South-east Brazil - 11th to 25th August 2007

Published by Clare Vernon (clare.vernon AT

Participants: Clare and Sean Vernon, Bratislava, Slovakia



My husband, Sean, and I have just returned from southeast Brazil. This was my second time in Brazil, and Sean's first. My previous trip to Brazil was with Birdquest and covered Rio Cristalino Lodge in the Amazon, Chapada dos Guimaraes, the Pantanal, Serra do Canastra and Serro do Cipo. On this trip we just visited three sites - Itatiaia National Park northwest of Rio de Janeiro, Ubatuba on the coast between Rio and Sao Paolo, and Intervales state park, southwest of Sao Paolo.

Our trip was very well organized by Boute Expeditions. For the first week (in Itatiaia and Ubatuba) we were part of a group of seven, plus a Boute Expeditions guide, Giuliano, who was very good although he guides mainly around Chapada and the Pantanal and less often in the south east. We were fortunate in having a really great group, and Giuliano ensured that the trip was fun as well as bird-filled.

At the end of the Itatiaia and Ubatuba tour, we were dropped off at a hotel near Sao Paolo airport in the evening, and then collected early next morning by a driver and interpreter arranged by Boute Expeditions, who took us to Intervales, and then collected us again at the end of our six days there. Boute Expeditions had also reserved the Intervales birding guide for us.

The joint birds of the trip for both of us were the well-named Giant Antshrike and the gorgeous showy Long-trained Nightjar. Close contenders were an unbelievably bold Variegated Antpitta, the gorgeous Festive Coquettes that came so close to us at Ubatuba, Spot-backed and Tufted Antshrikes, Spotted Bamboowrens, Atlantic Royal-Flycatchers, and the Short-tailed Antthrush that hopped along a trail in front of us at Intervales. A non-bird highlight was a Southern Tamandua excavating a tree trunk.


Our original plan was to do a fully guided custom trip, but the quotes from two different companies were more than we could reasonably afford. So we then looked at doing a completely independent trip, but partway through my futile attempts to book accommodation for us, Boute Expeditions, who'd originally put together an itinerary and quote for a fully-guided trip, came back with the above alternative. This worked out about £800 more expensive than a completely independent trip, but about £2,000 cheaper than a fully guided trip. As neither of us speaks any Portuguese, we decided to go with this option, and with hindsight I think we made the right decision. Boute Expeditions did an excellent job and we would certainly use them for a future trip to Brazil. Very few of the Brazilians we encountered spoke English – it’s not taught in regular schools, and I think that with the limited time we had available, we wouldn’t have seen nearly as many birds if we’d also been dealing with logistical / language problems.

The costs were as follows:

• Return flight from Vienna to Sao Paolo via London Heathrow with British Airways, booked through £932 each (we only booked two months before the trip, so the prices were already high - we would have paid quite a bit less and had a wider choice of flights if we’d booked earlier).
• Boute Expeditions fee for the six day guided trip, plus driver to and from Intervales, plus all accommodation, meals, park entry fees and guiding in Intervales: US$ 2,360 each (around £2,460 in total)
• Laundry, drinks, and (mostly) tips: £230 (we got R$350 from a cash machine when we arrived at Sao Paolo airport and another R$500 in Ubatuba).
• Parking at Vienna Airport: EUR 92 (around £68).
Hence the total trip cost for the two of us was about £4,600.


• All the Birds of Brazil by Deodato Souza. This is the only field guide that covers all the species possible on our trip, but the quality of the plates is rather poor, hence we made our own "field guide" - see below.
• Neotropical Rainforest Mammals, A Field Guide, Second Edition, by Louise Emmons.
• The website, which includes Jeremy Minns’s very helpful site notes.
• Various trip reports posted on, and
• Birds of Brazil MP3 Sound Collection by Peter Boesman - this has recordings of almost all of the species possible on our itinerary, and the relevant recordings were easy to put into Windows Media Player so I could learn as many as possible before the trip (which as usual wasn't a lot due to lack of time).
• The Land Birds of Southeast Brazil DVDs by Heinz Remold, disc 2, suboscine passerines, and disc 3, oscine passerines plus parrots, pigeons and woodpeckers. Disc 1, which will cover non-passerines, hasn't been published yet. These DVDs include colour drawings, sound recordings and information on range and habitat. We copied the pictures from them into Word to make a basic "field guide" for the areas we were visiting, using photographs of some of the plates from volumes 1 to 7 of Handbook of the Birds of the World for the non-passerines.

As usual, I put together a spreadsheet of the probabilities of seeing each bird based on previous trip reports, and this proved reasonably accurate. I'm happy to send it to anyone who might find it useful.

Problems and annoyances

There's apparently no malaria risk in Southeast Brazil, so it was nice not to take tablets every morning. In Itatiaia there were very few mosquitoes or other pests. In Ubatuba we got bitten a few times, and at the Black-hooded Antwren site there were a few ticks. Also I picked up chiggers around Ubatuba, probably at Fazenda Capricornio.

One annoyance was the dogs - there were stray and pet dogs everywhere - even in remote Intervales we often had to listen to a chorus of barking dogs, especially in the evenings.


I’m including here our general observations about Intervales, because it hasn’t been discussed in detail in as many trip reports as Ubatuba and Itatiaia.

The birding at Intervales is fantastic and I highly recommend going there. It can be reached from Sao Paolo in a minimum of 3.5 hours. We got driven to Intervales and dropped off, and we were then collected six days later. The advantage of this is it avoided the need to hire a car and negotiate our way through Sao Paolo (although this may not have been too bad as most of the journey across the city was on a main road). However, the last hour or so of the drive is on a dirt road, which a regular car would manage, but I'm sure it would breach the terms of a car hire agreement.

Whilst a car might have been useful for reaching some birding sites further out in the park, the trail network is so extensive and varied, that we rarely saw the same place twice. However, we often birded out along a trail for several hours and then did a route march back. We also had to walk a mile each way to get to and from the restaurant, which was a bit of a pain after dark, although I think all the walking we did in Intervales was good for us, especially as we didn't move nearly so much in the first part of this trip.

As mentioned in other reports, the guide to have in the park is Luiz. There are a huge number of trails in the park, most of them long and many one-way (or at least we weren't getting far enough to complete a loop if there was one). Luiz seems to know them all, and he took us on some great walks. Towards the end of our stay he also took us to a fantastic cave that we hadn't even known existed. I don't know if it's obligatory to have a guide, but I'd asked Boute Expeditions to book Luiz for us anyway, and he was excellent. He knows all the songs and calls, and where to find the birds. He also knows which species are more scarce and local and he concentrates on finding these. This is great as it avoids wasting time trying to see the more common birds - but if you need any of the more widespread or common species, let him know.

Luiz, in common with all the other park staff we encountered, doesn't speak any English. However, he knows the Latin names of all the birds. Boute Expeditions had given us a list specifically for Intervales with English and Latin names, and we took this out with us every day, which worked very well on a number of occasions for confirming what species we were looking for, or in some cases at. Luiz also doesn't have any sound recordings, so it's definitely worth taking your own. And he doesn't have a good torch for spotlighting - unfortunately we forgot our big torch, and missed getting good views of a couple of owls as a result - the torches they sell in the dining room aren't good enough for spotlighting. The main disadvantage of the language barrier is that we couldn't ask Luiz about the park and its various birds, as he is obviously very knowledgeable.

The accommodation in Intervales is reasonably basic. We were in a small building (Sede de Pesquisa) with three bedrooms, a lounge, a kitchen and two bathrooms. Our bedroom had two bunks and two single beds, and was basic but comfortable. The bathrooms were also fine, with hot showers.

