The Colombian Andes - March 2008

Published by Barry Walker (bwalker AT

Participants: Barry Walker, David Chantler, Robert Dean, Phil Rostron, Ries Samsom, Bob Walton and Luis Eduardo Urueña.


 Blue-billed Currasow
Blue-billed Currasow, copyright ProAves

This trip was planned specifically to target some of the most endangered Colombian endemics which are fortunately protected in fragmented forest thanks to the efforts of ProAves. We did not look for some species as all on the trip were experienced neotropical birders and hence the unusual amounts of “heards” on the list. Colombia has come a long way in answering its security questions and the time is ripe to visit this bird rich country with the help of the NGO ProAves. ProAves is a Colombian NGO dedicated to the conservation of birds and their habitats. They own a superb network of 11 reserves totaling over 10,000 hectares, protecting critical habitat for many of Colombia’s threatened and endemic bird species. ProAves also invests a lot in ornithological research, in order to improve our knowledge of Colombia’s avifauna and to identify new target areas for reserves and they continue to buy land to conserve extremely range restricted birds and on this trip, we stayed at their accomdations at the reserves. Colombia – one of the two most diverse countries for birds on the planet along with Peru (which it narrowly outstrips due to records of migrants and vagrants on the San Andreas Island in the Caribbean). North of Ecuador the Andes branches into 3 distinct mountain chains, separated by the Cauca and Magdalena valleys, each with its endemic avifauna. The Santa Marta mountains rise, it seems, straight out of the Carribean and is a spectacular mountain range with a hatful of localized endemics. Mention of Colombia conjures images of Emeralds, Coffee, Vallenato music, Guerillas and Cocaine and indeed like many developing countries Colombia is in flux. We made no excuse for concentrating on endemics in the Colombian Andes, though on the route we took we did not ignore anything that popped up in front of us. This trip report is based on visits to reserves that protect the last remaining forests and habitats of some of the most endangered birds in the world. It was a pleasure to have so many boreal migrants around in transitional and fresh summer plumage. We recorded around 54 Colombian endemics, many endangered, some critically and around 590 species in total including near endemics and range restricted species.

 Santa Marta Screech Owl
Santa Marta Screech Owl, copyright ProAves

The Agenda

March 1st – Arrival in Bogota. Barry, Ries, Dave and Robert meet for dinner.

March 2nd Meet Phil and Bob. Early morning birding trip to Parque La Florida, Distrito Capital, then to the airport in the nick of time for our flight to Armenia and then on by our beloved van to Perreira and late afternoon birding at La Suiza, 1800 meters, Department of Risaralda.West slope of the Central Cordillera. Night in Perreira.

March 3rd Morning at La Suiza, 1800 meters, Department of Risaralda. West slope of the Central Cordillera. Drive to Ibague, Depratment of Tolima. 1500 meters.

March 4th Morning birding above Ibague at Clarita Botero, Depratment of Tolima. 1500 –1800 meters. East slope of the Central Cordillera. Lunch in Ibague, and afternoon near Tobia. 650 meters.

March 5th Drive to Puerto Pinzon and onto Reserva Natural de Aves (RNA) El Paujil, SerranĂ­a de las Quinchas, Department of Boyaca. East slope of the Central Cordillera. 200 meters

March 6th Reserva Natural de Aves (RNA) El Paujil, SerranĂ­a de las Quinchas. Department of Boyacu/Santander. 200 meters

March 7th Reserva Natural de Aves (RNA) El Paujil, SerranĂ­a de las Quinchas. Department of Boyacu/Santander. 200 meters.

March 8th El Paujil to Reserva Natural (RNA) de Aves Reinita Cielo Azul (Cerulean Warbler Reserve), Department of Santander, 1300 meters with stops before San Vicente. Department of Norte Santander.

March 9th Reserva Natural de Aves Reinita Cielo Azul (Cerulean Warbler Reserve) Department of Santander. 1300-1800 meters. West slope of the Eastrn Cordillera. All of us ride to the slippery 150-year old Lengerke trail in heavy rain that cleared at noon, and spend the whole day here. Late afternoon birding near the lodge. Department of Norte Santander.

March 10th Drive from San Vicente to Ocana with stops. Afternoon at the Reserva Natural de Aves (RNA) Hormiguero, (Recurve-billed Bushbird Reserve),Department of Norte Santander, 1350 meters. West slope of the Eastern Cordillera. Night Ocana.

March 11th Reserva Natural de Aves (RNA) Horiguero, Department of Norte Santander, 1500-1700 meters. Some of the group, go to a locality near Pueblo Nuevo to look for Todd’s Parakeet. Night Ocana. Department of Norte Santander.

March 12th 3:30am start and drive to Santa Marta with breakfast along the way and lunch on arrival at Rodadero beach, Department of Magadalena. Late afternoon on Isla Salamanca at Los Cocos. Night Rodadero.

March 13th Early start for the Guajira peninsular and the Los Flamencos National Park, spending the morning birding near Pericos. Boat ride at Camerones and birding the lagoons with lunch on the beach. Afternoon return to Rodadero beach and our hotel. Department of Magadalena.

March 14th Rodadero to the Santa Marta Mountains. Birding above and below Minca with lunch there, 370 – 1300 meters. Then to the El Dorado Lodge 1900 meters. Department of Magadalena.

March 15th Morning on the San Lorenzo ridge at 2560 meters and down to 1900 and the El Dorado Lodge 1900-2500 meters. Afternoon above the lodge. Department of Magadalena.

March 16th Early morning Morning on the San Lorenzo ridge at 2560 meters and afternoon below the lodge at 1650-1900 meters. Department of Magadalena.

March 17th Drive to Santa Marta airport and fly to Medallin via Bogota (where we say goodbye to Bob who was not joining us for the extention.) Lunch and drive to the Resereva natural de Aves (RNA) Arrierito Antioqueno Reserve, (Chestnut-capped Piha Reserve) 1600meters. Department of Antioquia. West slope Central Cordillera.

March 18th Full day at the reserve walking a trail up the ridge in the morning, 1600-1700 meters and along the quiet road in the afternoon. Night at the RNA Arrierito Antioqueno. Depratment of Antioquia.

March 19th Morning on the new very good trail at the reserve and then drive to Medallin and on to Jardin. Night in Jardin at 1600 meters amongst the Holy week crowds. Department of Risaralda. East slope of the Central Cordillera.

March 20th Morning at the Yellow-eared Parrot Reserve at Alto de Ventanas 2700 – 2600 meters, East slope of the Western Cordillera, and afternoon drive to Medallin for the night.

March 21st Flight from Medallin to Bogota and connecting flights home.

 Chestnut-bellied Hummingbird
Chestnut-bellied Hummingbird, copyright ProAves

Species list

Species which were heard but not seen are indicated by the symbol *
SACC = South American Checklist Committee
RNA = Reserva Natural de Aves (Pro-Aves Reserves)

Highland Tinamou - Nothocercus bonaparte - Several heard at the RNA Cerulea and one seen walking across the trail in the mist. Named after the early French collector Prince Bonaparte.

Tawny-breasted Tinamou - Nothocercus Julius* - very vocal at Alto de Los Ventanas but impossible to see.

Great Tinamou - Timamus major*

Little Tinamou - Crypturellus soui: Several sightings at the RNA Puajil with 3 in one day March 6th

 Santa Marta Bush-Tyrant
Santa Marta Bush-Tyrant, copyright ProAves

Least Grebe - Tachybaptus dominicus: 2 on our drive on March 8th

Pied-billed Grebe - Podilymbus podiceps: 6 at Parque La Florida

Brown Pelican - Pelecanus occidentales: Common along the coastline near Rodadero and Camerones.

