Chile - A Birding Trip Report - November 2007

Published by Barry Walker (bwalker AT terra.com.pe)

Participants: Led by: Barry Walker With: Barbara Thomas, Irmgard Kroier, Joe and Sylvia Easley, Paul Berrigan and Alan Cairns.

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Joe, Sylvia and Irmgard came in day early and decided to go birding with a Santiago birder Rodrigo Barros and Barry joined them and we birded Farellones and the Mahuide Park. Next day we were off on a journey which took us the full 4000 kilometer length of the country from the most arid desert in the world – the Atacama – to the plains of Patagonia, the high glacier topped Andes and the temperate coastal range of the centre of the country and to the extreme foot of the American continent – Tierra del Fuego, the Land of Fire. Food was consistently good though and we tried local dishes such as Pastel de Choclo, Empanadas, Chilena Salmon, Mote con Hueso and of course Pisco Sours. You definitely had to be a fan of Ham and Cheese Sandwiches (Barros Jarpa in Chilean Spanish), which were served ubiquitously on our internal flights and box lunches. This was balanced by excellent seafood and a great variety of evening fare and of course the excellence of the Chilean wines and surprising good quality of its beer (thanks to the strong German influence in the south). We even had an earthquake but we were in the air between Arica and Antofagasta and didn’t feel it but we had to circle until the airport was declared safe to land on. The birds, although not in great quantity as in other places we go to such as Peru and Bolivia, were of great quality and charm. One disappointment was that late snows at Puyehue stopped us from visiting the volcanic crater. We recorded 272 species amongst which were included 23 species of Waterfowl, 4 Miners 4 Earthcreeper’s, 6 Canasteros and 8 Tapaculos. We found ourselves birding in some of the most spectacular scenery imaginable from the stark red deserts to the snow capped altiplano with its herds of Vicunas and Llamas, from the mystical Nothofagus (southern beech) forests, which intrigued Darwin, to the windswept Patagonian plains. Indeed we were birding under Cerro La Campana, which Darwin climbed, when HMS Beagle was refitting in Valparaiso and where the seeds of the Theory of Evolution formed in his mind. The birds were great fun and needed some looking for. Tapaculos and Huet-Huets skulked in the bamboo, flocks of Geese wandered the plains of Tierra del Fuego. Magallanic and Diademed Sandpiper Plovers had their special habitats, whilst Magellanic Woodpeckers and White-throated Treerunner’s roamed the beech forests. A fantastic trip by anyone’s standards!

Schedule.

November 9th. Arrival in Santiago. Some of us went to Farellones and The Mahuide park and met the rest of the group going to Arica at the hotel

November 10th Fly to Arica via Antofagasta and after lunch to the mouth of the Lluta River for some birding before driving to Putre in the high andes.

November 11th Birding the Putre environs at 3600- 3500 meters and then to the Chaquipina Polylepis woodland at 3700 meters, finally birding the Lauca National Park at 4300 meters.

November 12th: Full Day birding the Lauca National Park at 4300 – 4600 meters visiting Las Cuevas, Parinacocta and Laguna Chungara. Late afternoon stop below Putre.

November 13th: Drive from Putre to the Azapa valley and the aptly named “Hummingbird Sanctuary” then after lunch to the Vitor valley near Chaca. Night in Arica

November 14th:Morning birding on the rocky beach close to the hotel and then flight to Santiago to join the main tour.

November 15th Start at the Batuco wetlands at Estero Lampa 650mts. Birding the Catapilca road and then to the Cachagua Penguin Colony. Lunch at Punchuncavi then the Aconcagua estuary, Ventana pools and Renaca coastline. Night Hotel Oceanic

November 16th All day at La Campana national park 500mts. Night in Olmue

November 17th. Morning pelagic 31 miles offshore from Valparaiso and afternoon visit to Lagunas El Peral and Cartagena and return to Santiago.

November 18th. Embalse El Yeso Valley above San Gabriel 1600-2500mts.

November 19th. Santiago to Talca and on to Alta Vilches Park. Afternoon in park at 1200-1350 mts.

November 20th. Morning at Puente Maule and Lago Colbun and then afternoon travel to Santiago and late afternoon birding at Farellones.

November 21st. Flight to Punta Arenas and lunch at the Puerto Viejo Restaurant and then birding south of Punta Arenas to San Juan

November 22nd Drive to the Pali Aike road and then to Buque Quemado. Lunch at the ferry crossing at Iro Angostura. Ferry from Bahia Azul to Tierra del Fuego and birding drive to Porvenir.

November 23rd Morning at Laguna Verde and Bahia Grande and ferry from Porvenir to Punta Arenas.

November 24th. Quick trip south to see Spectacled Duck and then drive to the Penguin colony at Senno Otway and then to airport for flight to Puerto Montt. Drive via Rio Negro to the Puyehue national park. Night at Antillanca.

November 25th. All day birding Puyehue park from Antillanca to Aguas Calientes and Salto del Indio. 1100- 800mts Night Antillanca.

November 14th. All day birding from Antillanca to Aguas Calientes weather not good - 1100 – 900mts. Night Antillanca.

December 15th. Pre-dawn owling at Puyehue and then via Rio Negro the airport. Fly to Santiago and end tour.

Species Lists

THE BIRDS:

E – Chilean Endemic – found only in Chile

NE– Near endemic to Chile – mostly a Chilean species, but whose range just extends into a neighboring country – in this case mostly Peru and Argentina.

CRITICALLY ENDANGERED/ENDANGERED/VULNERABLE
Birdlife International’s status in “Threatened Birds of the World”

* - Heard only.

RHEIDAE
Darwins Rhea Pterocnemia pennata. Fairly common along the road to Pali Aike road on November 22nd with some on the 24th near the Senno Otway Penguin colony. See comments under next species for taxonomic notes.

Puna Rhea Pterocnemia tarapacensis: A total of 14 in Lauca National Park on November 12th. The suggestion that this and the preceding species are worthy of species distinction on the basis of their highly disjunct and allopatric distribution (Jaramillo et al.) is erroneous since both form a contiguous range through central west Argentina. Marginal differences in morphology could well be consistent within sub-specific variation, but there are no studies from the area where the two forms meet, thus for the time-being this potential split remains controversial. The American Ornithologist’s Union South American Checklist Committee (SACC) says “The montane subspecies of Lesser Rhea tarapacensis (with "garleppi") may deserve recognition as a separate species from lowland nominate pennata (Blake 1977, Fjeldså and Krabbe 1990, Folch 1992), and this was followed by Jaramillo (2003)”

TINAMIDAE
CE Chilean Tinamou – Nothoprocta chilena* Only heard unfortunately

Ornate Tinamou Nothoprocta ornata: Prolonged views of a pair above Putre in an alfalfa field on November 14th.

Puna Tinamou Tinamotis pentlandii: Good views of a family group of 13 in Lauca and then a group of 3 spotted by Sylvia, of this poorly known Tinamou as they foraged in the open steppe. Named after Joseph Barclay Pentland, a 19th century Irish explorer and diplomat in Bolivia.

PODICIPEDIDAE
White-tufted Grebe Rollandia rolland: Observations on lakes in central and southern Chile, were all referable to the continental race chilensis. Note that the large nominate race, endemic to the Falkland Islands, may eventually be considered a separate species. Named after Master Gunner Rolland of the French corvette L’ Uranie which circumnavigated the globe from 1817-1820.