With hindsight we should have brought some supplies with us to make our own breakfast, as breakfast doesn't start until 7.30am, which meant we had to break during our birding each morning. I don't know if it would be possible to arrange an earlier breakfast - our inability to speak more than about five words in Portuguese meant we couldn't even try!


It was cool in Itatiaia - probably about 10 to 16 degrees Celsius most days, with rapid cooling towards dusk, although it got hot in the sun near the top of Alguhas Negras Road. Around Ubatuba it was cool and damp at dawn and dusk, and hot (but not uncomfortably so) around midday. On most days in Intervales, it was cold and damp in the mornings (four layers for me, but I don't do cold very well), and hot by about 10am.


11 August

We hit our first snag on the way to Vienna airport when a warning light came on in the car and the engine started making a funny noise. But we carried on anyway and luckily it seemed to recover and we got there ok. Second problem came when, after waiting 40 minutes to check in, we were sent to the BA desk because our flight to Heathrow was delayed so we'd miss our connection. However, to BA's credit, they got us on an Austrian Airlines flight to Frankfurt, and a Lufthansa flight from there to Sao Paolo, so we only got to Sao Paolo about half an hour later than our original flights.

The flight to Frankfurt was only about 20% full, but the one to Sao Paolo was completely full, which left me with a middle seat halfway down the plane, and Sean on the back row on the other side. But fortunately the two people either side of me didn’t take up too much space and for once there were no noisy babies near me, so I managed to get about 5 hours sleep.

12 August

We arrived at Sao Paolo Airport around 5.30am, but it took a good hour to get through immigration. Not surprisingly, we didn't see anyone from Boute Expeditions waiting to meet us, so we went to the information desk and got them to make announcement. Within 5 minutes our guide, Giuliano, had come to meet us.

After getting some cash at an ATM, we got the minibus for the Best Western Panamby hotel, about half an hour from the airport. There we met Jean-Philippe and Valerie, a French couple who'd arrived the previous day. We all had breakfast, and then Giuliano returned to the airport to collect the other three group members, who were flying from Ontario.

In the meantime we did a bit of birding in the hotel garden (surprisingly big given that the hotel was on a main road in a very built up area. We mostly saw only common species, although Orange-headed Tanager is a bird I'd only seen once before.

The rest of the group arrived around 1pm (later than planned due to some missing luggage), so we had a quick lunch at the hotel before setting off in the coach for the 3 hour drive to Itatiaia. There weren't many birds seen on the journey - just a small number of open country species.

We arrived at Itatiaia just after 5pm, and had a stop at an overlook for a while, seeing a few species, including my only lifer of the day - Dusky-legged Guan. By the time we arrived at Itatiaia Park Hotel (formerly Hotel Simon) it was almost dark, and also quite cold.

The hotel is fairly big, and was probably once quite smart, but it needs a refurbishment now. However, our room was fine, with a very comfortable bed and a lovely hot shower. And the buffet meals were great.

After dinner we went out to try for Tawny-browed Owl, but we didn't persist for very long because it was very windy - definitely not good conditions for owling.

13 August

We had breakfast at 6am (a buffet with lots of fresh fruit, cake and small sweet and savoury bread-based things), just as it was getting light, and then we spent the next couple of hours on the hotel verandah watching a large number of tanagers and other birds on the feeders and in the surrounding trees. After that we walked up to the swimming pool area and birded a short way into the forest near the start of the Tres Picos trail. It was mostly quiet, but we got a few new species here.

We got back to the hotel around 1pm, and after a big lunch we rested for half an hour before heading out again, this time along the track towards the Hotel do Ype. It was very quiet for most of the time, but we then hit a good patch, getting Drab-breasted Tody-Tyrant, Spot-breasted Antvireo and a few others. We then went to some hummingbird feeders in someone's yard, where our main target was Frilled Coquette, which we unfortunately didn't see. By then it was getting dark so we returned to the hotel.

Tonight we had another try for Tawny-browed Owl after dinner, but we didn't hear or see one (or any other nightbirds).

14 August

Ann said this morning that she'd heard Tawny-browed Owl calling close to her room at around 2am, so at least there's one around. After a 5.30 breakfast we set off in the bus for Alguhas Road. This is just over an hour from the hotel, if going straight there, but we had a stop on the way, where we picked up a lot of open country species, including Curl-crested Jay, Savannah and White-tailed Hawks, Yellow-rumped Marshbird and White-eyed Parakeet.

We made our next stop at the bottom of Alguhas Road, in a rather trashed area that amazingly held some very good birds. In some seeding bamboo, we found Uniform Finch, plus Plovercrest and Thick-billed Saltator in surrounding trees, and Rufous Gnateater on the ground. We also heard Rufous-tailed Antthrush which, when we had a stop at this place on the way back, had been joined by a calling Speckle-breasted Antpitta and Mouse-coloured Tapaculo, although we didn't manage to see any of these despite a good try.

We made another stop a little further up the road, which got us superb views of a male Large-tailed Antshrike, plus Rufous-capped Spinetail, Variable Antshrike and both Pale-browed and Sharp-billed Treehunters. We could hear the thin whistle of Black-and-gold Cotinga almost constantly, and whilst we were having a sandwich lunch, Giuliano spotted one for us near the top of a tree. We also saw both Warbling-finches several times.

After lunch we headed higher, to a more open area with some araucaria trees, where we quickly found Itatiaia Thistletail and Araucaria Tit-Spinetail. Heading down we stopped at a stakeout for Plovercrest to try for a better view, but there was no sign of one. Hence we stopped again at the trashed area at the bottom of the road, where I found the bird pretty quickly almost exactly where we'd first seen it!

Back in Itatiaia, we stopped at Hotel Donati to try for Rufous-browed Owl, and within seconds of Giuliano playing the tape, I saw the owl fly into the back of a nearby tree. We quickly located it, and then got superb views when it flew into a dead tree and perched in the open.

15 August

We again had a 5.30 breakfast, after which we birded around the hotel and the start of the Tres Picos trail. It was very cold and not very birdy. The only new bird for me was a female Frilled Coquette, which I spotted near the top of a tall tree.

We left Itatiaia around 10am, for the long drive to the Black-hooded Antwren site near Pereque, and then on to Ubatuba. We would have liked a couple more days in Itatiaia to hike the trails, just stopping for any bird activity, but that approach wasn’t really feasible with a group and such limited time. However, we picked up many of the species that we might have got with more time in Itatiaia at Intervales.

Not long after leaving Itatiaia we stopped at a marshy area to look for Streamer-tailed Tyrant. There was no sign of this bird, but I soon spotted a Rufous-sided Crake at the edge of a marshy patch - it showed really well, in full view, and after that we saw at least one, probably two, more. There were also lots of Chestnut-capped Blackbirds, with one male for every ten or so females / immatures, plus Masked Yellowthroat. Then another surprise when Ian saw a snipe. The oldest member of our group then went back to the bus, got her wellies, slid under the barbed wire fence and flushed three snipe, which we all saw well.

After that we drove for about four hours to the Black-hooded Antwren site near Pereque. Here it didn't take long to find a pair of antwrens, although actually seeing them reasonably well took some effort. Even more secretive were some calling Red-eyed Thornbirds, which Sean and I didn't manage to see at all.

Leaving there, we stopped at a pond by a village on the way back along the dirt track towards the main road. Here, despite the noise of the village and the rubbish round the pond, we saw two Blackish Rails, a Wing-banded Hornero and a couple of Brazilian Teals, amongst others.

By then the light was fading, and we were still some way from Ubatuba, where we arrived at our rather posh hotel in the town around 7.30pm. Unfortunately being in town also meant being woken in the early hours by a chorus of barking dogs, but otherwise the place was very nice.