Neotropic Cormorant - Phalacocorax brasilianus

Anhinga - Anhinga anhinga: 6 on March 12th

Common in the Santa Marta area.

Gereat Blue Heron - Ardea herodias: A few in the Department of Magadelena. Herodias is Greek for Heron.

Great Egret - Ardea albus: We saw small numbers at several wetland sites. Now usually placed in the genus Ardea.

White-necked (Cocoi) Heron - Ardea cocoi. About a dozen sightings throughout the trip.

Reddish Egret - Egretta rufescens: Very common at camerones on March 13th

Tricolored Heron - Egretta tricolor: Around 50 at Camerones on March 13th and some the previous day.

Little Blue Heron - Egretta caerulea: Regular sightings of adults and thre snowy immatures.

Snowy Egret - Egretta thula

Striated Heron - Butorides striatus: Small numbers seen at several wetland areas.

Green Heron - Butorides virescens: 2 near Perico on March 13th.

Cattle Egret Bubulcus ibis: Common and widespread.

Capped Heron Pilherodius pileatus: We had nice looks near Perico and also a few whilst traveling.

Black-crowned Night Heron - Nycticorax nycticorax: On one at parquet La Florida on our first morning.

Rufescent Tiger-Heron - Tigrisoma lineatum: One near El Paujil reserve and one on a travel day.

 Red-bellied Grackle
Red-bellied Grackle, copyright ProAves

American Wood Stork - Mycteria americana: One at Perico on March 13th

Whispering Ibis (Bare-faced ) Phimosus infuscatus: Common.

White Ibis - Eudocimus albus: Around 100 near Pericos on March 13th

Scarlet Ibis - Eudocimus ruber: 6 seen near Pericos on March 13th - gaudy!

Sharp-tailed Ibis - Cercibis oxycerca: One seen by Robert on March 12th

Roseate Spoonbill - Platalea ajaja: Another pink bird! 20+ seen near Pericos.

Carribean Flamingo - Phoenicopterus ruber: 100 + on the lagoons at Camerones. The SACC says “The Old World subspecies roseus has been recognized as a separate species by some authors (e.g., Meyer de Schauensee 1970, Blake 1977), with the English name "Greater Flamingo" applied to the Old World species, and either "Caribbean Flamingo" or "American Flamingo" (e.g., Meyer de Schauensee 1970, Hilty 2003) used for the New World species.

Northern Screamer - Chauna chavaria: Seen well and scoped (4 birds) on the way in and (8) on the way to and from the RNA Paujil. A bird most wanted to see it and it obliged. NEAR THREATENED

Fulvous Whistling-Duck - Dendrocygna bicolor: Only one on a pond on March 11th

Black-bellied Whistling-Duck Dendrocygna autumnalis: Here and there in wtland areas.

Blue-winged Teal - Anas discors: Boreal migrant to Colombia

Andean Duck - Oxyura ferruginea: At Parque La Florida

Turkey Vulture - Cathartes aura

Black Vulture - Coragyps atratus

Lesser Yellow-headed Vulture - Cathartes burrovianus: regular sighting sover open non-forested areas.

King Vulture - Sacoramphus papa- Onat at the Paujil reserve anmd 2 at the RNA Arrierito on March 18th

Osprey - Pandion haliaetus: regular sightings of individuals throughout the tour.

Crane Hawk - Geranospiza caerulacens: 2
Grey-headed Kite - Leptodon cayanensis: 2 sightings on consecutive days at the RNA El Paujil, apparently new for the reserve list.

American Swallow-tailed Kite - Elanoides forficatus: One of the most elegant birds of the Neotropics. 10+ at RNA Arrieriton on March 18th.

White-tailed Kite - Elanus leucurus: Two seen in total

Snail Kite - Rostrhamus sociabilis: 30 + seen at ponds on March 11th

Double-toothed Kite - Harpagus bidentatus. One soaring at RNA El Paujil.

Plumbeous Kite - Ictinia plumbea. Several sightings at the Paujil Reserve

Semi-collared Hawk Accipiter collaris. One of this scarce species glided over the trail at RNA Arrierito on March 19th. NEAR THREATENED

Common (Mangrove) Black Hawk - Buteogallus (subtilis) anthracinus. The SACC says: Evidence for treating Buteogallus subtilis as a species separate from Buteogallus anthracinus is weak. It was treated as a full species by Stresemann & Amadon (1979), Thiollay (1994), AOU (1998), and Ferguson-Lees & Christie (2001), following Amadon (1961) and Monroe (1963, 1968); see Howell & Web (1995), Stiles & Skutch (1989), and Ridgely et al. (2001), and especially Clark (2007) for opposing view. It was considered a synonym of B. anthracinus by Hellmayr & Conover (1949) and as a subspecies of B. anthracinus by Friedmann (1950). SACC proposal passed to remove species rank for subtilis. The two were treated as forming a superspecies by Sibley & Monroe (1990) and Thiollay (1994). Stresemann & Amadon (1979) suspected that Buteogallus subtilis and B. aequinoctialis form a superspecies.

Savanna Hawk Heterospizias meridionalis: A few sightings.

Harris’s (Bay-winged) Hawk - Parabuteo unicinctus: Only one on March 13th

Black-collared Hawk - Busarellus nigricolis: One on March 19th

Gray Hawk - Buteo nitida: A dozen sightings of this species throughout the tour. Formerly placed in the monotypic genus Asturina. Yhe SACC says - REFS> and Sibley & Monroe (1990) considered the Middle American subspecies plagiata to deserve recognition as a separate species from Asturina nitida, but in part because no rationale was published, this treatment has not been widely accepted; see Hellmayr & Conover (1949) for rationale for treating them as conspecific.

Roadside Hawk Buteo magnirostris: Numerous and widespread in small numbers.

White-rumped Hawk Buteo leucorrhous: We saw 2 on the San Lorenzo ridge in the Santa Marta mountains on March 20th

Broad-winged Hawk - Buteo platypterus: A few sightings in forested areas

Short-tailed Hawk - Buteo brachyurus. 2 seen

Swainsons Hawk - Buteo swainsoni : 50+ seen migrating near Tobia on March 4th names after William Swainson, English naturalist and writer( 1789 - 1855) - he has a Thrush and a warbler too.

Zone-tailed Hawk - Buteo albonotatus: One seen on RNA El Paujil on March 5th

Black Hawk-Eagle - Spizaetus tyrannus: One calling and soaring high at RNA El Paujil on March 6th

Ornate Hawk-Eagle - Spizaetus ornatus: One preched in the canopy at RNA Arrierito drying its wings.

Black and Chestnut Eagle - Oroaetis isadori: Three sightings on March 11th in the Santa Marta Mountains. Named after Isadore Geoffrey Saint-Hilaire - French zoologist and author. NEAR THREATENED

Red-throated Caracara - Ibycter americanus*

Northern Caracara - Caracara cheriway: Small numbers at several sites. Formerly placed in the genus Polyborus but, this species has been switched to the genus Caracara. Note also that the former species known as Crested Caracara, has been split into three species with those ranging north of north-west Peru and the Amazon River ( i.e Colombia) are referable to Northern Crested-Caracara C. cheriway while another form, the extinct Guadalupe Caracara C. lutosus, of Guadalupe Island, Mexico, has also been given its untimely species status. The SACC says “Caracara cheriway and C. plancus were formerly considered conspecific (e.g., Hellmayr & Conover 1949, Phelps & Phelps 1958a), sometimes also including C. lutosus of Guadalupe Island (e.g., Meyer de Schauensee 1970, Stresemann and Amadon 1979), but the ranges of cheriway and plancus are nearly parapatric with no sign of intergradation, contrary to earlier interpretations (see Banks REF); they constitute a superspecies. The three forms had previously been considered separate species by REFS, Pinto (1938), and Friedmann (1950).”