Pied –billed Grebe Podilymbus podiceps A few in Central Chile

Silvery Grebe Podiceps occipitalis: We saw 2 sub-species – nominate occipitalis in Patagonia and the junensis race in Lauca. The SACC says “Fjeldså & Krabbe (1990) and Jaramillo (2003) suggested that the northern Andean subspecies, juninensis, might merit recognition as a separate species from Podiceps occipitalis.” They certainly look very different

Great Grebe Podicephorus major: The sightings at El Peral in central Chile were referable to the nominate race. The birds in Patagonia are darker were the subspecies navasi. The SACC says “Podiceps major was formerly (e.g., Peters 1931, Pinto 1938, Hellmayr & Conover 1948a) placed in the genus Aechmophorus, but see Wetmore & Parkes (1954). Bochenski (1994) proposed that this species be placed in a monotypic genus (Podicephorus Bochenski, 1994) based on morphological differences; see also Storer (1963, 1996), who noted that it has a behavioral display unlike that of any other grebe.”

SPHENISCIDAE
Humboldt Penguin Spheniscus humboldti: A Humboldt currant endemic. 60 or more were scoped at their breeding colony at Cachagua Novmber 16th and several seen on the pelagic out of Valparaiso. VULNERABLE. The word Penguin is thought by some to derive from the Welsh words pen (head) and gwyn (white), applied to the now extinct Great Auk, which had white spots in front of its eyes (although its head was black), This theory is supported by the fact that penguins look remarkably like Great Auks in general shape.

Magellanic Penguin Spheniscus magellanicus: 20+ seen from the Porvenir ferry on November 23rd and many at their nesting burrows at Seno Otway the next day, a Patagonian endemic. VULNERABLE

DIOMEDEIDAE
Southern Royal Albatross – Diomedea epomophora epomophora – the first “Royal” we saw was of the nominate form – less common than the following.

Northern Royal Albatross – Diomedea epomophora sanfordi At least 10 of these huge seabirds on the pelagic out of Valparaiso. World population estimated at 13-14 thousand birds. ENDANGERED

Black-browed Albatross Thalassarche melanophris: At least 1400 seen on the Porvenir ferry crossing – an incredible sight and 25 out of Valparaiso and another 30 from the coast near Tres Brazos. World populations of this species have been estimated to be declining 65% per generation (they live for 40-60 years). 65% of the worlds population nest on the Falklands Islands. The smaller species of albatross, also known as Mollymawks, have been separated into the genus Thalassarche, leaving the great albatrosses (Royal and Wandering) in the genus Diomedea and the Sooty Albatrosses in the genus Phoebetria. ENDANGERED

Salvin’s Albatross (Shy Albatross) Thalassarche [cauta] salvini: 25 or more, seen on the Valparaiso pelagic. Different authorities accept between one and four species in the cauta complex, although the latest DNA work shows that they are all closely related. The SACC says “Thalassarche cauta has been considered to consist of three separate species by Robertson & Nunn (1998), and this treatment has been followed by . See, however, Penhallurick & Wink (2004) for continued treatment as conspecific. SACC proposal passed to split into two or three species. SACC proposal pending to reverse this decision.” VULNERABLE

HYDROBATIDAE
Wilson’s Storm-Petrel species Oceanites oceanicus: Fairly common on the pelagic.

White-vented Storm-Petrel - Oceanites gracilis About 4 identified on the Valparaiso pelagic. Nests on guano islands off the coast of Peru and northern Chile

Markham’s Storm Petrel - Oceanodroma markhami. One seen on the pelagic out of Valparaiso

PROCELLARIIDAE
Antarctic (Southern) Giant-Petrel Macronectes giganteus: 20+ from the Valparaiso pelagic and around 30 15 from the Porvenir ferry and near Punta Arenas VULNERABLE

Hall’s (Northern) Giant-Petrel Macronectes halli One positively identified from the Valparaiso pelagic – the red tip to the bill being clearly seen. Named after Australian ornitholigist Robert Hall. THREATENED

Southern Fulmar – Fulmarus glacialoides. Common this year with 2 on the Valparaiso pelagic and 100+ in the Straits of Magellan.

Cape Petrel Daption capense. 300 on the Valparaiso pelagic and six in the straights.

NE Masatierra (Delfilippe’s) Petrel Pterodroma defilippiana. At lest 2 on the Valparaiso pelagic. Near endemic breeding exclusively off the coast of Chile, and rather sedentary. Always good to see a Pterodroma. VULNERABLE

NE Juan Fernandez Petrel Pterodroma externa. 2 on the Valparaíso pelagic. A million pairs breed on Alexander Selkirk island named after the famous castaway who was the inspiration for the book “Robinson Crusoe”

White-chinned Petrel Procellaria aequinoctialis: 20 or more on the pelagic. VULNERABLE

Westland Petrel Procellaria westlandica: At least four seen on the pelagic -one very well at rest on the water VULNERABLE

Pink-footed Shearwater Puffinus creatopus: 150 or more seen on the pelagic. The SACC says “Genetic data (Austin et al. 2004, Penhallurick & Wink 2004) support the tradtional treatment of Pink-footed Shearwater Puffinus creatopus and Flesh-footed Shearwater P. carneipes as sister taxa. Some authors (e.g., REFS, Penhallurick & Wink 2004) consider them to be conspecific.” VULNERABLE

Sooty Shearwater Puffinus griseus: Large numbers on the pelagic.

PELECANOIDIDAE
Peruvian Diving-Petrel Pelecanoides garnotii: Only one of these large diving-petrels on the pelagic, restricted to southern Peru and northern Chile. ENDANGERED

NE Magellanic Diving-Petrel Pelecanoides magellani: 40 seen well from the Porvenir ferry, a Patagonian endemic.

SULIDAE
Peruvian Booby Sula variegata: Fairly common at all coastal sites visited in central Chile, a Humboldt current endemic.

PELECANIDAE
Peruvian Pelican Pelecanus thagus: Large numbers recorded at all coastal sites with some far offshore on the pelagic; another Humboldt currant endemic.

PHALACROCORACIDAE
Neotropic Cormorant Phalacrocorax brasilianus: Scattered records of fairly large
numbers throughout, including one at 4500 metres in Lauca National Park.

Guanay Cormorant (Shag) Phalacrocorax bougainvillii: 25 on the central Chilean coast.

Red-legged Cormorant (Shag) Phalacrocorax gaimardi: 1 near Renaca. A Humbodt currant endemic. NEAR THREATENED

Imperial Cormorant (Shag) Phalacrocorax atriceps: Common in Patagonia and Tierra del Fuego. Formerly considered to comprise two species: King Shag P. albiventer and Blue-eyed Shag P. atriceps but large intermixed colonies occur
throughout much of the species range, courtship displays have been shown to be
identical and cross-breeding with fertile offspring is commonplace, and as such these forms have been lumped. A Patagonian endemic.

Rock Shag - Phalacrocorax magellanicus. Afew nesting from the Bahia Azul ferry crossing and around 100 at various sites in the south A Patagonian endemic.

ANATIDAE
Coscoroba Swan Coscoroba coscoroba: A few in Patagonia and Tierra del Fuego plus apair with 2 goslings at Laguna Cartegena in central Chile. This unusual species with a duck-like bill is probably not a swan at all.