16 August

We had breakfast at 6am and then headed out in the bus for Fazenda Angelim, where we spent the whole morning birding the entrance track and the area around the fazenda. The birding was slow at times, with a few bursts of activity. Highlights were a very obliging male Tufted Antshrike, several cute Buff-throated Purpletufts, and a Scaled Antbird. However, we couldn't get a calling Spotted Bamboowren to come closer.

We returned to Ubatuba for a late, but very good, lunch in a small restaurant, after which we had about an hour of downtime before heading for Jonas's feeders at Folha Seca. A stop along the dirt road before we got to the feeders got us Long-billed Wren and Red-eyed Thornbirds. The feeders themselves were amazing - huge numbers of about ten species of hummingbird, including gorgeous little Festive Coquettes, Saw-billed Hermits, Swallow-tailed Hummingbirds, and smaller numbers of Sombre Hummingbirds and White-chinned Sapphires.

We stayed until it got dark, and tried for a few owls, but we only heard Tropical Screech-Owl.

17 August

We spent this morning at Folha Seca, birding the road down to Jonas's house and beyond. The birding was mostly pretty slow, although there were a few small flocks. The main highlights were good views of Slaty Bristlefront and Unicolored Antwren. Ian also saw a Spot-winged Wood-Quail, and we got very good looks at Ferruginous Antbird and Spot-breasted Antvireo. In addition, Sean spotted a Three-toed Sloth, which we saw very well, as it scratched itself and fed on cecropia leaves, extremely slowly. Unfortunately there was no sign of Spotted Bamboowren.

We returned to Ubatuba for a late lunch at the same restaurant as yesterday, and then had an hour's break before heading out to a short track through forest down to the beach. Our only new birds here were a very loud Gray-hooded Attila and a few Semipalmated Sandpipers. A calling Black-cheeked Gnateater came very close but didn't show.

18 August

This morning we started off back at Angelim, which was very birdy - maybe the very low cloud helped. Anyway, a Blonde-crested Woodpecker was again calling at the start of the track, and all those who hadn't previously got a good view did so. In the meantime I caught up with Yellow-lored Tody-Flycatcher and had better looks at Rufous-winged Antwrens. The rest of the group then joined us just as a Spot-backed Antshrike appeared - a really great looking bird that we all saw well.

After that we went off the track into the forest for Bamboowren. It took a while, but we were rewarded with superb views of a pair. Those still needing better looks at Rufous-capped Antthrush then stayed in the forest to try for that, whilst the rest of us returned to the track. I tried to see a calling bird that was close to the track, recognizing the call a split second before the bird showed itself and then immediately shot across the track and disappeared. Unfortunately our attempts to get this Black-cheeked Gnateater to return weren't successful.

Tearing ourselves away from Angelim, we headed for nearby Fazenda Capricornio. Here we birded along a track past some houses and through some areas with a few banana trees to the fazenda, which looks like a barely used (and currently empty) lodge. We got a few good birds here, but unfortunately not the hoped-for Fork-tailed Tody-Tyrant.

After that it was back to Ubatuba for lunch, then packing for the four hour drive to Sao Paolo, where Sean and I were dropped off at Hotel Panamby and the rest of the group went to the airport for their flight to Cuiaba and a week in the Pantanal and Chapada.

19 August

We were collected from the hotel at 7.30am by our driver and English-speaking interpreter, who drove us to Intervales state park, where we arrived around midday. The last hour or so was along a track through mostly dry fields with occasional cattle. Sadly there was very little forest until we reached the state park itself.

We didn't have any birding stops en route, but we did spot a small number of birds from the car. First Sean saw a Swallow-tailed Kite, which I missed, and then I saw what I think was a Burrowing Owl on a post. After that, Sean kept an eye on the posts, which meant that half an hour later he missed the Seriema that was running along the verge. Unfortunately we didn't see another one - this would have been a new family for Sean.

On arrival at Intervales we found, as expected, that none of the staff speaks any English at all. However, our interpreter helped us get the initial info we needed before he and the driver drove us up to Sede de Pesquisa where we were staying, and then set off back to Sao Paolo. The Sede was a three-bedroom building with lounge and kitchen, about a mile from the dining room. For our first night the other two bedrooms were occupied by three researchers, but for the rest of our stay we had it to ourselves.

After getting sorted out, we birded our way down for lunch (a good, although rather basic, buffet), finding several lifers. Then we met our birding guide, Luiz, around 3pm, and set out on one of the trails. Just on this first afternoon we got two of the best birds of the trip - a stunning Atlantic Royal-Flycatcher that flew onto a low branch right in front of us and stayed in full view for about a minute, and then later a Short-tailed Antthrush foraging on the grassy track just ahead of us, right in the open.

We finished birding at dusk, and after showering we headed to the dining room for dinner, arriving just after the supposed 7.30pm start. However, we ended up waiting around for half an hour before it opened, so we arrived after 8pm on subsequent nights.

20 August

Luiz met us outside our Sede at 6.15am, and we headed along one of the tracks for a couple of hours of superb birding. Generally the distinctive call of Rufous-capped Spinetail was a good sign of a mixed flock coming through, comprising mainly foliage gleaners, woodcreepers, Plain Antvireos, Golden-crowned Warblers and then several other species, which varied from flock to flock. Highlights before breakfast were a female Tufted Antshrike - a really stunning bird with fine bronze and black barring and a bright rufous crest, and White-bearded Antshrike. It was hard to tear ourselves away, and we had to move quite fast to try to get to breakfast before the 9am close. However we were helped with a lift in the back of the truck that had come to collect the other people from our building, and also it seems that it's not just start times for meals that are late - six people walking in for breakfast after 9am didn't seem to be a problem.

After breakfast we headed out again, and less than 100 metres from the restaurant we were picking up more lifers. It started when Sean and I saw a big long-tailed bird fly low across the track. I could only think of Squirrel Cuckoo, but it hadn't looked quite right for that. Anyway, edging closer to where it had gone in, we were distracted by a few more species. Then Sean spotted movement on the ground, and I quickly got onto the bird - a Giant Antshrike! I knew they were big but this was huge, and really gorgeous. We got fantastic views as it foraged on the ground. It seems like the birds are generally much more confiding here than elsewhere, maybe because of the relatively small number of visitors. Whatever the reason, the birding here is fantastic. Further on another big bird flushed from the path in front of us. We didn't manage to see it, but whilst scanning the ground, Sean spotted a Rufous-breasted Leaftosser, which we saw very well. We also saw plenty of furnariids, woodcreepers and woodpeckers, as well as several antbirds. In addition, there are quite a lot of hummingbirds in the forest - we even saw a Plovercrest at one point.

After lunch, attended by us and two coach-loads of high-school kids, we birded our way back the longer (and birdier) route, which left us about 20 minutes before Luiz arrived and we set out again at 3pm. We walked up the hill and along a ridge, to what I think was the Carmo area. We started off by dipping a Solitary Tinamou, which Luiz has a spot for by a stream. For most of the afternoon the birding was pretty slow - we had a couple of flocks, but they didn't include anything new. Higher up we had a few bushes full of hummingbirds, but again no lifers. However, a little further on from that, what sounded like a gunshot was actually a Robust Woodpecker, which we saw very well drumming on a tree stump.

By the time we turned around it was getting quite late, so we had to walk back pretty fast, and even then it was almost completely dark when we arrived back at our Sede. We then got showered before heading down for dinner. Given the windy and cloudy conditions, our brief attempts to look for nightbirds were not surprisingly unsuccessful.