Yellow-headed Caracara Milvago chimachima: Another widespread open country raptor that was
seen regularly in smll numbers.

Laughing Falcon Herpetotheres cachinnans: Great views on many days at the Paujil Reserve and other locations.

American Kestrel - Falco sparverius: Scattered sightings.

Aplomado Falcon - Falco fdemoralis; One near Tobia on March 4th. Why this bird has a Spanish common name I do not know. Aplomado (Spanish) = Grayish (English).

Merlin - Falco columbarius: Repeated views of a flying and perched bird at Parque La Florida.

Bat Falcon - Falco rufigularis: 3 in total.

E Chestnut-winged Chachalaca* : Heard at Pericos but we could not find them - bummer!

E Colombian Chachalaca Ortalis columbiana: 4 seen on the way to RNA El Paujil including a recently fledged bird and heard at other localities.

Andean Guan - Penelope montagnii: 2 at La Suiza and one in the Santa Marta Mountains. Penelope was the daughter of Icarius and wife of Ulysses king of Ithaca.

Band-tailed Guan - Penelope argyrotis: 2 flushed at RNA Hormiguero were of this species.

E Cauca Guan - Penelope perspicax: At La Suiza was fairly common - 6 on March 2nd and 3 the next morning. It has a very small known range in which severely fragmented habitat patches are declining. Its population is believed to be very small and divided into extremely small subpopulations which are inferred (as a result of ongoing habitat loss and hunting) to be declining. ENDANGERED

Wattled Guan - Aburria aburria: One scoped at la Suiza - great looks, and one heard at RNA Arrierito.

Sickle-winged Guan - Chamaepetes goudotii: 3 seen in total including one walking in front of our pick up in the Santa Marta Mountains.

E Blue-billed Currasow - Crax alberti. Wow - A pair seen walking quietly across the trail, the female followed by the male. One of the birdsof the trip. Spectacular. The rate of deforestation in this species's range has been very rapid over the past decade, such that little habitat remains. It is projected that it could undergo an extremely rapid population reduction given increased access and hunting, and therefore qualifies as Critically Endangered. Crax alberti historically occurred in northern Colombia, from the base of the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta west to the Sinú valley and south in the Magdalena valley to north Tolima. Two of the few large lowland forest areas remaining in its range have produced recent records: two sites on the west slope of the Serranía de San Lucas, Antioquia and the Serranía de las Quinchas, Boyacá. Surveys conducted in 2003 suggest that the latter area holds the population stronghold of this species and contributed to the establishment of El Paujíl Bird Reserve. Named after Prince Albert, consort of Queen Victoria of Great Britain.CRITICALLY ENDANGERED

Crested Bobwhite Colinus cristatus:

Marbled Wood-Quail - Odontophorus gujanensis: 2 seen at the Paujil reserve.

E Black-fronted Wood-Quail Odontophorus atrifrons*: Heard in the Santa Marta Mountains and at the RNA Arrierito, Classified as Vulnerable by BirdLife International, the world population is estimated at 2,500 - 9,999 individuals and is decreasing. This species qualifies as Vulnerable owing to its small range and population, both of which must be declining in response to habitat loss. The range is small and fragmented with recent records from only one area. The Colombian East Andes have been subject to four centuries of extensive degradation, with progressive deforestation of the lower montane slopes. In Boyacá and Santander, however, where forest loss was gradual until the 1960s and 1970s, some sizeable tracts remain, and habitat is beginning to regenerate owing to land abandonment. The Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta is threatened by agricultural expansion, logging and burning. On the west slopes, marijuana plantations expanded widely in the 1980s, and were sprayed by the government with herbicides in the early 1990s. The Sierra de Perijá is heavily deforested up to 2,000m, by cattle-ranching at lower elevations and coca cultivation higher up. It is also hunted at least in some parts of its range. VULNERABLE

E Chestnut Wood-Quail - Odontophorus hyperythrus* Heard at La Suiza. NEAR THREATENED.

Limpkin - Aramus guarauna: A few.

Russet-crowned Crake - Anurolimnas viridis: Several heard and one called in at the RNA El Paujil.

White-throated Crake - Laterallus albigulari: At the Paujil Reserve cracking looks at this in small marshy area on the access road.

E Bogota Rail - Rallus semiplumbeus: A handsome endemic. 2 seen at Parque La Florida. The world population is estimated at 1,000 - 2,499 individuals and is decreasing because its range is very small and iscontracting owing to widespread habitat loss and degradation. ENDANGERED

Blackish Rail - Pardirallus nigricans*: Sat the RNA Arriertito where it was apparantly a new record.

Purple Gallinule - Porphyrula martinica: 4 seen in total.

Common Moorhen - Gallinula chloropus:

Spot-flanked Gallinule - Gallinula melanops: 4 seen at Parque La Florida on our first days birding.

American Coot - Fulica Americana: fairl common at Parque La Florida.

Wattled Jacana - Jacana jacana: A few on ponds.

Black-necked Stilt - Himantopus mexicanus: 20 + at Isla Salamanca. The SACC says” Himantopus mexicanus was formerly (e.g., Peters 1934, Pinto 1938, Hellmayr & Conover 1948b, Phelps & Phelps 1958a, Vaurie 1965c, Meyer de Schauensee 1970, Blake 1977, Haverschmidt & Mees 1994) considered a subspecies of Old World H. himantopus ("Common Stilt") and was so treated by Dickinson (2003). Some authors have treated southern South American melanurus as a separate species (e.g., Sibley & Monroe 1990, Ridgely & Greenfield 2001). The six taxa in the genus Himantopus form a near-globally distributed superspecies (Mayr & Short 1970, Sibley & Monroe 1990, Pierce 1996), and with from one to six species-level taxa recognized by various authors. Virtually no data are available relevant to taxon-ranking of allopatric populations. The contact between mexicanus and melanurus in South America, where at least some hybridization occurs, affords one of the best opportunities for such study.

Southern Lapwing - Vanellus chilensis: Fairly widespread in small numbers.

Black-bellied (Gray) Plover - Pluvialis squatarola: One at Camerones.

Semipalmated Plover - Charadrius semipalmatus: 4 at Camerones.

Wilson’s Plover - Charadrius wilsonia: 2 at Camerones.

Snowy Plover - Charadrius alexandrinus: One at Camerones. Named after the city in Egypt.

Noble Snipe - Gallinago nobilis: One at Parque la Florida was appreciated by all.

Hudsonian Whimbrel - Numenius phaeopus hudsonicus: Common at Camerones. Zink et al. (1995) proposed a return to earlier classifications (e.g., Ridgway 1919) that considered New World hudsonicus to be a separate species from Old World populations based on genetic distance. Although plumage pattern also differs substantially, vocalizations are evidently very similar, in contrast to the many allotaxa in the Scolopacidae treated as separate species

Short-billed Dowitcher - Limnodromus griseus: 15 at Los Cocos and 5 at Camerones

Greater Yellowlegs - Tringa melanoleuca: 2 at Los Cocos and one at Camerones

Lesser Yellowlegs - Tringa flavipes: 2 at Los Cocos

Solitary Sandpiper - Tringa solitaria: One at parquet La Florida and severl in the Santa Marta area.

Spotted Sandpiper - Actitis macularia: A few at Los Cocos and Camerones.

Willet - Catoptrophorus semipalmatus: 40 at Camerones.