Black-necked Swan Cygnus melancorypha: Common at Laguna El Peral, some with goslings.

Andean Goose Chloephaga melanoptera: Common at Lauca National Park.

Upland Goose Chloeophaga picta Common in the south. Patagonian Endemic

Kelp Goose - Chloeophaga hybrida 7 south of Punta Arenas were a pleasant find – striking sexual dimorphism.

NE Ashy-headed Goose Chloeophaga poliocephala. Many in the south. Occurs in Argentina and the Falklands

NE Ruddy–headed Goose Chloeophaga picta. 16 in the south. Populations have declined dramatically on the South American mainland but a healthy population occurs on the Falklands Islands. Occurs in Argentina.

Crested Duck Lophonetta specularioides: We saw the nominate race in Patagonia and the orange-eyed race alticola in Lauca. Formerly placed in the genus Anas, but recent authors unanimously resurrect the monotypic genus Lophonetta for this unusual duck.

NE Flightless Steamer-Duck Tachyeres pteneres: One aggressive bird chasing Crested Ducks south of Punta Arenas on November 21st and another at long range near the Seno Otway penguin Colony. Virtually a Chilean endemic.

NE Flying Steamer-Duck Tachyeres patachonicus: A total of 12 seen in the south. Also occurs in Argentina but restricted to Patagonia.

Spectacled Duck – Anas specularis. A scouting trip by Barabara and Irmgard found 2 of this species and we twitched it the next day seeing, failing to see that pair, but finding an adult with 7 juveniles nearby NEAR THREATENED

Speckled Teal Anas flavirostris: In the south we saw the nominate flavirostris race. Abundant at Lauca where referable to the altiplano race oxyptera which shows silvery white under-parts which contrast strongly with the dark head. With no reports of integration between these forms it seems plausible that two species are involved as mentioned by Jaramillo et al. Note also that birds from the Andes of Venezuela, Colombia and Ecuador are now split off by some authors as a separate species, the Andean Teal A. andium.

Chiloé Wigeon (Southern W) Anas sibilatrix: Regular encounters throughout the lowlands.

Yellow-billed Pintail Anas georgica: Regular encounters throughout.

Puna Teal Anas puna: 6 in Lauca National Park.

Cinnamon Teal Anas cyanoptera: A few lakes in central Chile referable to the nominate race.

Red Shoveler Anas platalea: Regular at lakes in central Chile.

Rosy-billed Pochard Netta peposaca: One at Estero Lampa.

Torrent Duck Merganetta armata: A male plus 3 young on the river at bthe mouth of the El Yeso Valley .

Black-headed Duck Heteronetta atricapilla. A male with a red base to the bill seen at Laguna Crategena after some searching. The worlds only parasitic Duck, mostly parasitizing Coots. Lays up to 2 eggs in each hosts nest. The young are precocial and so only need incubation from the hosts. Many more seen by Barabara and Irmgard on their last day in Chile.

Andean Duck Oxyura furruginea. We saw a male on lake Chungara in Lauca National Park

Lake Duck Oxyura vittata: Small numbers on lakes in central coastal Chile.

ARDEIDAE
Snowy Egret Egretta thula: Small numbers recorded throughout the tour. Note that the Latin name ‘thula’ refers to Black-necked Swan in Araucano tongue from southern-central Chile and has been erroneously applied to this species.

Great Egret Ardea alba: Scattered records in central Chile. Previously called
Casmerodius albus but DNA and skeletal studies now firmly place this egret in the genus Ardea.

Cattle Egret Bubulcus ibis: Ubiquitous. a species which colonized the New World from Africa in the 1960s.

White-necked (Cocoi) Heron Ardea cocoi. 6 at Estero Lampa on December 3rd.

Black-crowned Night-Heron Nycticorax nycticorax: Small numbers encountered at coastal sites in central and southern Chile and at Lauca

THRESKIORNITHIDAE
Puna Ibis Plegadis ridgwayi: Up to 20 daily at Lauca National Park, still in non-breeding dress.

Black-faced Ibis Theristicus melanopis: A very common sight in the lake district, their presence often revealed by far-carrying trumpeting calls, and referable to the nominate race. Note that Andean Ibis” T. branickii of the high Andes of Ecuador to
Northern Chile (locally common only in the high Andes of Peru) is generally accepted to represent a subspecies of Black-faced Ibis, while the widespread Buff necked Ibis T. caudatus of central-southern South America is unanimously considered as a distinct species. The SACC says “Sibley & Monroe (1990) considered branickii as separate species ("Andean Ibis") from melanopis.”

PHOENICOPTERIDAE
Chilean Flamingo Phoenicopterus chilensis: 30 at Buque Quemado and 80 in
Lauca National Park. The other species of Flamingo were not present and they move about seasonally

CATHARTIDAE
Black Vulture Coragyps atratus: Note that genetic studies indicate that New World vultures are modified storks.

Turkey Vulture Cathartes aura: Fairly common throughout with large numbers seen in the north.

Andean Condor Vultur gryphus:Comon at Farellones 1 immatire at El Yeso and in Patagonia with a male giving fine views.

ACCIPITRIDAE
White-tailed Kite Elanus leucurus: 2 at Estero Lampa

Cinereous Harrier Circus cinereus: A total of seven throughout the tour.

Long-winged Harrier – Circus buffoni A pale morph male seen at Estero Lampa on November 15th was a rarity for Chile. Initially found in mid-October 2006 – the bird returned this summer – where does it go to in winter? A genuine Chilean rarity.

Harris’s (Bay-winged Hawk) – Parabuteo unicinctus 2 in the Mahuide Park

Black-chested Buzzard-Eagle – Geranoaetus melanoleucus

Red-backed Hawk Buteo polyosoma: Regular sightings of singles and pairs throughout the tour in the center and south of the country. This and the following species were once lumped as Variable Hawk but there is no hard data to support this hypothesis. The SACC says “Farquhar (1988) concluded that Buteo poecilochrous and B. polyosoma are conspecific, as they were formerly treated (REF); he was unable to find any way to reliably diagnose the two forms using plumage characters or measurements. Ridgely & Greenfield (2001) and Jaramillo (2003) followed this treatment and suggested "Variable Hawk" be retained for the composite species. Genetic data (Riesing et al. 2003) are consistent with hypothesis that B. polyosoma and B. poecilochrous are conspecific. [incorp. Cabot & De Vries 2003] [incorp. Vaurie 1962]. Proposal badly needed.

Puna Hawk Buteo poecilochrous: These were the birds seen daily in Lauca and also at El Yeso

FALCONIDAE
Mountain Caracara Phalcoboenus megalopterus: A few in Lauca national Park and two at Enbalse El Yeso

Southern Caracara (S Crested-Caracara) Caracara plancus: Common in the lake district. Formerly placed in the genus Polyborus but, this species has been switched to the genus Caracara. Note also that the former species known as Crested Caracara, has been split into three species with those ranging north of north-west Peru and the Amazon River referable to Northern Crested-Caracara C. cheriway while another form, the extinct Guadalupe Caracara C. lutosus, of Guadalupe Island, Mexico, has also been given its untimely species status. The SACC says “Caracara cheriway and C. plancus were formerly considered conspecific (e.g., Hellmayr & Conover 1949, Phelps & Phelps 1958a), sometimes also including C. lutosus of Guadalupe Island (e.g., Meyer de Schauensee 1970, Stresemann and Amadon 1979), but the ranges of cheriway and plancus are nearly parapatric with no sign of intergradation, contrary to earlier interpretations (see Banks REF); they constitute a superspecies. The three forms had previously been considered separate species by REFS, Pinto (1938), and Friedmann (1950).”

Chimango Caracara Milvago chimango: Common and widespread in central and southern Chile, mostly referable to the widespread pale brown nominate race, but very dark brown birds of the subspecies temucoensis were a regular sight in the more densely forested areas of the Lake District.

American Kestrel Falco sparverius: Numerous sightings throughout and referable to the widespread subspecies cinnamominus.

Aplomado Falcon Falco femoralis: A pair seen well near Putre.

Peregrine Falcon Falco peregrinus. We saw 2 in the Azapa Valley area

ODONTOPHORIDAE
California Quail Callipepla californica: A ubiquitous introduced species in central Chile and the lake district.

RALLIDAE
Plumbeous Rail Pardirallus sanguinolentus*: At Laguna El Peral.

Common Moorhen Gallinula chloropus: Only seen at the mouth of the Lluta river and Estero Lampa

Spot-flanked Gallinule Gallinula melanops: Close looks at 2 at Laguna El Peral.

Andean Coot (Slate-coloured) Fulica ardesiaca: Seen at Lauca National Park.

Red-gartered Coot Fulica armillata: The commonest coot in central and southern Chile. Readily identified by the dark red band dividing the yellow bill and frontal shield.

White-winged Coot Fulica leucoptera: Not as common as the previous species and a little less widespread; readily identified by their rounded yellow or orange frontal shield.

Red-fronted Coot Fulica rufifrons: Some 30 birds at Laguna El Peral and 15 in the Lampa marshes, characterized by its dark red mitre-shaped frontal shield.

Giant Coot Fulica gigantea: The abundant coot of Lauca National Park with much breeding activity in evidence and arguably the most handsome member of the genus with its tri-colored bill and elevated orbital rims. Restricted Range.

THINOCORIDAE
Grey-breasted Seedsnipe Thinocorus orbignyianus: Great ‘scope looks in the Lauca National Park and also in the El Yeso Valley

Least Seedsnipe Thinocorus rimicivorus. 10 on Tierra del Fuego. Detailed studies in the last decades have shown that Seedsnipes are probably the closest living relatives of the enigmatic Plains-Wanderer Pedionomus torquatus of Australia.

CHARADRIIDAE
Southern Lapwing Vanellus chilensis: Common throughout except in the north.

Andean Lapwing – Vanellus resplendens One only in Lauca

American Golden Plover – Pluvialis dominica – 2 at the mouth of the Lluta river

Black-bellied (Gray) Plover - Pluvialis squatarola - 1 at the mouth of the Lluta river

Killdeeer – Charadrius vociferous – Only in Chile at the mouth of the Lluta river which is where we saw it.

NE Two-banded Plover Charadrius falklandicus Fairly common in Patagonia.

Puna Plover – Charadrius alticola – 1 seen well in the Lauca national park on November 12th

Rufous-chested Dottrel Charadrius modestus scope views of 2 on Laguna Grande.

Tawny-throated Dottrel – Oreopholus ruficollis – Great looks at 4 breeding plumage birds along the Pali Aike road.

Diademed Sandpiper-Plover Phegornis mitchellii: Outstanding looks in Lauca National Park We refused to get our feet wet at El Yeso as everyone had seen the species previously! One of the most sought after shorebirds along with Magallanic Plover. Named after David William Mitchell. English zoologist and secretary of the London Zoologist Society.

PLUVIANELLIDAE
NE Megallenic Plover Pluvianellus socialis. This species has its own family. A much desired bird, 3 seen on Tierra del Fuego at Laguna Verde. A Patagonian specialty, which also occurs in Argentina.

ROSTRATULIDAE
American Painted Snipe – Rostratula semicollaris One maybe 2 flushed, one in good light at Estero Lampa.

HAEMATOPODIDAE
American Oystercatcher Haematopus palliatus: Only seen near Arica and Valparaiso

Blackish Oystercatcher Haematopus ater: 4 on the Valparaiso coast and 7 at Arica.

Magellanic Oystercatcher Haematopus leucopodus. Common in Patagonia

RECURVIROSTRIDAE
White-backed Stilt Himantopus melanurus: Good numbers in central Chile. Sometimes considered as a race of Black-necked Stilt H. mexicanus which ranges from Peru and northeast Brazil to the U.S.A. The SACC says “Himantopus mexicanus was formerly (e.g., Peters 1934, Pinto 1938, Hellmayr & Conover 1948b, Phelps & Phelps 1958a, Vaurie 1965c, Meyer de Schauensee 1970, Blake 1977, Haverschmidt & Mees 1994) considered a subspecies of Old World H. himantopus ("Common Stilt") and was so treated by Dickinson (2003). Some authors have treated southern South American melanurus as a separate species (e.g., Sibley & Monroe 1990, Ridgely & Greenfield 2001). The six taxa in the genus Himantopus form a near-globally distributed superspecies (Mayr & Short 1970, Sibley & Monroe 1990, Pierce 1996), and with from one to six species-level taxa recognized by various authors. Virtually no data are available relevant to taxon-ranking of allopatric populations. The contact between mexicanus and melanurus in South America, where at least some hybridization occurs, affords one of the best opportunities for such study.”

Andean Avocet Recurvirostra andina. At least 10 in the Lauca National Park on November 12th

SCOLOPACIDAE
Magellanic Snipe – Gallinago megallanicus One scoped in the El Yeso Valley at 2600 meters (despite Birds of Chile giving 2000meters as top of range) and one near Punta Arenas. The SACC says “Species limits in New World Gallinago have been fluid and controversial, and not based on explicit analyses. Many authors (e.g., Peters 1934, Pinto 1938, Hellmayr & Conover 1948b) have considered paraguaiae, magellanica, and andina to be conspecific. Additionally, Gallinago paraguaiae was considered conspecific with G. [gallinago] delicata by Phelps & Phelps (1958a), Meyer de Schauensee (1970), and Blake (1970). Fjeldså and Krabbe (1990) placed magellanica with paraguaiae, making this species G. magellanica. Any arrangement of species limits in these taxa is based largely on anecdotal data, and this group is badly in need of formal study, especially given that differences in displays and vocalizations among paraguaiae, magellanica, and andina have been reported (Jaramillo 2003). proposal badly needed.

Whimbrel (Hudsonian Whimbrel)) Numenius phaeopu hudsonicuss: Commonly encountered in small to large numbers at most coastal sites visited, and referable to wintering birds from Alaska and northern Canada. The subspecies involved, hudsonicus, is restricted to the New World and may eventually be afforded species status. The SACC says “Zink et al. (1995) proposed a return to earlier classifications (e.g., Ridgway 1919) that considered New World hudsonicus to be a separate species from Old World populations based on genetic distance. Although plumage pattern also differs substantially, vocalizations are evidently very similar, in contrast to the many allotaxa in the Scolopacidae treated as separate species”

Greater Yellowlegs Tringa melanoleuca

Lesser Yellowlegs Tringa flavipes

Willet – Catroptrophorus semipalmatus 6 at Arica and one at Laguna Cartagena

Ruddy Turnstone Arenaria interpres: 50 at Arica on rocks and some on the central Chilean coast.