21 August

It was cold and drizzly when we set out with Luiz this morning. We birded down the road to breakfast, seeing very little as the light was poor. After breakfast we had to return to our Sede for more clothes, including rain jackets. Luiz then took us down the trail that starts opposite our Sede. We took a long but very scenic route that went along a river for some time, and involved a few crossings on stepping stones. As for birds, we glimpsed Greenish Schiffornis, but saw Oustalet's Tyrannulet and Streamcreeper very well. Sean also got a reasonable look at Squamate Antbird, but I only got a glimpse.

After lunch Sean and I birded our way back to our Sede, with Sean missing Rufous Gnateater for a second time today (not that I got a good look either). However, we both got better views of Star-throated Antwren than we'd had previously.

We set off again with Luiz at 3pm. There was still a fine drizzle and it was pretty cold. We walked down towards the main entrance road and the took a track to the right, which led after about a kilometre to a gate signposted for Fazenda Rita, beyond which the land seems to belong to a logging company, although we walked beyond that point and the forest on one side of the track seemed to be pristine primary forest. Anyway, we got our first treat of the afternoon when Sean spotted a bird at the side of the road that for once wasn't a Rufous-bellied Thrush. In fact it was a Variegated Antpitta, which showed extremely well and only flew off when we got very close to it.

Further on we had a Hooded Berryeater calling quite close to the track, so we played the tape and the bird flew straight over into a high tree the other side of the track. Sean and I could only just see the back end of the bird, which to me seemed surprisingly large, and not quite the right colour. After a while I played the tape again to see if the bird would show a bit more of itself. Our bird didn't move at all, but a Berryeater shot out from further back and flew over the road. Hence what we'd been looking at was the underside of a\female Surucua Trogon! Anyway, we didn't manage to get a good view of either that Berryeater or another one we heard further on.

Another bird that proved unresponsive was a calling Barred Forest-Falcon, but we had more luck with a Black-throated Grosbeak, which showed very well. As the light started fading, we heard a Sharpbill, and I discovered that I don't have a good recording of its call - very frustrating, especially as I know I have at least a couple of CDs with this call at home.

We turned around and headed back, seeing the Antpitta again by the side of the track, and then hearing a Variable Screech-Owl calling. It responded very well to tape, but unfortunately it was by then getting dark, and we discovered that our torch batteries were low, and Luiz's torch was no better, so we only got flyover views as the bird didn't land close to the track.

By the time we got back to the road by the restaurant, it was fully dark, and we saw our last bird of the day - a Paraque on the road under one of the streetlights.

22 August

We set off at 6.30am, seeing a Slaty-breasted Wood-Rail by the track just down from our Sede. We also heard a close Barred Forest-Falcon, which responded to the tape but didn't come in to where we could see it. After breakfast we set off uphill past the accommodation blocks where the huge number of school kids seem to be staying. Some way up we took a trail on the left, which led for a couple of kilometres through the forest, and then to a wider vehicle track. We walked this for some time.

From the narrower track we got much better looks at Greenish Schiffornis than yesterday, and I caught up with Squamate Antbird, although it was still moving too quickly for me to see it as well as I would have liked. From the wider track we saw another Atlantic Royal-Flycatcher, which showed extremely well.

We turned around just after 11am, and hiked back at a reasonable pace, stopping for any interesting birds. The first stop was for a pair of vociferous River Warblers hopping around on the ground in the open. Next was the flycatcher-like bird that Sean and I had seen shortly after arriving at Intervales, which we'd been unable to identify - a Rusty-breasted Nunlet. Like the first one, it was perched very still, low down, and not at all hidden. Further on we stopped again for a Rufous Gnateater, which again Sean didn't manage to see. Next stop was for a mixed flock that included at least one Sao Paolo Tyrannulet - we heard it clearly but only saw it briefly. Then it was fifth (or maybe sixth) time lucky for Sean, when we both got superb looks at a Gnateater that was actually staying still.

By the time we got back it was lunchtime, so we went straight in, getting our daily dose of the deafening noise generated by 80 or so school kids - this time a younger set (luckily they seem to have breakfast and dinner later than we do so we only saw them at lunch). It was also warm and sunny by then, so we were rather weighed down with discarded layers of clothing.

In the afternoon we set out again at 3pm, this time taking a trail that started near our Sede, and went around a valley and finally up to a radio mast. The view from the top was great, and we really regretted not bringing the camera. We also got some really good birds, the first being very good views (at last) of Brown-breasted Bamboo-Tyrant, and then a superb Mantled Hawk. Next was a Mouse-colored Tapaculo, which we heard calling but which didn't initially respond to tape. Just as we started to move on, Sean heard it calling and I then spotted it close to the ground where we were able to see it well. Our next new bird was just before we started the steep climb up to the radio mast - a Brown Tinamou on the path ahead of us. This was soon followed by very good views of two Hooded Berryeaters.

On the hike back we got a White-throated Spadebill and then two heard onlys - a Green-barred Woodpecker and an unresponsive White-breasted Tapaculo. Then Luiz and Sean saw a Helmeted Woodpecker that I didn't get onto until it flew. Next a futile attempt to see calling Spot-winged Wood-Quails took up the rest of the daylight time, so having finally given up on those, we tried to lure in a calling Variable Screech-Owl, which called quite close but didn't move. We had more luck with a Least Pygmy-Owl, although lack of decent torches meant we only got mediocre views. After that we hiked the rest of the way back at a pretty fast pace.

This evening our hike to the restaurant was enlivened by a gorgeous Long-trained Nightjar on the road not far from our Sede. It let us get really close before flying, so we got superb views. The streamers are incredibly long - a really impressive bird. It was still in the same area when we returned, so we got to see it again.

23 August

It was cool and very misty when we set out this morning. We got off to a good start with a White-breasted Tapaculo that came in so close we couldn't focus our bins on it! Then we got a good look at White-throated Spadebill. After breakfast we took the track uphill from our Sede, and continued on this track until it was time to turn back for lunch. It was quite quiet, but after a while we got two more lifers - a close Cinnamon-vented Piha and a more distant Bare-throated Bellbird, which Luiz spotted at the top of a tall tree. Then we got a largish flock of Buff-throated Foliage-gleaners and almost identically-coloured Brown Tanagers. The differences were clear in the bills, tails and posture, but at first glance it looked like a single species flock. However, the highlight of the morning was a Tamandua (a largish buff and black anteater), which was excavating the side of a cecropia trunk, hanging on about half-way up with its long claws. We watched for some time before it came round to our side of the stump and showed its face.

By the time we got back at midday it was really hot and sunny. In the afternoon we walked several shorter trails, which showed us even more of the varied scenery in the park, including big rocky cliffs and caves. At dusk, Luiz took us into one of the caves - far bigger than we expected, with a few stalactites and stalagmites. This was the first birding session we've had here where I've not had a single lifer. However, Pin-tailed Manakin was new for Sean, and nice for me to see again, and later we got a good look at a pair of Robust Woodpeckers and a male Tufted Antshrike. Also, frustratingly, we heard a Sharpbill that we didn't manage to locate until it flew off. When we got back to the road by our Sede, two Long-trained Nightjars flew past. Later on our walk to and from dinner, one of the nightjars put on a fantastic display, flying around very close to us.

24 August

This morning after breakfast we hiked to another cave. We'd expected to be going further into the yesterday's cave, as we thought Luiz had been telling us we needed hard hats to see more of this one, but he actually took us to another one, which was an hour's hike away at a vigorous pace. Hence we didn't have much chance for birding, although we still managed to see a female Giant Antshrike foraging in the leaf litter just off the trail.

The cave was amazing - it was huge, with a shallow river running through it. There were sandy areas, rough rock and sedimentary rocks (I really wish I knew a bit more about geology). There were also lots of little pools looking like paddyfields. In much of the cave there were no stalactites, stalagmites, etc, but in some places there were vast arrays of them. There was also a series of tiers of drapes right from the floor up to the very high ceiling. In a few places we had to crouch low to get through, and we also had to cross the river a couple of times, which was much easier once I'd given up trying to keep my feet dry!