Sanderling - Calidris alba: About six as we drobe into Santa Marta airport.

Semiplamated Sandpiper - Calidris pusilla: One at Camerones.

Western Sandpiper - Calidris mauri: One at Camerones

Least Sandpiper - Calidris minutilla: Two at Camerones

Ruddy Turnstone - Arenaria interpres. 12 at Camerones

Laughing Gull - Larus atricilla: At Los Cocos and Camerones.

Kelp Gull - Larus domincanus: One at Camerones was an unusual record and may be a first for Colombia. Interestingly enough this bird was seen at the same locality by Frank Lambert and his group on February 13th - exactly one month earlier.

Royal Tern - Thallaseus maximus: A few at Santa Marta and common at Camerones

Caspian Tern - Hydroprogne caspia: 3 at Camerones.

Black Skimmer - Rynchops niger: 20 at Camerones.

Band-tailed Pigeon - Patagioenas fasciata: Fairly common and widespread with many good views of perched birds. One of the most widespread New World birds, ranging from Alaska to Argentina. Here the Neotropical form albilinea, which has been regarded by some authors as a full species.

Scaled Pigeon - Patagioenaa speciosa: 1 seen at RNA El Paujil.

Bare -eyed Pigeon - Patagioenas corensis: Common on Isla Salamanca and in the Pericos area.

Pale-vented Pigeon - Patagioenas cayennensis: Common at the Paujil reserve.

Plumbeous Pigeon - Patagioenas plumbea* commonly heard but we never manged to see one - not that we tried.

Ruddy Pigeon - Patagioenas subvinacea* Ditto.

Eared Dove - Zenaida auriculata: Common.

Common Ground-Dove - Columbina passerina A few here and there.

Plain-breasted Ground Dove - Colombina minuta. A few near Purto Pinzon.

Ruddy Ground-Dove - Columbina talpacoti: Numerous and widespread in open country.

Scaled Dove - Colombina squamata: A few in the Santa Marta area.

Blue Ground Dove - Claravaris pretiosa

White-tipped Dove Leptotila verreauxi: Pretty common at many localities.

Gray-chested Dove - Leptotila cassini: One seen at the RNA Paujil on March 6th - and heard in the same locality earlier that day. Named after US Ornithologist, collector and author John Cassin.

E Tolima Dove - Leptotila conoveri. Recently re-discovered- this species was heard commonly and 2 individulas seen above Ibague at Clarita Botero. Named after H.B. Conoveri US ornithologist and author. ENDANGERED

Lined Quail-Dove Geotrygon linearis: This shy dove was seen and heard a few times in the Santa
Marta mountains and Ocona.

Red-bellied Macaw Ara severa: 4 at Serrania las Quinches.

Blue-crowned Parakeet - Aratinga acuticaudata: A part of six seen near Perico. We saw the koenigi subspecies. This species has a wide but disjunct population in South America.

Scarlet-fronted Parakeet Aratinga wagleri: Quite numerous in the lower reaches of the Santa Marta Mountains. Here the nominate race. Species in this genus, as well as Leptosittaca and those in Pyrrhura, often go by the name ‘conure’. We saw the nominate subspecies.

Brown-throated Parakeet - Aratinga pertinax: Common in the Perico’s area.

E Santa Marta Parakeet - Pyrrhura viridicauta. Well we struggled with this, only heraing it on the first morning but returning the next day we were treated to scope views and 4 seen in total. ENDANGERED

E Todd’s Parakeet - Pyrruhra caeruliceps. 3 seen exceptionally well for those who went to the Pueblo Nuevo area on March 11th. Perhaps, the rarest and least known bird of the trip. A species that was only rediscovered in June 2007. Treated as a seperate species from the Painted Parakeet complex that is being split up.

Spectacled Parrotlet Forpus conspicillatus: A near-endemic that showed well near San Vicente.

Green-rumped Parrotlet - Forpus passerinus - We saw a 5 of the cyanophanes sunspecies mear Perico

Orange-chinned Parakeet - Brotogeris jugularis: Common and conspiucuous

Red-winged (Blue-fronted) Parrotlet - Touit dilectissimus*: Heard only near an occupied nest at the RNA Arrierito, but we did not see them.

E Yellow-eared Parrot - Ognorhynchus icterotis: 41 counted at Alto de Los Ventanas near Jardin on March 19th. Good flyby views and we were lucky as the mist rolled in soon afterwards. Hitorically known from Ecuador it now seems to be extirpated there so is a de facto Colombian endemic. This species is Critically Endangered because the known range (especially the nesting area) is extremely small. Suitable habitat is severely fragmented throughout its historical range and continues to be lost and degraded. Conservation action by Pro Aves is addressing some of the key issues but the future of this species remains extremely uncertain. World population is estimated at 144 individuals so we saw almost a third of the worlds population in that one flock! CRITICALLY ENDANGERED.

E Saffron-headed Parrot - Pionopsitta pyrila*. Only at Serrania de los Quinches - seems hard to see here. Birdlife international NEAR THREATENED

Blue-headed Parrot Pionus menstruus: A few at Serrania Los Quinches.

Red-billed Parrot Pionus sordidus: Only seen in the Santa Marta Mountains, where it’s represented by
the endemic race saturatus. A species conspicuously absent from most of the remainder of the country.

Bronze-winged Parrot - Pionus chalcopterus*

Red-lored Parrot - Amazona autumnalis: A few at los Quinches including cope views

Yellow-crowned Parrot - Amazona ochrocephala - 2 only at RNA El Paujil.

Orange-winged Parrot - Anazonas amazonica - Common at RNA Paujil, Serrania Los Quinches.

Scaly-naped Parrot - Amazonas mercenaria - Very common and noisy on the San Lorenzo Ridge

Mealy Parrot - Amazona farinosa: Fairly common at RNA El Paujil

Pavonine Cuckoo - Dromococcyx pavoninus: Reputedly virtually unknown in Colombia - we heard 3 and saw on at the RNA Arrierito when one came barrelling in to playback and performed well.

Squirrel Cuckoo - Piaya cayana: Regular encounters during the tour.

Greater Ani Crotophaga major: Common at El Paujil

Smooth-billed Ani Crotophaga ani: the common Ani of the trip.

Groove-billed Ani - Crotophaga sulcirostris. Seen only on the Guajira Peninsular.

Striped Cuckoo Tapera naevia: Heard on a few occasions and seen very well once.

Tropical Screech Owl - Megascops choliba*: At RNA El Paujil and RNA Arrierito

E Santa Marta Screech Owl- Megascops gilesi: Heard and seen well near the El Dorado Lodge - this bird is still awaiting a formal description and will be named for Robert Giles who has helped Colombian conservation via ProAves in a big way . Its voice is very different from its congeners

Crested Owl - Lophostrix cristata* At RNA El Paujil

Mottled Owl - Ciccaba virgata*

Ferruginous Pygmy-Owl - Glaucidium brasilanum: One responed to tape and showed well below Minca on March 14th

Andean Pygmy-Owl - Glaucidium jardini* : At Alto de los Ventanas

Common Potoo - Nyctibius griseus*

Pauraque Nyctidromus albicollis: Heard at a few palces an seen at RNA El Paujil


White-collared Swift - Streptoprocne zonaris

Chestnut-collared Swift Streptoprocne rutilus: Small numbers noted at a few locations.

Band-rumped Swift Chaetura cinereiventris: 10 noted at RNA El Paujil.

Gray-rumped Swift - Chaetura cinereiventris: 4 at La Suiza

Short-tailed Swift Chaetura brachyura: Seen at calrita Botero and RNA El Paujil.

White-tipped Swift - Aeronautes montivagus. 10 at the RNA Cerulea during lunch and a break in the rain.

Rufous-breasted Hermit Glaucis hirsute: One at RNA El Paujil

Band-tailed Barbthroat - Threnetes ruckeri: One on a nest at RNA El Paujil.

Stripe-throated Hermit - Phaethornis striigularis: 3 noted at the RNA El Paujil.

Pale-bellied Hermit - Phaethornis anthophilus: 3 seen at the El Paujil reserve.

Green Hermit - Phaethornis guy: A few noted at several localities.

Tawny-bellied Hermit - Phaethornis syrmatophorus: One near Tobia on March 4th.

Long-billed (Western Long-tailed) Hermit Phaethornis longirostris: This is the form that occurs in Central America sussurans as opposed to the one along the coast of Ecuador and extreme north Peru baroni (“Baron’s Hermit”) The SACC says: Ridgely & Greenfield (2001) considered the subspecies baroni of western Ecuador and northwestern Peru to deserve recognition as a separate species from Phaethornis longirostris based on vocal and plumage differences. SACC proposal to recognize baroni as a separate species did not pass.

Green Violetear Colibri thalassinus: Seen on the San Lorenzo Ridge ‘Thalassinus’ is Latin for ‘sea green’.

Sparkling Violetear Colibri coruscans: Relatively scarce with just 2 in the Santa Marta mountains and one above Ibague.

Black-throated Mango Anthracothorax nigricollis: Several here and there in the lowlands

Western Emerlad - Chlorostilbon melanorhynchus: two seen at the RNA Arierito.

Red-billed Emerald Chlorostilbon gibsoni: A few were noted in the lower reaches of the Santa Marta
mountains around Minca and above Ibague amongst other places. Species limits in the mellisugus group of taxa in Chlorostilbon are complex. At one extreme, Zimmer (1950d) and Schuchmann (1999) considered them all conspecific, including the canivetii group of Middle America. Chlorostilbon gibsoni (including nitens) was usually (e.g., Cory 1918, Peters 1945, Meyer de Schauensee 1970) considered a separate species ("Red-billed Emerald") from C. mellisugus, as was C. canivetii. Stiles (1996a) proposed that C. mellisugus should be treated as at least three separate species within South America: melanorhynchus (of western Colombia and Ecuador), gibsoni (northern and central Colombia, NW Venezuela), and mellisugus (rest of South America); this represents a partial return to the classification of Cory (1918) and was followed by Ridgely & Greenfield (2001). Together, these taxa would form a superspecies with recently described olivaresi. Sibley & Monroe (1990) considered C. mellisugus to form a superspecies with Middle American Chlorostilbon species but not with C. gibsoni, because the two were thought to be sympatric [are they? breeding?] in the Magdalena Valley, Colombia. SACC proposal passed to follow species limits proposed by Stiles (1996a).

E Coppery Emerald Chlorostilbon russatus: Replaces the former at higher elevations in the Santa Marta Mountains. One or two seen in flowering inga trees above Minca.

Violet-crowned Woodnymph Thalurania colombica: Common. We saw the colombica naominate race in the Santa Marta Mountains and the rostrifera subspecies at RNA El Paujil. It wa son our list as Purple-crowned Woodnymph.

Green-crowned Woodnymph - Thalurania fannyi: Only seen near Ocana where 6 individulas were seen.

Sapphire-throated Hummingbird - Lepidopyga coeruleogularis. One of the coelina subspecies seen near Perico.

White-chinned Sapphire - Hylocharis cyanus: One only on March 8th

Andean Emerald - Agyrtria franciae. Two at RNA Arrierito. Named for Francia Bourcier daughter of the French consul to Ecuador 1849-1850

Blue-chested Hummingbird - Polerata amabilis. 3 seen at RNA El Paujil.

Steely-vented Hummingbird - Saucerottia saucerottei. 30+ in flowering Ingas below above Minca

E Indigo-capped Hummingbird - Saucerottia cyanifrons. Seen around the lodge at RNA Cerulea on two consecutive days in a flowering shrub next to the accommodations. A very localized endemic.

E Blossomcrown - Anthocephala floriceps. One seen by Phil at lower elevations below the El Dorado Lodge which seemd to be an immature bird. VULNERABLE

Rufous-tailed Hummingbird Amazilia tzacatl: This common and widespread species was seen in small numbers.

E Chestnut-bellied Hummingbird - Amazilia castaneiventris: A very localized endemic seen near San Vicente in a flowering tree on March 10th. This species is Critically Endangered because it has an extremely small known range in which suitable habitat is severely fragmented and continuing to decline. However, the extent to which it tolerates degraded and secondary habitats and the current distribution are in urgent need of assessment. Found only on the slopes of the Serranía de San Lucas and the East Andes CRITICALLY ENDANGERED

White-vented Plumeleteer - Chalybura buffonii: Common in the Santa Marta mountains at lower elevations and also at Ocana.

Speckled Hummingbird -Adelomyia melanogenys: A few here and there.

Green-crowned Brilliant - Heliodoxa jacula: Fairly common at RNA Arrierito.

Buff-tailed Coronet - Boissonneaua flavescens: At least half a dozen at Alto las Ventanas.

Mountain Velvetbreast Lafresnaya lafresnayi: 4 in the Santa Marta mountains and one at RNA Arrierito.

Bronzy Inca Coeligena coeligena: 2 above Ibague

E Black Inca Coeligena prunellei: What a smashing bird! 3 of this sought after species in the Cerulean Warbler reserve. ENDANGERED

Collared Inca - Coeligena torquata: 2 at the RNA Arrierito.

E White-tailed Starfrontlet - Coeligena phalerata : Another gorgous Hummer. 2 or 3 of this Santa Marta endemic were seen repeatedly visiting flowers terrestrial bromeliads on San Lorenzo ridge.

Tourmeline Sunangel - Heliangelus exortis: Three to four at Alto de Ventanas.

Glowing Puffleg - Eriocnemis vestita: 6 at Alto de Ventanas.

Booted Racket-tail Ocreatus underwoodii: We enjoyed a few encounters with this widespread but
attractive species.

Tyrian Metaltail Metallura tyrianthina: We saw both the reddish-tailed nominate race at Alto de Ventanas above Jardin and the very distinct and blue-tailed districta, endemic to the Santa Marta and Perijá mountains. This latter may deserve ful species status.

Long-tailed Sylph Aglaiocercus kingi

White-bellied Woodstar - Chaetocercus mulsant: One seen at RNA Arrierito

E Santa Marta Woodstar - Chaetocercus astreans. Great looks in the garden of the El Dorado Lodge where it fed for most of one afternoon on a flowering shrub. Can be tricky to see.

Rufous-shafted Woodstar - Chaetocercus jourdanni: One seen along the road at RNA Hormiguero above Ocana.

White-tipped Quetzal Pharomachrus fulgidus: Superb views of several birds in the San Lorenzo area.
One of the species shared between the Santa Marta Mountains and Venezuela’s coastal cordilleras.

Golden-headed Quetzal Pharomachrus auriceps* Heard at RNA Arrierito - came close but we did not see it.

Western White-tailed Trogon Trogon chionurus: Two at the El Paujil Reserve Formerly lumped in Amazonian White-tailed Trogon T. viridis, Western White-tailed. The South American Checklist committee says “Ridgely & Greenfield (2001) considered the subspecies chionurus of the Chocó region to be a separate species from Trogon viridis; followed by Hilty (2003); SACC proposal to recognize this split did not pass because of insufficient published data. This Trogon ranges from Panama into western Ecuador.

Collared Trogon Trogon collaris . 6 seen well at RNA El Paujil and 2 at RNA Arrierito.

Black-tailed Trogon - Trogon melanurus* At the El Paujil Reserve

Masked Trogon Trogon personatus: A highland version of the former and it was partuclarly common in the Santa Marta Mountains.

Northern Violaceous Trogon Trogon caligatus: Several at the El Paujil reserve. The SACC says “Ridgely & Greenfield (2001) considered caligatus of Middle America and northwestern South America to be a separate species from Trogon violaceus, and this was followed by Hilty (2003); SACC proposal to recognize this split did not pass because of insufficient published data.

Ringed Kingfisher - Ceryle torquata: Small numbers at various wetlands. Note that these species are
now often treated as part of a separate family, the Cerylidae.

Green Kingfisher -Chloroceryle americana: One on Isla Salamanca.

American Pygmy Kingfisher - Chloroceryle aenea: Great looks at El Paujil and Isla Salamanca.

Highland Motmot - Momotus aequatorialis: Common and conspicuous at La Suiza and Ibague. The SACC says - Momotus momota may consist of several species-level taxa (e.g., Ridgely & Greenfield 2001). The subspecies aequatorialis, venezuelae, subrufescens, microstephanus, and argenticinctus were all formerly (e.g., Ridgway 1914, Cory 1919) considered separate species from M. momota, as were two Middle American taxa. Chapman (1923) recognized four species in South America: M. subrufescens (including "venezuelae") of the Caribbean rim of northern South America, M. bahamensis of Trinidad, M. aequatorialis of the Andes, and M. momota (including microstephanus) of the rest of South America, including argenticinctus of western Ecuador and northwestern Peru. Peters (1945) considered them all conspecific, and this was followed by Meyer de Schauensee (1970) and AOU (1983, 1998). Fjeldsĺ & Krabbe (1990) proposed that the Andean form aequatorialis was a separate species from M. momota, and this was followed by Ridgely & Greenfield (2001) and Dickinson (2003), thus returning to the classification of Cory (1919) and Chapman (1923, 1926). However, no formal analysis has ever been published, and the published evidence in support of treating aequatorialis as a species-level taxon is weak. SACC proposal passed for treating aequatorialis as conspecific with M. momota (and we hope that this decision stimulates further research on the M. momota complex).

Blue-crowned Motmot - Momotus momota: See above. This one was seen at lowere elavtions at El Paujil and Minca.

Rufous Motmot - Baryphthengus martii Commonly heard and one seen at Serrania Las Quinches

Broad-billed Motmot - Electron platyrynchum* : At Serrania Los Quinches. Electron is Greek for the color amber

Rufous-tailed Jacamar - Galbula ruficauda: Several encounters with this charming species throughout the tour.

Black-breasted Puffbird - Notharcus pectoralis: 2 individuals seen after some effort at RNA El Paujil Serrania Quinches. Great scope views in the end.

Barred Puffbird Nystalus radiatus: A pair showed pretty well at Serrania las Quinches.

Russet-throated Puffbird - Hypnelus ruficollis: 2 seen in the desert near Pericos on the Guajira peninsular of the decolor race.

White-whiskered Puffbird - Malacoptila panamensis: One at RNA EL Puajil just before we saw the Currasows.

Moustached Puffbird - Malocoptila myesticalis: One above Ibague and one RNA Reinita Cileo Azul.

White-fronted Nunbird - Monasa albifrons: Conspicuous at RNA El Paujil.

E White-mantled Barbet Capito hypoleucus: Excellent looks one at Serrania las Quinches and three seeen exceptionally well at RNA Arrierito. A so-called Nechí endemic, confined to the humid forests of the middle Magdalena Valley. The Nechí is actually a tributary of the Cauca river, its drainage being on the east side of the top end of the Central Andes but west of the though technically it really isn’t. Classified as Endangered by BirdLife International, the world population is estimated at 2,500 - 9,999 individuals and is decreasing. This species has a very small and severely fragmented range. Habitat loss is occurring rapidly in some parts of its range, and the population is likely to be declining. ENDANGERED

Red-headed Barbet - Eubucco bourcierii* At RNA Arrierito

Yellow-billed Toucanet Aulacorhynchus calorhynchus: At Santa Marta. The SACCC says- The taxon calorhynchus was formerly (e.g., Cory 1919, Peters 1948, Phelps & Phelps 1958a, Meyer de Schauensee 1970) treated as a separate species ("Yellow-billed Toucanet") from Aulacorhynchus sulcatus (Groove-billled Toucanet), but in their area of contact in Venezuela, only individuals with intermediate bill characters are found (Schwartz 1972b); still treated as separate species by Hilty (2003).

Andean Toucanet Aulacorhynchus albivitta: Seen at la Suiza,Ibague and the RNA Hormiguero. The SACC says - Ridgely & Greenfield (2001) suggested that Aulacorhynchus prasinus (Emerald Toucanet) may consist of more than one species-level taxon, but see Short & Horne (2001), who pointed out that the allopatric taxa are no more distinctive than those known to intergrade. The subspecies lautus, albivitta, cyanolaemus, dimidiatus, and atrogularis, as well as Middle American wagleri and caeruleogularis, were formerly (e.g., Ridgway 1914, Cory 1919) each considered separate species from (and in some cases not particularly closely related to) Aulacorhynchus prasinus, but Peters (1948) and Haffer (1974) treated them all as conspecific. [add synopsis of Navarro et al. (2001) -- proposal needed]

E Santa Marta Toucanet Aulacorhynchus lautus: Common in the Santa Marta Mountains

Crimson-rumped Toucanet - Aulacorhynchus haematopygus*

Keel-billed Toucan - Ramphastos sulfuratus In the Santa Marta mountains with at least 5 being seen.

E Citron-throated Toucan - Ramphastos citrolaemus: Heard commonly and half a dozen seen at Serrania de los Qinches. The SACC says - Cory (1919) and Meyer de Schauensee (1966, 1970) considered R. culminatus ("Yellow-ridged Toucan") and R. citrolaemus ("Citron-throated Toucan") as separate species from Ramphastos vitellinus. Haffer (1974) treated these as a subspecies of R. vitellinus, and this treatment, actually a partial return to the classification of Pinto (1937) and Peters (1948), has been followed by most subsequent authors (but not Sibley & Monroe 1990, Hilty 2003).

Black-mandibled Toucan Ramphastos ambiguus: Two seen at Serrania de los Qinches.

Black- billed Mountain-Toucan - Andigena nigrirostris: 2 seen well at Alto Los Ventanas on March 20th

Collared Aracari - Pteroglossus torquatus: Several encounters throughout the tour.

Olivaceous Piculet Picumnus olivaceus: Common

E Grayish Piculet - Picumnus granadensis* at La Suiza

Acorn Woodpecker Melanerpes formicivorus: 2 birds below Jardin.. This species is strictly tied to the geographical distribution of Quercus oaks. The latter don’t range any further into South- America, and consequently the woodpecker doesn’t either. Colombian birds belong to the endemic race flavigula, in which males have the red confined to the hindcrown (as in
females of other races), whereas the female lacks the red altogether.

E Beautifull Woodpecker - Melanerpes pulcher - 1 seen very well at the El Paujil Reserve. A Colombian endemic. The SACC says “The Colombian taxon pulcher was considered a separate species from Central American Melanerpes chrysauchen by Cory (1919), Eisenmann (1955), and Stiles & Skutch (1989); however, Peters (1948) treated them as conspecific, and that treatement has been followed by most subsequent authors (e.g., Meyer de Schauensee 1979, Short 1982, Hilty & Brown 1986, Winkler et al. 1995, AOU 1998, Winkler & Christie 2002, Dickinson 2003). Wetmore (1968) provided rationale for treating pulcher as a separate species, as noted by Meyer de Schauensee (1966), but this has not been followed by most subsequent authors. SACC proposal passed to recognize pulcher as separate species.

Red-crowned Woodpecker - Melanerpes rubricapillus: Common.

Smoky-brown Woodpecker - Picoides fumigatus: One at La Suiza and one at RNA Reinita.

Golden-Olive Woodpecker - Piculus rubiginosus: Several sightings of individuals

Crimson-mantled Woodpecker - Colaptes rivolii: One at RNA Arrierito

Cinnamon Woodpecker - Celeus loricatus. An attractive woodpecker seen at the El Paujil Reserve on two consecutive days.

Lineated Woodpecker - Dryocopus lineatus. Several sightings expecially ar RNA Paujil.

Powerful Woodpecker - Campephilus pollens: A pair seen at La Suiza on March 2nd.

Crimson-crested Woodpecker Campephilus melanoleucos: 2 at the El Paujil Reserve nd 2 in the Santa Marta Mountains.

Caribean (Pale-legged) Hornero - Furnarius(leucopus) longirostris : A couple seen by some. The SACC says: The subspecies longirostris was also treated as a separate species by Ridgely & Greenfield (2001) and Hilty (2003). Although vocal and behavioral differences have been reported, no real analysis has been published to support this split.

Azara’s Spinetail Synallaxis azarae: Fairly commonly heard and a few seen.

E Silvery-throated Spinetail Synallaxis subpudica: 2 of this dull tailed Spinetail were seen very well at Parque La Florida - a bit of a surprise but a pleasant one.

Pale-breasted Spinetail Synallaxis albescens: This open country spinetail was seen t several places.

Rufous Spinetail - Synallaxis unirufa: one of the nominate race was seen at Alto Los Ventanas.

E Rusty-headed Spinetail Synallaxis fuscorufa: A numerous and attractive Santa Marta endemic, the world population is not known but is thought to be decreasing. This species has a small range and population, which is fragmented and declining due to habitat destruction caused by illegal agriculture, logging and burning. Intensification of these pressures, and hence increased inferred rates of population decline have led to its up listing to Vulnerable. It may even warrant up listing to Endangered once more detailed information on rates of forest loss becomes available. VULNERABLE

Slaty Spinetail Synallaxis brachyura : Seen very well in the Ibague area but not again.

White-whiskered Spinetail - Synallaxis candei: A very pretty Spinetail indeed. Easy to see, with half a dozen on March 13th,on the Guajira Peninsular. Named after the French Admiral de Cande a naval explorer in the mid 19th century.

Stripe-breasted Spinetail - Synallaxis cinnamomea. Failrly common and the Bushbird reserve with 4 seen.

White-browed Spinetial - Hellmayrea gularis: One at Alto ls Ventanas. The genus is named for Eduard Hellmayr a German/US ornithologist who also has a Pipit and another Spinetail named after him.

Red-faced Spinetail - Cranioleuca erythrops: One at RNA Arrierito.

E Streak-capped Spinetail Cranioleuca hellmayri: Another localized spinetail (endemic to the Santa Marta Mountains and specimens have just been fround from the Sierra de Perijá) that showed very well indeed and was in the garden of lodge every day.

Yellow-chinned Spinetail - Certhiaxis cinnamomea: two showed very well on the way to RNA El Paujil, in response to playback and one at Los Cocos.

Spotted Barbtail Premnoplex brunnescens: A couple seen.

Montane Foliage-gleaner - Anabacerthia striaticollis: Common in the Santa Marta mountains and La Suiza and some seen elsewhere.

Lineated Foliage-gleaner - Syndactyla subalaris: One seen in the big insectivore flock at RNA Arrierito.

Buff-fronted Foliage-gleaner - Phildor rufus: 2 at the RNA Arrierito.

Streak-capped Treehunter - Thripadectes virgaticeps: 2 seen well in the big flock at RNA Arrierito.

Ruddy Foliage-gleaner - Automolus rubiginosus: One responded to tape well at the RNA El Paujil.

E Santa Marta Foliage-gleaner - Automolusrufipectus. A distinct endemic form of Ruddy Foliage Gleaner found only in the Santa Marta Mountains and the paper is underway to recognize this as a distinct species.

Streaked Xenops Xenops rutilans: A few seen above Ibague and at La Suiza. The form found in the Central and Western Andes is heterurus.

Plain Xenops Xenops minutus: One at the El Paujil Reserve and 2 near Minca

Tyrannine Woodcreeper - Dendrocincla tyrannina: One at La Suiza and one heard at Alto Los Ventanas.

Plain-brown Woodcreeper - Dendrocincla fulginosa: 2 birds seen well at RNA El Paujil.

Olivaceous Woodcreeper Sittasomus griseicapillus perijanus A couple at the Cerulean Warbler Reserve. The SACC says “Sittasomus griseicapillus almost certainly consists of multiple species (Hardy et al. 1991, Ridgely & Tudor 1994, Parker et al. 1995, Ridgely & Greenfield 2001, Hilty 2003), with at least five subspecies groups possibly deserving separate species status (Marantz et al. 2003).” In Bolivia its viridis. In Manu Peru it’s amazonas, in the west of N Peru and Ecuador its aequatorialis, and in SE Brazil it’s sylviellus and there are more. Watch this taxon for splits.

Wedge-billed Woodcreeper - Glyphorynchus spirurus: One at Serrania de los Quinches

Strong-billed Woodcreeper - Xiphocolaptes promeropirhynchus: Seen at La Suiza and in the Santa Marta Mountains we saw the endemic sanctaemartae subspecies.

Black-banded Woodcreeper - Dendrocolapates picumnus: 2 responded to playback in the Santa Marta Mountains.

Cocoa Woodcreeper - Xiphorynchus susurrans. Fairly common at various sites. The SACC says -The relationships among taxa included in Xiphorhynchus susurrans and X. guttatus are complex and need much additional work. Xiphorhynchus susurrans was formerly (e.g., Zimmer 1934d, Phelps & Phelps 1950a, Peters 1951, Meyer de Schauensee 1970) considered conspecific with X. guttatus, but Willis (1983) provided evidence that it should be treated as a separate species; this treatment was followed by Ridgely & Tudor (1994) and AOU (1998); they constitute a superspecies. Xiphorhynchus susurrans had previously been treated as a species by Cory & Hellmayr (1925), who also treated the subspecies polystictus (= sororius) as a separate species; this was considered conspecific with X. guttatus by Zimmer (1934d) and Peters (1951). However, Aleixo (2002) found that treating X. susurrans at the species level makes Xiphorhynchus guttatus paraphyletic with respect to Amazonian guttatoides group (Lafraneye’s Woodcreeper) of western and southwestern Amazonia (guttatoides, dorbignyianus, eytoni, and vicinalis) and eastern Amazonian guttatus group (guttatus, polystictus, and provisionally, connectens). Marantz et al. (2003) also emphasized that the current assignment of subspecies to either X. susurrans or X. guttatus does not correspond to the boundaries in vocalizations. Furthermore, the eytoni subspecies group was formerly (e.g., Todd 1948, Meyer de Schauensee 1966, 1970) considered a separate species ("Dusky-billed Woodcreeper") from X. guttatus; here it is treated as subspecies of guttatus following Cory & Hellmayr (1925), Zimmer (1934d), Pinto (1937), Peters (1951), and Ridgely & Tudor (1994), but Marantz et al. (2003) noted that this group differed in vocalizations from other taxa included in X. guttatus. Proposal needed?

Black-striped Woodcreeper - Xiphorynchus lachrymosus*. At the El Paujil reserve

Straight-billed Woodcreeper - Xiphorhynchus picus: Several seen in open country.

Olive-backed Woodcreeper - Xiphorynchus triangularis: Two at RNA Arrierito.

Montane Woodcreeper Lepidocolaptes lacrymiger: This attractive and well-marked woodcreeper was
regularly seen in the Western and Central Andes (the endemic sneiderni race ), and also in the Santa Marta mountains (the endemic sanctaemartae race).

Black-crested Antshrike Sakesphorus canadensis - A pair seen well in the mangroves at Los Cocos ( pulchellus) and then, rather different looking birds (unnamed subspecies) in the desert along the Guajira peninsular. This taxon needs revison and several species are probably involved.

Black-backed Antshrike Sakesphorus melanonotus: Great looks at 2 pair in the Minca area. A very smart bird indeed with a limited distribution.

Barred Antshrike Thamnophilus doliatus*

Bar-crested Antshrike Thamnophilus multistriatus: Great views of a 3 at La Suiza and then one near Ocana. A near-endemic, generally replacing the previous at higher elevations (though the Barred we saw was above the Bar-crested!!). Outside Colombia only known from the Venezuelan side of the Sierra de Perijá.

Black Antshrike - Thamnophilus nigriceps Loclalized species -we eventually tracked one down at the El Paujil Reserve

Uniform Antshrike Thamnophilus unicolor: Good looks and fairly common in the Cerulean Warbler Reserve and at La Suiza. The subspecies in Colombia is grandior.

Western Slaty-Antshrike Thamnophilus atrinucha: Fairly common at the Serrania de los Quinches

Recurve-billed Bushbird - Clytoctantes alixii - Wow - what can you say - a very co-operative male seen at the reserve near Ocana bought for its protection and also 2 there the next day chasing each other. A female was also seen on the Todd’s Parakeet excursion. This species has been recently rediscovered in both Venezuela and Colombia, following 40 years without any records. Its range and population are poorly known, but presumed to be very small. Habitat loss is continuing throughout its range, and has been rapid over the last five years in an area that was probably a stronghold. Consequently its range and population are inferred to be declining. Named after the French zoologist Edouard Alix ENDANGERED

Plain Antvireo Dysithamnus mentalis: Heard at several sites and one mal seen at RNA Arrierito.

Slaty Antwren Myrmotherula schisticolor: At a few locations including the Santa Marta Mountains

White-fringed Antwren - Myrmotherula grisea: One at RNA Paujil (hondae?) and several on the Guajira Peninsular (intermedia). Ridgely & Tudor (1994) and Zimmer & Isler (2003) suggested that Formicivora grisea may consist of more than one species. Hilty (2003) described major vocal differences between intermedia and grisea in Venezuela and treated them as separate species. Proposal needed.

Long-tailed Antbird - Drymophila caudata: An immature seen o two cosnsecutive dates near El Dorado Lodge.

Rufous-rumped Antwren - Terenura callinota: One in the big insectivore flock at RNA Arrierito.

Jet Antbird Cercomacra nigricans: 3 near San Vicente.

E Parker’s Antbird Cercomacra parkeri: Recently described: Graves (1997).Took a bit of finding but eventually great looks at 4 at the Cerulean Warbler Reserve. Also 3 sen at RNA Arrierito. One of the birds named for our late friend Ted Parker.

Bare-crowned Antbird - Gymnocichla nudiceps. Fairly common striking Antbird at the El Paujil Reserve. We saw three.

Chestnut-backed Antbird - Myrmeciza exsul - Seen well at the El Paujil Reserve

Bicolored Antbird - Myrmeciza leucaspis -- One at an antswarm at RNA El Paujil.

Immaculate Antbird - Myrmeciza immaculate*. Above Ibague

Black-faced Anthrush - Formicarius analis*

Rufous-breasted Anthrush - Formicarius rufipectus*

Chestnut-crowned Antpitta - Grallaria ruficapilla*

Moustached Antpitta - Grallaria alleni* - At La Suiza. VULNERABLE

E Santa Marta Antpitta Grallaria bangsi: Great looks at 2 on the San Lorenzo Ridge and heard daily. The world population is not known but is thought to be decreasing. This species has been up listed to Vulnerable because new information suggests that it has a small range, which is fragmented and declining owing to habitat destruction caused by illegal agriculture, logging and burning. It is currently described as common, but its population size is unknown. However, it is likely to be undergoing a rapid decline as a result of habitat loss. Named after Outram Bangs US ornithologist and author. VULNERABLE

White-bellied Antpitta - Grallaria hypoleuca*: At the Cerulean Warbler Reserve.

Chestnut-naped Antpitta - Grallaria nuchalis *: At Alto los Ventanas.

Rufous Antpitta - Grallaria rufula spatiator *: On the san Lorenzo Ridge

Slate-crowned Antpitta Grallaricula nana *: Heard at Alto los Ventanas, our rather brief attempts to lure this one into view were unsuccessful.

Chestnut-crowned Gnateater - Conophaga castaniceps: A pair and an individual responded to playback at the RNA Arrierito.

E Santa Marta Tapaculo Scytalopus sanctaemartae: One seen and several other heard.

White -crowned Tapaculo Scytalopus atratus nigricans: One seen above Ibague at Clarita Botero.

E Brown-rumped Tapaculo Scytalopus latebricola: Another Santa Marta endemic, replacing the Santa
Marta Tapaculo at higher elevations, that we saw very well above San Lorenzo.

White-crowned Tapaculo - Scytalopus atratus nigicans. Seen well above Ibague. Scytalopus atratus (with confusus and nigricans) was formerly (e.g., Zimmer 1939x, Peters 1951, Meyer de Schauensee 1970) considered conspecific with S. femoralis; for treatment as a separate species from S. femoralis based on differences in voice, see Krabbe & Schulenberg (1997); it had previously been considered a separate species by Cory & Hellmayr (1924).

E Upper Magdalena Tapaculo - Scytalopus rodriguez. Seen and recorded at the Cerulean Warbler Reserve. A recently described endemic. ENDANGERED

E Stile’s Tapaculo - Scytalopus stilesi: 2 seen at the RNA Arriero.

Spillmans Tapaculo - Scytalopus spillmani*: One of the more tricky Tapaculos to see and the ones we tried at Alto las Ventanas were no exception.

E Brown-rumped Tapaculo - Scytalopus latebricola: A Santa Marta endemic that can be hard to see but we managed good looks on the San Lorenzo ridge.

Ocellated Tapaculo - Acropternis orthonyx*

Green and Black Fruiteater - Pipreola riefferri *

Golden-breasted Fruiteater Pipreola aureopectus: This gorgeous fruiteater was seen well in the Santa
Marta Mountains. Here the race decora, endemic to this mountain range.

E Chestnut-capped Piha - Lipaugus weberi: Incredible views of a bird in response to playback and others heard at the RNA Arrierito Antioqueno (the name of the Piha in Spanish). Only described to science in 2001. Robert Giles donated funds for the accommodations at the reserve for guests. ENDANGERED

Purple-throated Fruitcrow Querula purpurata: A few at the El Paujil reserve.

Red-ruffed Fruitcrow - Pyroderus scutatus: La Suiza is trhe world capital for this species with 30+ seen.

White-bearded Manakin Manacus manacus: Quite a few seen well in the El Paujil Reserve

Western Striped Manakin Machaeropterus striolatus: Good looks at an obliging female at the El Paujil reserve, here of the endemic race antioquiae.

White-crowned Manakin - Pipra pipra: A female at the RNA Arrierito.

Golden-headed Manakin - