicap, Limón, Buenaventura
878. Great-tailed Grackle – Quiscalus mexicanus: Tumbes
879. Shiny Cowbird – Molothrus bonariensis: Tumbes, Chao, Porculla
880. Yellow-hooded Blackbird – Agelaius icterocephalus: Lima, Expl-L
881. Troupial – Icterus icterus: Rioja, Calzada, Juan Guerra
882. Yellow-tailed Oriole – Icterus mesomelas: Tumbes, Buenaventura, Jaén Area
883. White-edged Oriole – Icterus graceannae: Limón
884. Moriche Oriole – Icterus chrysocephalus: Tunel, Expl-L
885. Oriole Blackbird – Gymnomystax mexicanus: Juan Guerra
886. Yellow-rumped Cacique – Cacicus cela: Tumbes, Rioja, Calzada, Juan Guerra, Tunel, Allp-M, Iquitos, Expl-L
887. Yellow-billed Cacique – Amblycercus holosericeus: Yanachaga
888. Northern Mountain Cacique – Cacicus leucorhamphus: Yanachaga
889. Dusky-green Oropendola – Psarocolius atrovirens: Yanachaga
890. Russet-backed Oropendola – Psarocolius angustifrons: (alfredi) Abra Patricia, Calzada, Aguas Verdes; (angustifrons) Allp-M, Expl-L, Iquitos
891. Crested Oropendola – Psarocolius decumanus: Calzada, Aguas Verdes, Iquitos, Expl-L

Heard only:

1. Little Tinamou – Crypturellus soui: Tumbes
2. Crested Owl – Lophostrix cristate: Allp-M
3. Black-and-white Owl – Strix nigrolineata: Buenaventura
4. Black-banded Owl – Strix huhula: Expl-L
5. Spectacled Owl – Pulsatrix perspicillata: Tumbes
6. Band-bellied Owl – Pulsatrix melanota: Calzada, Rioja
7. Rufescent Screech-owl – Megascops ingens: Abra Patricia
8. Long-tailed Potoo – Nyctibius aethereus: Expl-L
9. Common Potoo – Nyctibius griseus: Expl-L
10. Long-billed Woodcreeper – Nasica longirostris: Expl-L
11. Black-faced Antthrush – Formicarius analis: Expl-L
12. Noble Antthrush – Chamaeza nobilis: Expl-L
13. Bay Antpitta – Grallaria capitalis: Yanachaga
14. Chestnut-naped Antpitta – Grallaria nuchalis: Sapalache
15. Rusty-tinged Antpitta – Grallaria przewalskii: Abra Patricia
16. Plain-backed Antpitta – Grallaria haplonota: Buenaventura
17. El Oro Tapaculo – Scytalopus robbinsi: Buenaventura
18. White-crowned Tapaculo – Scytalopus atratus: Aguas Verdes
19. Neopipo – Neopipo cinnamomea: Allp-M
20. Grayish Mourner – Rhytipterna simplex: Expl-L