This afternoon we walked the lower trail down through the gate signposted for Fazenda Rita. After a while this goes through secondary growth forest and open areas. We actually got our first lifer before starting out on this track - a Dusky-throated Hermit on the road between our Sede and the dining room. Then in on of the bushes near the dining room, Luiz spotted an Amythyst Woodstar. It was pretty quiet on the track, but worthwhile as we finally got a really good look at a Squamate Antbird (a really smart bird) and two Plovercrests, and we also got another lifer - a very cooperative Serra Tyrant-Manakin.

This evening the two nightjars were in the same places as before, making our trek to and from dinner more enjoyable.

25 August

We were getting collected at 9am for the drive back to the airport, so we just birded on our own near our Sede. We didn't see anything new, but we did get good looks at a Spot-backed Antshrike, a Dusky-tailed Antbird and a White-shouldered Fire-eye. When it got to about 9.20 and there was no sign of our transport, I jogged down to reception (stopping briefly for a nice flock, which gave me a good look at White-browed Foliage-gleaner) to check they weren't waiting for us there. They weren't, but they'd phoned to say they were a bit late due to an accident blocking the highway. Anyway, they arrived about 15 minutes later, by which time I'd greatly improved on my previous look at Gray-hooded Tyrannulet.

We sped up to our Sede, collected Sean and the bags and sped back to Sao Paolo at a much faster speed than on the way, arriving 3.5 hours later (in contrast to the five hours it took to get to Intervales). Sean was watching for birds en route, whilst I caught up with a week's worth of emails on my Blackberry (there was excellent coverage at Ubatuba, and along most of the highways, but none in Itatiaia or Intervales). Unfortunately Sean didn't see a Seriema, so no new families for either of us on this trip.
Our BA flight left about 40 minutes late, but was much better than the Lufthansa flight due to seat-back tv screens with 18 channels, radio, music, etc. However, it was again completely full and we could only get middle seats, although at least we got to sit together this time.

26 August

We arrived back at Vienna Airport around 2pm, and got home with no problems with the car. Our bags, as so often happens, arrived two days later!

Species Lists


P = Hotel Panamby, near Sao Paolo international airport
T = whilst travelling
It = Itatiaia National park
AN = Alguhas Negras Road near Itatiaia
M = marshy / open areas near Itatiaia
B = Black-hooded Antwren site near Pereque, including the pond near the village
U = Ubatuba
In = Intervales State Park
' = seen before by me but not in Brazil
" = seen on my previous trip to Brazil
! = endemic

The bird list is from Avisys, and is based on Clements.

Solitary Tinamou Tinamus solitarius - In(g) - one seen by Luiz on two occasions - they disappear very quickly.
Brown Tinamou Crypturellus obsoletus - It(h), U(h), In - heard fairly often in each area. One seen briefly on a narrow trail in Intervales.
' Brown Booby Sula leucogaster - U
'' Neotropic Cormorant Phalacrocorax brasilianus - T, U
' Magnificent Frigatebird Fregata magnificens – T, U
'' Great Egret Ardea alba - T
'' Little Blue Heron Egretta caerulea - U
'' Cattle Egret Bubulcus ibis - T
'' White-faced Whistling-Duck Dendrocygna viduata - B
Brazilian Teal Amazonetta brasiliensis - B
'' Black Vulture Coragyps atratus - all sites
'' Turkey Vulture Cathartes aura - almost all sites, although not noticed at Intervales, and not nearly as common as Black Vulture
'' Swallow-tailed Kite Elanoides forficatus - T - one seen by Sean on the way to Intervales.
Bicolored Hawk Accipiter bicolor - U(g) - one seen by a few people flying from near Jonas's feeders.
Mantled Hawk Leucopternis polionota - In - one seen very well in tall trees in a more open part of the forest.
'' Savanna Hawk Buteogallus meridionalis - M
'' Roadside Hawk Buteo magnirostris - T, It, M, U, In - common
'' Short-tailed Hawk Buteo brachyurus - It, T
'' White-tailed Hawk Buteo albicaudatus - M, AN
Black Hawk-Eagle Spizaetus tyrannus - AN, U - seen once in flight at each of these sites.
'' Southern Caracara Caracara plancus - T, It, U, In - common
'' Yellow-headed Caracara Milvago chimachima - It, U, In - fairly common.
Barred Forest-Falcon Micrastur ruficollis - It(h), In(h) - heard a small number of times.
Collared Forest-Falcon Micrastur semitorquatus - U(gh)
'' American Kestrel Falco sparverius - T
Dusky-legged Guan Penelope obscura - It, AN, In - common in Itatiaia area, less so elsewhere.
Black-fronted Piping-Guan Pipile jacutinga - In - a few seen.
Spot-winged Wood-Quail Odontophorus capueira - It(h), U(h,g), In(h) - heard once in Itatiaia and at Angelim. Heard three times in Intervales, where they each time responded to tape but didn't show. Ian saw one foraging at Capricornio.
Rufous-sided Crake Laterallus melanophaius - M – 2 or 3 on 15 August
Slaty-breasted Wood-Rail Aramides saracura - U(g), In - seen about five times in Intervales, mostly in the area near our Sede where fruit waste is composted - rather shy
'' Blackish Rail Pardirallus nigricans - B
Common Moorhen Gallinula chloropus - B
'' Red-legged Seriema Cariama cristata - T - one en route to Intervales
'' Wattled Jacana Jacana jacana - B
'' Southern Lapwing Vanellus chilensis - T, In
' Semipalmated Plover Charadrius semipalmatus – U – a couple on the beach
South American Snipe Gallinago paraguaiae - M – 3 on 15 August
' Kelp Gull Larus dominicanus - U
' Sandwich (Cayenne) Tern Sterna sandvicensis - U
'' Feral Pigeon Columba livia - T, U
'' Picazuro Pigeon Columba picazuro - P, It, AN, In
' Plumbeous Pigeon Columba plumbea - It, U(g), In
'' Eared Dove Zenaida auriculata - In
'' Ruddy Ground-Dove Columbina talpacoti - B, U
'' Gray-fronted Dove Leptotila rufaxilla - It(g), In
'' White-eyed Parakeet Aratinga leucophthalmus - M
Maroon-(Reddish-)bellied Parakeet Pyrrhura frontalis - It, M, U, In - very common
Blue-winged Parrotlet Forpus xanthopterygius - B
! Plain Parakeet Brotogeris tirica - U, In - seen fairly often
Pileated (Red-capped) Parrot Pionopsitta pileata - In - seen a couple of times - quite quiet and inconspicuous
'' Scaly-headed Parrot Pionus maximiliani - It, AN, B, U, In - seen fairly often
Blue-bellied Parrot Triclaria malachitacea - In(h) - heard once as they flew over
'' Squirrel Cuckoo Piaya cayana - It, In
'' Smooth-billed Ani Crotophaga ani - T, M
'' Guira Cuckoo Guira guira – P, T – a few at the front of Hotel Panamby, a few between Sao Paolo and Itatiaia
' Striped Cuckoo Tapera naevia - U(h)
' Tropical Screech-Owl Otus choliba - U(h)
Variable (Black-capped) Screech-Owl Otus atricapillus - In - heard on two occasions, seen once
Tawny-browed Owl Pulsatrix koeniswaldiana - It – seen well in the grounds of Hotel Donati
Least Pygmy-Owl Glaucidium minutissimum - In - one seen around dusk
'' Ferruginous Pygmy-Owl Glaucidium brasilianum - It(h)
'' Burrowing Owl Athene cunicularia – T (probably) - I think I saw one en route to Intervales
'' Pauraque Nyctidromus albicollis - In - just one
Long-trained Nightjar Macropsalis forcipata - In - two of these gorgeous birds on the road near our Sede on each of our last four nights there
'' White-collared Swift Streptoprocne zonaris - It, T, In
! Saw-billed Hermit Ramphodon naevius - U - easy at Jonas's feeders. A few elsewhere.
Scale-throated Hermit Phaethornis eurynome - It, In - a few at the feeders at Itatiaia, a few in the forest at both sites
'' Planalto Hermit Phaethornis pretrei - B
! Dusky-throated Hermit Phaethornis squalidus - In - just one, on the road between our Sede and the dining room.
'' Reddish Hermit Phaethornis ruber - U - just one at Capricornio
! Sombre Hummingbird Campylopterus cirrochloris - U - a very small number at Jonas's feeders
'' Swallow-tailed Hummingbird Eupetomena macrourus - AN, U, T - a couple at AN, more at Jonas's feeders, a few on telegraph wires in villages
'' Black Jacobin Florisuga fuscus - It - at the feeders
'' Black-throated Mango Anthracothorax nigricollis - U, In - one or two at Jonas's feeders, one at Intervales
Plovercrest Stephanoxis lalandi - AN, In - one at AN, seen on two occasions at Intervales
! Frilled Coquette Lophornis magnificus - It - just one in the forest
Festive Coquette Lophornis chalybeus - U - lots at Jonas's feeders
'' Glittering-bellied Emerald Chlorostilbon aureoventris - It - a few at the feeders
Violet-capped Woodnymph Thalurania glaucopis - It, U, In - very common
'' White-chinned Sapphire Hylocharis cyanus - U - a very small number at Jonas's feeders
White-throated Hummingbird Leucochloris albicollis - It, AN, In - fairly common
'' Versicolored Emerald Agyrtria versicolor - It, U, In - a few, especially at the feeders
'' Glittering-throated Emerald Polyerata fimbriata - U - a small number
! Brazilian Ruby Clytolaema rubricauda - It, U, In - fairly common at each site, especially at feeders
'' Amythyst Woodstar Calliphlox amethystina - In - just one near the dining room
'' White-tailed Trogon Trogon viridis - U - just one or two
' Black-throated Trogon Trogon rufus - In - common in Intervales
'' Surucua Trogon Trogon surrucura - It, In - several seen
'' Ringed Kingfisher Ceryle torquata - U
'' Green Kingfisher Chloroceryle americana - U(g)
Rufous-capped Motmot Baryphthengus ruficapillus - It, In - seen once in Itatiaia, and on 4 out of 6 days in Intervales
! Crescent-chested Puffbird Malacoptila striata - In - seen twice
Rusty-breasted Nunlet Nonnula rubecula - In - seen twice
Saffron Toucanet Baillonius bailloni - It, In - common in Itatiaia. Seen once in Intervales.
Spot-billed Toucanet Selenidera maculirostris - In(gh) - heard once by Luiz on one of the trails. It didn't respond at all to the tape.
'' Channel-billed Toucan Ramphastos vitellinus - U - at Capricornio and Angelim
'' Red-breasted Toucan Ramphastos dicolorus - It, U, In - fairly common
White-barred Piculet Picumnus cirratus - It(g), B, U - several at Angelim. One at each of the other sites.
Ochre-collared Piculet Picumnus temminckii - In - one or two seen most days in Intervales
Yellow-fronted Woodpecker Melanerpes flavifrons - U, In - a few groups seen
White-spotted Woodpecker Veniliornis spilogaster - It(g,h), In - the commonest woodpecker in Intervales - seen most days.
Yellow-(White-)browed Woodpecker Piculus aurulentus - In – only seen twice
Green-barred Woodpecker Colaptes melanochloros - In(h)
'' Campo Flicker Colaptes campestris - M, In
'' Blond-crested Woodpecker Celeus flavescens - U, In - one at Angelim near the start of the track on both our visits there. One at Intervales
Helmeted Woodpecker Dryocopus galeatus - In - one seen briefly by Sean and Luiz, but not by me. A couple heard.
' Lineated Woodpecker Dryocopus lineatus - It, In(h)
Robust Woodpecker Campephilus robustus - In - seen twice, heard fairly often
'' Rufous Hornero Furnarius rufus - P, In
Wing-banded Hornero Furnarius figulus - B - one by the pond in the village was a surprise.
Araucaria Tit-Spinetail Leptasthenura setaria - AN - a couple in the araucarias
'' Chicli (Spix's) Spinetail Synallaxis spixi - It - one near the swimming pool
Rufous-capped Spinetail Synallaxis ruficapilla - AN, In - common in Intervales
Gray-bellied Spinetail Synallaxis cinerascens - In - just one
! Pallid Spinetail Cranioleuca pallida - In - seen two or three times
'' Yellow-chinned Spinetail Certhiaxis cinnamomea - M, B
! Itatiaia Thistletail Oreophylax moreirae -AN - a couple in low vegetation near the araucarias
! Red-eyed Thornbird Phacellodomus erythrophthalmus - B(g,h), U (Folha Seca), In(h)
'' Plain Xenops Xenops minutus - In
'' Streaked Xenops Xenops rutilans - It, In
Sharp-billed Treehunter Heliobletus contaminatus - AN, In - once at each site
White-browed Foliage-gleaner Anabacerthia amaurotis - In - just two
Buff-browed Foliage-gleaner Syndactyla rufosuperciliata - In - a few
! Pale-browed Treehunter Cichlocolaptes leucophrus - AN, In(h) - one seen at AN, one heard at Intervales
'' Buff-fronted Foliage-gleaner Philydor rufus - It, In - common in Intervales
Black-capped Foliage-gleaner Philydor atricapillus - U, In - seen once at Angelim and once in Intervales
! White-collared Foliage-gleaner Anabazenops fuscus - It, In - one at Angelim, one or two seen most days at Intervales
Rufous-breasted Leaftosser Sclerurus scansor - In - three seen
Sharp-tailed Streamcreeper Lochmias nematura - In - one by a river
Thrush-like (Plain-winged) Woodcreeper Dendrocincla turdina - U, In - a couple at Angelim, one in Intervales
'' Olivaceous Woodcreeper Sittasomus griseicapillus - It, In
White-throated Woodcreeper Xiphocolaptes albicollis - U, In - a few
Planalto Woodcreeper Dendrocolaptes platyrostris - It - just one
Scaled Woodcreeper Lepidocolaptes squamatus - In - seen on about 3 days
Scalloped Woodcreeper Lepidocolaptes falcinellus - It - 2 or 3
Lesser Woodcreeper Xiphorhynchus fuscus - It, U - one at each site
Spot-backed Antshrike Hypoedaleus guttatus - U, In - one at Angelim, one at Intervales between our Sede and the dining room
Giant Antshrike Batara cinerea - In - two seen
Tufted Antshrike Mackenziaena severa - U, In - a male at Angelim and one of each (in different areas) at Intervales
Large-tailed Antshrike Mackenziaena leachii - AN, In - one male at each of these sites
White-bearded Antshrike Biatas nigropectus - In - just one seen briefly on one of the higher trails - we'd have liked a better look at this species
'' Chestnut-backed Antshrike Thamnophilus palliatus - B - one seen well
Variable Antshrike Thamnophilus caerulescens - AN, In - fairly common in Intervales
Spot-breasted Antvireo Dysithamnus stictothorax - It, U, In - seen once at Itatiaia, a few at Angelim, and one in Intervales
'' Plain Antvireo Dysithamnus mentalis - It, U, In - common
! Star-throated Antwren Myrmotherula gularis - It, In - heard a couple of times and seen once in Itatiaia. Seen and heard two or three times in Intervales. A hard bird to see well as it moves quickly on or near the ground
! Unicolored Antwren Myrmotherula unicolor - U - just seen once at Angelim
'' Rufous-winged Antwren Herpsilochmus rufimarginatus - U - twice at Angelim
! Black-hooded Antwren Formicivora erythronotos - B
! Ferruginous Antbird Drymophila ferruginea - It, U, In - fairly frequent at each site.
Bertoni's (Rufous-necked) Antbird Drymophila rubricollis - In - only seen twice. Distinguished from Ferruginous mainly by call
! Ochre-rumped Antbird Drymophila ochropyga - In - seen on two occasions
Dusky-tailed Antbird Drymophila malura - In - a few, including one in the low vegetation in front of the dining room
! Scaled Antbird Drymophila squamata - U - just one at Angelim
Streak-capped Antwren Terenura maculata - U - just one at Angelim
'' White-shouldered Fire-eye Pyriglena leucoptera - It, U, In - a couple seen and heard at each site
! Squamate Antbird Myrmeciza squamosa - U(h), In - seen three times, heard a couple more times. A difficult bird to see well.
' Rufous-capped Antthrush Formicarius colma - U, In(h) - two at Angelim, one seen, one heard at Intervales
Short-tailed Antthrush Chamaeza campanisona - In - seen twice
Brazilian (Rufous-tailed) Antthrush Chamaeza ruficauda - AN(h) - heard in the area at the bottom of the road
! Such's (Cryptic) Antthrush Chamaeza meruloides - It(h) - heard once
Variegated Antpitta Grallaria varia - In - seen on three occasions, plus a few more heard.
Speckle-breasted Antpitta Hylopezus nattereri - AN(h) - heard at the bottom of the road
Rufous Gnateater Conopophaga lineata - AN, In - one at the bottom of AN. 5 or 6 seen or heard in Intervales
! Black-cheeked Gnateater Conopophaga melanops - U - heard a couple of times at Angelim, and I also saw one briefly
Spotted Bamboowren Psilorhamphus guttatus - U - two seen well at Angelim, after a fair bit of effort
! Slaty Bristlefront Merulaxis ater - U - one at Folha Seca
Mouse-colored Tapaculo Scytalopus speluncae - AN(h), In - a few heard at AN, two seen, one more heard, in Intervales
! White-breasted Tapaculo Scytalopus indigoticus - In - one seen, another heard, in different areas quite near our Sede
! Black-and-gold Cotinga Tijuca atra - AN - heard most of the time we were there, but hard to see as they call from just below the canopy.
! Hooded Berryeater Carpornis cucullatus - In - heard almost constantly, but hard to see
! Buff-throated Purpletuft Iodopleura pipra - U - a few at Angelim, a couple at Capricornio
! Cinnamon-vented Piha Lipaugus lanioides - In - heard fairly often, seen once
'' Red-ruffed Fruitcrow Pyroderus scutatus - AN, In - two seen distantly at AN, one flew by at Intervales
Bare-throated Bellbird Procnias nudicollis - In - heard calling fairly often, just one seen right at the top of a tall tree
'' White-bearded Manakin Manacus manacus - U
Blue (Swallow-tailed) Manakin Chiroxiphia caudata - It, AN, U, In - fairly common
!'' Pin-tailed Manakin Ilicura militaris - In - just one male
! Serra Tyrant-Manakin Neopelma chrysolophum - In - one seen, two heard in secondary growth from the track beyond the Fazenda Rita gate
'' Wing-barred Piprites Piprites chloris - In - just one
'' Southern Beardless-Tyrannulet Camptostoma obsoletum - P, It
'' Yellow-bellied Elaenia Elaenia flavogaster - P, B
'' Highland Elaenia Elaenia obscura - In - one near the dining room
Large Elaenia Elaenia spectabilis - In – one
'' White-crested Tyrannulet Serpophaga subcristata - In - just one
'' Gray-hooded Flycatcher Mionectes rufiventris - It, In - a few
'' Sepia-capped Flycatcher Leptopogon amaurocephalus - It, U, In - fairly common
Sao Paulo Tyrannulet Phylloscartes paulistus - In - seen about three times - fairly inconspicuous
! Oustalet's Tyrannulet Phylloscartes oustaleti - In - seen twice
! Serra do Mar Tyrannulet Phylloscartes difficilis - AN - just one - it looked like a white-eye
Mottle-cheeked Tyrannulet Phylloscartes ventralis - AN - a few
Bay-ringed Tyrannulet Phylloscartes sylviolus - In - just one - tiny and difficult to see well
Rough-legged Tyrannulet Phyllomyias burmeisteri - U - seen once at Angelim
Greenish Tyrannulet Phyllomyias virescens - In - just one
! Gray-capped Tyrannulet Phyllomyias griseocapilla - U, In - a couple at each site
Eared Pygmy-Tyrant Myiornis auricularis - It, In - one at Itatiaia, fairly common at Intervales
Drab-breasted Bamboo-Tyrant Hemitriccus diops - It - several heard, very difficult to see
Brown-breasted Bamboo-Tyrant Hemitriccus obsoletus - In - several heard, very difficult to see, but we eventually found one that stayed still for a short while in full view
! Hangnest Tody-Tyrant Hemitriccus nidipendulus - M(g), In - two at Intervales
Ochre-faced Tody-Flycatcher Todirostrum plumbeiceps - In - fairly common
! Yellow-lored Tody-Flycatcher Todirostrum poliocephalum - U - 2 seen at Angelim, one at Capricornio
'' Large-headed Flatbill Ramphotrigon megacephala - It - one seen
'' Yellow-olive Flycatcher Tolmomyias sulphurescens - It, In - a few
White-throated Spadebill Platyrinchus mystaceus - U(g), In - about three at Intervales
Atlantic Royal-Flycatcher Onychorhynchus coronatus - In - two seen very well
' Bran-colored Flycatcher Myiophobus fasciatus - M
! Yellow-rumped Flycatcher Myiobius mastacalis - U
'' Cliff (Swallow) Flycatcher Hirundinea ferruginea - It, U, In - a few near the hotels in Itatiaia and Ubatuba, and near the dining room at Intervales
'' Vermilion Flycatcher Pyrocephalus rubinus - P, U - one at Hotel Panamby, one at the road to the beach near Ubatuba
Blue-billed Black-Tyrant Knipolegus cyanirostris - It - a few around the hotel and the swimming pool
! Velvety Black-Tyrant Knipolegus nigerrimus - It - a few around the hotel and the swimming pool
'' Masked Water-Tyrant Fluvicola nengeta - It, M, B - a few
'' Yellow-browed Tyrant Satrapa icterophrys - M(g)
'' Long-tailed Tyrant Colonia colonus - It, B(g), U, In - a few
'' Cattle Tyrant Machetornis rixosus - U(g,h), In - at the hotel in Ubatuba, and by the dining room at Intervales
Shear-tailed Gray Tyrant Muscipipra vetula - AN, In - seen once at each site in the tops of trees
! Gray-hooded Attila Attila rufus - U, In(h) - seen very well on the road to the beach at Ubatuba. Heard frequently in Intervales
'' Sirystes Sirystes sibilator - It - just one
' Grayish Mourner Rhytipterna simplex - U - seen once at each of Angelim and Capricornio
" Short-crested Flycatcher Myiarchus ferox - It, In - one at each site
'' Great Kiskadee Pitangus sulphuratus - P, It, M, B, U, In - seen daily
'' Boat-billed Flycatcher Megarynchus pitangua - M, B
'' Social Flycatcher Myiozetetes similis - M, U
Greenish Schiffornis Schiffornis virescens - In - several
Chestnut-crowned Becard Pachyramphus castaneus - It, U, In - one at each of Itatiaia and Intervales, two at Angelim
'' Green-backed Becard Pachyramphus viridis - U - one at Capricornio
Crested (Plain) Becard Pachyramphus validus - It - just one
Sharpbill Oxyruncus cristatus - In(h) - heard twice, glimpsed flying off
'' Gray-breasted Martin Progne chalybea - M, U
'' White-rumped Swallow Tachycineta leucorrhoa - In
'' Blue-and-white Swallow Pygochelidon cyanoleuca - It, M, B, U, In
'' Southern Rough-winged Swallow Stelgidopteryx ruficollis - It, M
! Long-billed Wren Thryothorus longirostris - U - one at Folha Seca
'' House Wren Troglodytes aedon - It, U, In
'' Chalk-browed Mockingbird Mimus saturninus - B, In
' Yellow-legged Thrush Platycichla flavipes - It, In - a couple at Itatiaia, one at Intervales
'' Rufous-bellied Thrush Turdus rufiventris - P, It, U, In - very common
'' Pale-breasted Thrush Turdus leucomelas - It, In - a few
' White-necked Thrush Turdus albicollis - In - just one
'' Long-billed Gnatwren Ramphocaenus melanurus - U - one at Angelim
'' Curl-crested Jay Cyanocorax cristatellus - M
' Common Waxbill Estrilda astrild - B (introduced)
Rufous-crowned Greenlet Hylophilus poicilotis - In - a few
'' Rufous-browed Peppershrike Cyclarhis gujanensis - AN, B, In - a few, fairly common at Intervales
'' Tropical Parula Parula pitiayumi - U, In
Masked Yellowthroat Geothlypis aequinoctialis - AN, B
' Golden-crowned Warbler Basileuterus culicivorus - It, I
'' White-rimmed (-browed) Warbler Basileuterus leucoblepharus - AN, It, In - seen once at each site
Neotropical River Warbler Basileuterus rivularis - In - seen once
'' Bananaquit Coereba flaveola - It, AN, U, In
! Brown Tanager Orchesticus abeillei - In - seen only on one occasion in a flock with almost identically-coloured Buff-fronted Foliage-gleaners
' Magpie Tanager Cissopis leveriana - It, In - a few
' Orange-headed Tanager Thlypopsis sordida - P
' Guira Tanager Hemithraupis guira - M
! Rufous-headed Tanager Hemithraupis ruficapilla - U, In - a couple at Jona 's feeders. Seen twice at Intervales
! Olive-green Tanager Orthogonys chloricterus - It, In - fairly common
Flame-crested Tanager Tachyphonus cristatus - U - a few
Ruby-crowned Tanager Tachyphonus coronatus - It, U, In - many at Itatiaia and Ubatuba, just a few at Intervales
Black-goggled Tanager Trichothraupis melanops - It, U, In - a couple at Itatiaia and Ubatuba, fairly common at Intervales
' Red-crowned Ant-Tanager Habia rubica - U, In - one at Angelim, two at Intervales
Brazilian Tanager Ramphocelus bresilius - M, B, U, In - a few at each of these sites except Intervales, where only seen once
'' Sayaca Tanager Thraupis sayaca - P, It, AN, U, In - a few
! Azure-shouldered Tanager Thraupis cyanoptera - U, In - only seen a couple of times
! Golden-chevroned Tanager Thraupis ornata - It, In - many at Itatiaia, only seen once at Intervales
'' Palm Tanager Thraupis palmarum - B
Diademed Tanager Stephanophorus diadematus - AN, In - a couple at AN, one or two seen most days at Intervales
' Fawn-breasted Tanager Pipraeidea melanonota - AN - a couple
' Violaceous Euphonia Euphonia violacea - U - at Jonas's feeders
Chestnut-bellied Euphonia Euphonia pectoralis - It, U - mainly at feeders
Green-headed Tanager Tangara seledon - It, U, In - fairly common (and very beautiful)
Red-necked Tanager Tangara cyanocephala - U - quite a lot at Angelim and Folha Seca. None on feeders.
! Brassy-breasted Tanager Tangara desmaresti - It, In - a few
!'' Gilt-edged Tanager Tangara cyanoventris - It - seen twice
'' Burnished-buff Tanager Tangara cayana - It - a few
'' Blue Dacnis Dacnis cayana - It, B, U, In
'' Green Honeycreeper Chlorophanes spiza - U
'' Swallow-Tanager Tersina viridis - It
! Bay-chested Warbling-Finch Poospiza thoracica - AN - a few
Red-rumped Warbling-Finch Poospiza lateralis - AN, In - a few at AN, just seen once at Intervales
'' Blue-black Grassquit Volatinia jacarina - M
Temminck's Seedeater Sporophila falcirostris - In(h) - heard once
'' Double-collared Seedeater Sporophila caerulescens - It - a few
'' Chestnut-bellied (Lesser) Seed-Finch Oryzoborus angolensis - B(g)
Uniform Finch Haplospiza unicolor - AN, U, In - many in seeding bamboo at AN and Angelim, a few elsewhere around Ubatuba area, just one at Intervales
'' Saffron Finch Sicalis flaveola - U - a couple
! Half-collared Sparrow Arremon semitorquatus - B
'' Grassland Sparrow Ammodramus humeralis - M, B
'' Rufous-collared Sparrow Zonotrichia capensis - P, It, AN, U, In - very common
Black-throated Grosbeak Saltator fuliginosus - In - a couple
'' Green-winged Saltator Saltator similis - It, In - a few
Thick-billed Saltator Saltator maxillosus - AN - only one at the bottom of the road
Chestnut-capped Blackbird Agelaius ruficapillus - M
'' Shiny Cowbird Molothrus bonariensis - In
Red-rumped Cacique Cacicus haemorrhous - It, AN, U - common
Golden-winged Cacique Cacicus chrysopterus - AN, In - seen once at AN, common at Intervales
'' Crested Oropendola Psarocolius decumanus - B, U (Capricornio)
'' Yellow-rumped Marshbird Pseudoleistes guirahuro - M
'' Chopi Blackbird Gnorimopsar chopi - It (seen twice)
'' House Sparrow Passer domesticus - P

Mammal list
Brown Four-eyed Opossum Metachirus nudicaudatus - U(g) – at Jonas’s at dusk
Masked Titi Monkey Callicebus personatus - It(h)
Black-capped (Brown) Capucin Cebus apella - It
Squirrel sp - a few around Hotel Simon, including a very bold one in the restaurant.
Brown-throated Three-toed Sloth Bradypus variegatus - U
Southern Tamandua Tamandua tetradactyla - In, on the 23rd
Azara's Agouti Agouti azarae - In - one by the stream near our Sede.

Main dips:
Swallow-tailed Cotinga - I asked Luiz about this, and he said (I think) that they have nested a couple of times in the trees surrounding the open area near the dining room at Intervales, but presumably they weren’t when we were there.

Buffy-fronted, Temminck's and Blackish-blue Seedeaters - these species like seeding bamboo, and all the bamboo in a particular area seeds at one time, and then for many years it doesn't seed. The bamboo in Itatiaia was seeding when we were there, and we saw lots of Uniform Finches on it, but none of the above species, which based on other trip reports are more often seen in Intervales. However, the bamboo in Intervales wasn't seeding and the nearest we got to any of these species was one Temminck's heard.

White-eyed Foliage-gleaner - this is frequently seen in Itatiaia, and seen fairly often in Intervales. We saw a lot of Foliage-gleaners, but no sign of this species.

Ochre-breasted Foliage-gleaner - no sign of this at Intervales – I don’t know why.