Surfbird Aphriza virgata : 200 plus on rocks at Arica and a few in central Chile

Sanderling Calidris alba:

White-rumped Sandpiper Calidris fuscicollis. The common peep in Tirra del Fuego and Patagonia.

Baird’s Sandpiper Calidris bairdii: Less common but also present in Patagonia and Tierra del Fuego, also in the Andes at Lauca.

Red Phalarope (Gray Phalarope) Phalaropus fulicaria: 4 seen on the pelagic out of Valparaiso

LARIDAE
Chilean Skua Catharacta chilensis: About 30 seen on the ferry crossings and over land in Patagonia, and one on the Pelagic distinguished from other “Brown Skuas” by their cinnamon under-parts and wing-linings.

Black Skimmer – Rynchops niger 3 on Laguna Cratagena

Dolphin Gull Larus scoresbii. Fairly common in the south both on the mainland and on Tierra del Fuego

Grey Gull Larus modestus: 30 on the Central Chielean coast and 20 outside our hotel in Arica

Belcher’s Gull Larus belcheri 6 near Arica. Belcher’s Gull Larus belcheri and Olrog’s Gull Larus atlanticus were formerly (e.g., Meyer de Schauensee 1970, Blake 1977) considered conspecific, but Devillers (1977) provided rationale for treatment as separate species [check], and this treatment has been followed by most authors, e.g., Sibley & Monroe (1990), Burger & Gochfeld (1996), and AOU (1998); they form a super-species(Sibley & Monroe 1990). The AOU (Banks 2003) recently adopted proposal to change English name to "Belcher's Gull"; SACC proposal passed to change the name of Larus belcheri from "Band-tailed" to "Belcher's."

Kelp Gull Larus dominicanus: Common at all coastal sites.

Andean Gull Larus serranus: Around 40 at Lauca.

Brown-hooded Gull Larus maculipennis: Numerous in the center and south with a sizeable colony with chicks at Laguna El Peral.

Franklin’s Gull Larus pipixcan. Common along the coast in center and north, some with summer rosy under- parts still. Full migration was havening and we saw many groups pushing there way south. The worlds population winters along the coast of Peru and Chile.

Elegant Tern Sterna elegans A few along thre central coast and Arica

South American Tern Sterna hirundinacea: Manu hundreds in non-breeding dress at the Aconcagua estuary – a confusing non-breeding plumage. In the south they were in full breeding dress

Common Tern Sterna hirundo Some with the huge South American tern flock at the Aconcagua estuary.

Inca Tern Larosterna inca: Some 50 birds seen on the central and a few on the pelagic.

COLUMBIDAE
Rock Pigeon Columba livia:

NE Chilean Pigeon Patagioenas araucana: Good numbers of this striking pigeon in central and southern Chile.

Spot-winged Pigeon Patagioenas maculosa. At Putre 20 were seen on November 11th. Not mentioned in Birds of Chile and first recorded in Chile at Putre in February 2003 from whence it has been seen regularly and now breeds.

Eared Dove Zenaida auriculata: Widespread and common.

Pacific Dove Zenaida meloda: Common in and around Arica, and abundant in the
Azapa and Lluta valleys.

Picui Ground-Dove Columbina picui: Small numbers in central Chile, representing the nominate race.

Croaking Ground-Dove Columbina cruziana: Small numbers in the Azapa and Lluta valleys.

Bare-faced Ground-Dove Metriopelia ceciliae: Fairly common around Putre, perhaps one of the most handsome of the Metriopelia ground doves. We saw the gymnops subspecies.

Black-winged Ground-Dove Metriopelia melanoptera: Common in Lauca and in the Andes above Santiago.

Golden-spotted Ground-Dove – Metriopelia aymara 4 of this difficult to see species in Lauca was a treat.

PSITTACIDAE
Burrowing Parrot (Parakeet) – Cyanoliseus patagonus. 2 seen well in flight near Lago Colbun near Talca. Now a rare bird in Chile. The Chilean race bloxami is an endemic subspecies and the only one with a gray breast-band

NE Austral Parakeet Enicognathus ferrugineus: Small numbers seen on three dates in the Lake District and also at Alto Vilches. [particularly common at Antillanca with groups seen daily. Also occurs in Argentina

E Slender-billed Parakeet Enicognathus leptorhynchus: 4 heard and seen flying high near Rio Negro and then later great looks of another 4 (scoped) at Rio Negro feeding on blossoms

CUCULIDAE
Groove-billed Ani – Crotophaga sulcirostris One at the Humminbird Paradise

STRIGIDAE
Magellanic Horned Owl – Bubo magellanicus. Two seen well roosting at Farellones and one on a rocky out crop on Tierra del Fuego. Formally considered part of Great-horned Owl the SACC says “König et al. (1996, 1999), followed by Marks et al. (1999), Mazar Barnett & Pearman (2001), and Jaramillo (2003), recognized B. magellanicus as separate from B. virginianus based primarily on vocal differences; critical intermediate populations, however, have yet to be sampled. proposal needed. [AOU CLC rejected a proposal to recognized magellanicus as a species pending more thorough study, including sampling of critical intermediate populations.]

NE Rufous-legged Owl Strix rufipe: Good if brief looks at a very mobile bird pre-dawn in Puyehue National Park. Note that Chaco Owl Strix chacoensis of dry chaco woodlands in south-east Bolivia, western Paraguay and western Argentina has been split from Rufous-legged Owl and differs by plumage, voice and habitat niche. Occurs just over the border in Argentina.

Austral Pygmy-Owl Glaucidium nanum: 2 birds seen well during the daytime in La Campana Park.

Burrowing Owl Athene cunicularia: Seen by Barbara and Irmgard on their last day in Chile

Short-eared Owl – Asio flammeus: Seen by Barbara and Irmgard on their last day in Chile

TROCHILIDAE
Andean Hillstar Oreotrochilus estella: Numerous in the northern Andes, with many good looks, here the nominate race.

NE White-sided Hillstar Oreotrochilus leucopleurus: Seen well at Farellones.

Giant Hummingbird Patagona gigas: A few of the nominate race were encountered in central Chile and at least six birds at Putre of the larger subspecies peruviana differed by their rufous vent.

Green-backed Firecrown Sephanoides sephaniodes: Fairly in central and southern Chile, eventually with close-ups of a couple of feeding birds, a Patagonian forest endemic.

Oasis Hummingbird Rhodopis vesper: A total of 30+ seen well in the Azapa Valley.

Peruvian Sheartail Thaumastura cora: 10+ seen in the Azapa Valley including stupendous males. Not recorded in Chile until 1971 and un-fortunately it may be competing with Chilean Woodstar.

NE Chilean Woodstar Eulidia yarrellii: Close views of 2 females or eclipse males in the Azapa valley south of Arica. Note that some recent authors have switched this Woodstar from the monotypic genus Eulidia into the genus Myrtis, but with little reasoning. The SACC says “Eulidia yarrellii was formerly (e.g., Cory 1918) placed in Myrtis, but see Peters (1945). Schuchmann (1999) again merged Eulidia into Myrtis, but no evidence provided.” This Hummingbird has one of the smallest ranges of any hummingbird and is declining in a man-made environment, while competing with other invading Hummingbirds. Historically occurred in nearby Peru where it has not been seen for over 10 years and maybe extirpated there. ENDANGERED

PICIDAE
Striped Woodpecker Venilornis lignarius: 3 seen well at La Campana and other heard at Puyehue. Note that birds attributed to this species in the “valles” region of southern Bolivia and adjacent north-west Argentina may represent a distinct species. Note that this species was formally placed in the genus Picoides. The SACC says particular, the two South American species formerly treated in Picoides are more closely related to Veniliornis (as represented by V. nigriceps and V. callonotus) than they are to Northern Hemisphere Picoides; see also Moore et al. (2006). This result is exceptionally robust with respect to analytical techniques, and it includes both mitochondrial and nuclear genes. However, it might be best to wait for additional taxon-sampling before proposing a merger (and to wait for broader rearrangement of Picoides, which consists of at least five lineages worthy of generic recognition, including restoration of Dendrocopos and Dryobates). Date from Moore et al. (2006), however, require removal of lignarius and mixtus from Picoides. SACC proposal passed to transfer to Veniliornis. SACC proposal passed to change linear sequence within Veniliornis.

NE Chilean Flicker Colaptes pitius: 3 at la Camapana and a pair seen on two days at Puyehue. Patagonian forest endemic.

Andean Flicker Colaptes rupicola*: Heard in the Lauca National Park

NE Magellanic Woodpecker Campephilus magellanicus: Superb! First a female seen well at Alto Vilches and then what appeared to be a pair and a youngster. Also around our lodge in Puyehue on two morning. Patagonian forest endemic.

FURNARIIDAE
Common Miner Geositta cuncularia We saw 20+ of the nominate race in Patagonia

NE Short-billed Miner Geositta antarctica Up to 30 seen o Tierra del Fuego. Patagonian endemic.

Puna Miner Geositta punensis: A total of eight seen at Lauca National Park, a Puna endemic.

Rufous-banded Miner Geositta rufipennis. Common at El Yeso and Farellones

Scale-throated Earthcreeper Upucerthia dumetaria: 2 of the subspecies hypoleuca seen at Farellones

White-throated Earthcreeper Upucerthia albigula: At least 1 seen at Putre, responding to tape well and giving incredible views!

Plain-breasted Earthcreeper Upucerthia jelskii:1 seen in Lauca National Park after some searching.

Straight-billed Earthcreeper Upucerthia ruficauda: Common in the Putre area, even from the breakfast table. This is the subspecies montana.

E Crag Chilia Chilia melanura: Seen at Farellones and then 3 seen at a traditional site in the El Yeso valley. A strange rock loving Furnarid and Chilean endemic

NE Dark-bellied Cinclodes Cinclodes patagonicus: A few seen flying off trhe road in Putehue and then one spotted by Alan and watched for many minutes at Aguas Calientes. The term Patagonia drives from the Spanish “Patagones” – big feet - a name applied by Magellan to the giant Telhuelche natives who wore animal skins on their feet

Grey-flanked Cinclodes Cinclodes oustaleti: 2 in the El Yeso Valley and 3 at Portillo. Recent studies conclude that three races are involved which include the so-called “Olrog’s Cinclodes” of the sierras of Córdoba, Argentina, still sometimes considered a distinct species for unknown reasons. The name Grey-flanked Cinclodes has been considered redundant due to the fact that all races have brown flanks although Jaramillo et al. continue to use this. The SACC says “Nores (1986) considered Cinclodes olrogi to be a subspecies of C. fuscus; others (Olrog 1979, Navas & Bó 1987, Vuilleumier & Mayr 1987, Mazar Barnett & Pearman 2001) considered it more likely to be closely related to C. oustaleti. Genetic data support the latter relationship (Chesser 2004).”

Bar-winged Cinclodes Cinclodes fuscus: Small numbers in central Chile of the nominate race fuscus ( “Buff-winged Cinclodes”), and of the albiventris sub-species in Lauca ( “Cream-winged Cinclodes”). More than one species may be involved in the fuscus complex.

White-winged Cinclodes Cinclodes atacamensis: 4 or so in in Lauca, here the nominate race. Highly tied to running water unlike the preceding species.

Chilean Seaside Cinclodes Cinclodes nigrofumosus: Great looks at 3-5 birds on seaweed covered rocks near Renaca. Currently considered a distinct species from Peruvian Seaside Cinclodes C. taczanowskii of coastal Peru but their ranges are seperated by the international Peruvian/Chilean border with Peruvian ranging to the last rocky headland in Peru and supposedly Chilean to the last rocky headland in Chile! The SACC says “Cinclodes taczanowskii and C. nigrofumosus were considered conspecific by Meyer de Schauensee (1966, 1970), although previously (e.g., Hellmayr 1925, Peters 1951) considered separate species; justification for treating them as separate species is weak (Remsen 2003); they form a superspecies (Sibley & Monroe 1990, Remsen 2003), and genetic data (Chesser 2004) show that they are weakly differentiated sister taxa. SACC proposal to lump these two species did not pass because of insufficient published data”

NE Des Murs’ Wiretail Sylviorthorhynchus desmursii: A delightful bird! One of the few passerines with just six tail feathers, although just two are usually visible. A ping-pong ball with 2 spines! Seen at Puyehue in response to playback. Occurs in nearby Argentina. Named after Marc Athanase Parfait Oeillet des Murs, an early French nauralist.

NE Thorn-tailed Rayadito Aphrastura spinicauda: Abundant in the Nothofagus forest and indeed endemic to this forest type. We became familiar with this snazzy cute Furnarid.

Streaked Tit-Spinetail Leptasthenura striata: The nominate race striata was fairly common around Putre.

Plain-mantled Tit-Spinetail Leptasthenura aegithaloides: Jaramillo et al. provide a detailed discussion on plumage and vocal differences between races, and suggest that more than one species may be involved. We saw all 4 Chilean taxa with berlepschi being seen in Lauca, gricesens in the desert near Arica, nominate aegithaloides in central Chile and pallida on Tierra del Fuego.

Canyon Canastero Asthenes pudibunda: A common Canastero around Putre with 5 individuals seen well

Sharp-billed Canastero (Lesser Canastero) Asthenes pyrrholeuca: 3 seen well in response to playback at Portillo.

NE Dark-winged Canastero Asthenes arequipae: Common around Putre where many bulky nests were also seen. Occurs in nearby Peru. Considered a distinct species within the Creamy-breasted Canastero A. dorbignyi complex by most recent authors. The SACC says “The subspecies huancavelicae and arequipae were considered separate species ("Pale-tailed Canastero" and " Dark-winged Canastero") from Asthenes dorbygnyi by Fjeldså & Krabbe (1990) and Ridgely & Tudor (1994). SACC proposal to recognize huancavelicae and arequipae as separate species did not pass because published data are incomplete and insufficient.”

E Dusky-tailed Canastero Asthenes humicola: A total of 4 seen in the La Campana and Catapilca areas, of the nominate race. Considered endemic to Chile although there exists a 1911 specimen from Mendoza province, Argentina.

Cordilleran Canastero Asthenes modesta: Eight seen at Lauca, this being a widespread Canastero with numerous races.

NE Austral Canastero Asthenes anthoides: Patagonian endemic. 2 seen at the Seno Otway Penguin colony

Wren-like Rushbird Phleocryptes melanops: Common in central Chilean reed-beds, with two seen well at Laguna El Peral and 4 at Estero Lampa

NE White-throated Treerunner Pygarrhichas albogularis: Superb! A chunky nuthatch-like Furnariid with a stout chisel-like bill which was fairly common in the southern beech forests to which it is endemic. Recent DNA studies indicate that it is a living relict which radiated into birds like Barbtails, Pearled Treerunner and Spectacled Prickletail now occupying a variety of Sub-tropical Andean forests.

RHINOCRYPTIDAE
NE Chestnut-throated Huet-huet Pteroptochos castaneus: Spectacular! One seen at Alto Vilches on December 8th and several more heard. Next day 2 were seen at the same locality. This species is restricted to a small area in southern-central Chile and at two forests in adjacent Argentina.

NE Black-throated Huet-huet Pteroptochos tarnii: Spectacular! Not as rare as the former but equally as impressive. A common sound of the Puyehue National park where we were treated to good looks at several birds.

E Moustached Turca Pteroptochos megapodius: A stunning endemic Tapaculo, Common vocally and good views obtained in La Campana and particularly in the El Yeso valley where one circled us carrying food. Megapodius means chicken-like bird with large feet.

E White-throated Tapaculo Scelorchilus albicollis: Yet another endemic Tapaculo of central Chile, common by voice in La Campana and seen twice well at the Mahuide park.

NE Chucao Tapaculo Scelorchilus rubecula: The characteristic haunting sound of the magical Nothofagus and impossible to forget. We had several delightful encounters with this star amongst Chilean birds.

E Ochre-flanked Tapaculo – Eugralla paradoxa* Perhaps the toughest of the Tapaculos to see – we heard on in Puyehue Park.

NE Magellanic Tapaculo Scytalopus magellanicus: An un-described dark crowned race race was seen in a boulder field at Farellones. Then the white crowned race seen well at Puyehue. Also occurs in nearby Argentina.

E Dusky Tapaculo Scytalopus fuscus: Endemic to the Cordillera de la Costa in Chile and we had fantastic looks in the La Campana National Park.

TYRANNIDAE
Chilean White-crested Elaenia Elaenia albicep chilensis: A familiar bird throughout the trip. Birds commonly encountered in central and southern Chile were of the subspecies chilensis, whereas the one we saw in the northern oasis near Arica belong to subspecies modesta. These forms bear little resemblance to one another in plumage or crest shapes and give different vocalizations. There are many races and subspecies throughout South America and much taxanomic work is to be done still.

Peruvian White-crested Elaenia Elaenia albicep modesta: This was the one near Arica . The SACC says “The subspecies modesta was formerly (REF) considered a separate species from Elaenia albiceps, but see Zimmer (1941a). Jaramillo (2003) suggested that E. albiceps consists of more than one species”.

Yellow-billed Tit-Tyrant Anairetes flavirostris: At least 2 birds near Putre.

Tufted Tit-Tyrant Anairetes parulus: Common in central Chile.

Many-colored Rush-Tyrant Tachuris rubrigastra: Common in all reed fringed habitats in central Chile, 2 being seen well at Lampa.

Chilean Warbling Doradito – Pseudocolopteryx flaviventris One responded splendidly to playback at Lampa. A rare bird in Chile, reseach on voice has determined that this species needs to be split from the Argentine form so this will eventually be named as a distinct species.

Pacific Bran Colored Flycatcher – Myiophobus fasciatus rufescens. One made a brief appearance in the Vitor valley. This is another for sure split form regular Bran-colored Flycatchers, occurring on the pacific coast of South America only.

Vermilion Flycatcher Pyrocephalus rubinus: Common around Arica.

White-browed Chat-Tyrant – Ochthoeca leucoprhys An elusive individual in our hotel grounds in Putre was eventually seen by all

NE Patagonian Tyrant Colorhamphus parvirostris: Eventually after some effort, great looks in response to playback in Puyehue National Park on November 26th. An easily overlooked Patagonian forest endemic.

NE Fire-eyed Diucon Xolmis pyrope: Common in central Chile and in the Lake District. A Patagonian endemic.

NE Chocolate-vented Tyrant Neoxolmis rufiventris. A much sought after bird and a striking species of open Patagonian grassland. 3 along the Pali Aike road on November 22nd.

Black-billed Shrike-Tyrant Agriornis montanus: Two in Lauca valley and 2 at Farellones. The most widespread species of shrike-tyrant. Note that the species has been modified from montana to montanus.

Spot-billed Ground-Tyrant Muscisaxicola maculirostris: One near Putre and 2 in the lower El Yeso valley.

Cinnamon-bellied Ground-Tyrant Muscisaxicola capistrata 2 along the Pali Aike road in Patagonia.

Rufous-naped Ground-Tyrant Muscisaxicola rufivertex: 2 single birds at Farellones.

Puna Ground-Tyrant Muscisaxicola juninensis: Very Common in Lauca National Park.

White-browed Ground-Tyrant Muscisaxicola albilora: Common in the El Yeso valley and at Farellones

Cinereous Ground-Tyrant – Muscisaxicola cinerea 2 at Farellones

White-fronted Ground-Tyrant Muscisaxicola albifrons: Good looks at around 8 birds in Lauca National Park, this distinctive Ground-Tyrant is by far the largest member of the genus.

Ochre-naped Ground-Tyrant Muscisaxicola flavinucha: Brief views of one in the El Yeso Valley

NE Black-fronted Ground-Tyrant Muscisaxicola frontalis: 3 in the El Yeso valley and 3 at Farellones.This striking ground-tyrant has a fairly small and local distribution in the Andes of Chile and Argentina.

Andean Negrito Lessonia oreas: Common at Lauca. Formally part of the Rufous-backed Negrito species with the next species. The two species were split from Rufous-backed Negrito on account of plumage and vocal distinctions.

Austral Negrito Lessonia rufa: 1 at Estero Lampa and very very common in Patagonia.

Spectacled Tyrant Hymenops perspicillatus: Good looks at 10+ including displaying birds at Lampa note the name change from perspicillata to perspicillatus.

COTINGIDAE
Rufous-tailed Plantcutter Phytotoma rara: Good looks at several places in central Chile

HIRUNDINIDAE
Chilean Swallow Tachycineta meyeni:

Blue-and-white Swallow Notiochelidon cyanoleuca: Numerous encounters throughout the tour.

Bank Swallow - Riparia riparia. A few in the Arica area. The SACC says “Called "Sand Martin" or "Common Sand-Martin" in Old World literature and in Ridgely & Tudor (1989), Turner & Rose (1989), Sibley & Monroe (1990), and Ridgely & Greenfield (2001). SACC Proposal to change to "Sand Martin" did not pass.

Barn Swallow Hirundo rustica: 15+ in the Lluta Valley and 2 in central Chile

Andean Swallow Haplochelidon andecola: 20+ at Lauca National Park. Formerly placed in the genera Petrochelidon or Hirundo.

TROGLODYTIDAE
House Wren Troglodytes aedon: Seen throughout the tour mostly the subspecies chilensis. Grayer birds seen in the Lluta Valley represent the distinctive subspecies tecellatus.

Sedge (Grass) Wren – Cistothorus platensis. 2 seen well and scoped at the Senno Otway Penguin colony. Told you it was no problem Barbara! The SACC says “Two distinctive major subspecies groups, Andean and south-temperate platensis and lowland polyglottus, intergrade in southeastern South America (Traylor 1988). The North American stellaris group may warrant species rank from Cistothorus platensis (e.g., see Meyer de Schauensee 1966, Ridgely & Tudor 1989).
Called "Grass Wren" by Meyer de Schauensee (1970), Ridgely & Tudor (1989), and others. SACC proposal to change English name did not pass

TURDIDAE
Chiguanco Thrush Turdus chiguanco: Common around Putre and one seen by Barbara at Olmue.

Austral Thrush Turdus falcklandii: The common Thrush of central and southern Chile of the sub-species magellanicus.

MIMIDAE
E Chilean Mockingbird Mimus thenca: Seen daily in good numbers in central and southern Chile. The commonest Chilean endemic.

MOTACILLIDAE
Correndera Pipit Anthus correndera: Fairly common in Patagonia.

FRINGILLIDAE
Thick-billed Siskin – Carduelis crassirostris. 2 birds of the amadoni race in the Chaquipina Polylepis forest near Putre

Hooded Siskin Carduelis magellanica: Common around Putre of the subspecies urubambensis.

Black Siskin Carduelis atrata: A total of 15+ in Lauca National Park. A very pretty bird.

Yellow-rumped Siskin Carduelis uropygialis: Common at Lauca and in central Chile

Black-chinned Siskin Carduelis barbata: Small flocks in central Chile and the Lake District, a widespread Patagonian endemic.

THRAUPIDAE
Black-throated Flowerpiercer Diglossa brunneiventris: 2 near Putre. Formerly placed in the family Emberizidae, but now generally accepted to belong within Thraupidae.

Cinereous Conebill Conirostrum cinereum: Common in the Arica and Putre areas of the sub-species littorale here.

Giant Conebill – Oreomanes fraseri. A family party containing juveniles was seen feeding quietly in the Chaquipina Polylepis forest near Putre

Blue-and-yellow Tanager Thraupis bonariensis: Fairly common around Putre of the subspecies darwinii.

CARDINALIDAE
Golden-billed Saltator Saltator aurantiirostris: One seen at Putre of the subspecies albociliaris.

EMBERIZIDAE
Band-tailed Seedeater Catamenia analis: Common around Putre

Chestnut-throated Seedeater Sporophila telasco: A common species in the Lluta and Azapa valleys.

Blue-black Grassquit Volatinia jacarina: 2 seen in the Azapa Valley at the hummongbird paradise.

Bright-rumped Yellow-Finch Sicalis uropygialis. 2 high in Lauca Park

NE Greater Yellow-Finch Sicalis auriventris: Quite common in the El Yeso valley and at Farellones. This is certainly one of the least known of the Yellow-Finches.

Greenish Yellow-Finch Sicalis olivascens: Fairly common at Putre, of the rather bright sub-species chloris.

NE Patagonian Yellow-Finch Sicalis lebruni Only two this year flying over the road near the Penguin colony.

Grassland (Misto) Yellow-Finch Sicalis (luteioventris) luteola: Common in central and central-southern Chile with almost daily encounters, here referable to the subspecies luteiventris which has been considered a separate species “Misto Yellow-Finch” although nothing has ever been published on the subject. The SACC says “Meyer de Schauensee (1966) and Ridgely & Tudor (1989) suggested that the southern subspecies luteiventris might represent a separate species from Sicalis luteola, and it was treated as such by Sibley & Monroe (1990) and AOU ( 1983, 1998).

Slender-billed Finch Xenospingus concolor: 2 birds in the Azapa Valley and at least 8 bat the mouth of the Lluta river. Ranges as far north as Lima Peru.

White-winged Diuca-Finch Diuca speculifera: 3 seen in Lauca national Park, this high Andean finch feeds almost exclusively at cushion plant bogs.

Common Diuca-Finch Diuca diuca: Common in central and central-southern Chile.

NE Canary-winged (Black-throated) Finch Melanodera melanodera. What a bird! 7 on the Pali Aike road in Patagonia. Restricted to Patagonian steppe.

Patagonian Sierra-Finch Phrygilus patagonicus: Fairly common in Patagonian Nothofagus forest to which it is endemic.

Grey-hooded Sierra-Finch Phrygilus gayi: Commonly seen in the Cordillera de la Costa and at El Yeso and Farellones

Black-hooded Sierra-Finch Phrygilus atriceps: Common in the Lauca and Putre area.

Mourning Sierra-Finch Phrygilus fruticeti: Common

Plumbeous Sierra-Finch Phrygilus unicolor: A few in the high Andes

NE White-throated Sierra-Finch Phrygilus erythronotus: 2 seen well at Lauca on November 11th. Tricky to see species.

Ash-breasted Sierra-Finch Phrygilus plebejus: Common non-descript highland Finch.

Band-tailed Sierra-Finch Phrygilus alaudinus. Above Putre and at Lampa.

Rufous-collared Sparrow Zonotrichia capensis: The only bird recorded every day of the trip.

ICTERIDAE
Shiny Cowbird Molothrus bonariensis: A few here and there.

NE Austral Blackbird Curaeus curaeus: A common Icterid of central and southern Chile and a Patagonian endemic, here the nominate race.

Yellow-winged Blackbird Agelaius thilius: At Estero Lampa and Laguna El Peral.

Peruvian Meadowlark Sturnella bellicose: A few around Arica.

Long-tailed Meadowlark Sturnella loyca: Numerous in central Chile and the Lake District.

PASSERIDAE
House Sparrow Passer domesticus: Widespread and common except in the high Andes.

THE MAMMALS

Marine Otter Lontra felina Great looks at one at the Humboldt penguin colony at Charagua ( endemic to the coast of Peru and Chile)

South American Sealion Otaria byronia: 3 seen from the pelagic and 2 in the Straits of Magellen.

Brown Hare Lepus europaeus: Fairly common – an introduced species from Europe.

Old World Rabbit - Oryctolagus cuniculus Common introduced species.

Southern Mountain Viscacha Lagidium viscacia: Up to 15 daily at Lauca, related to the Chinchillas

Coypu Myocastor coypus: Two at Laguna El Peral

Cururo Spalacopus cyanus. This was the furry rodent critter seen by Barbara at Farellones

Commersons Dolphin Cephalorhynchus commersonii. 2 following the ferry at Bahia Azul and one on the way back from Porvenir. First described in 1767 by Philibert Commerson, from right where we saw them – the Straits of Magellan

Southern Gray Fox Dusicyon griseus. 2 seen in Patagonia of this small South American Fox

Andean Fox or Culpeo Pseudalopex culpaeus One in Lauca, and one at Laguna Verde on Tierra del Fuego

Guanaco Lama guanicoe: Common in Patagonia. This and the latter are the only wild South American Camelids and Llamas and Alpacas are domesticated versions produced by cross breeding.

Vicuña Vicugna vicugna: Pleasently Abundant at Lauca.

North Andean Deer or Peruvian Huemal Hippocamelus antisensis 4 seen near Lauca national park – a scarce declining species.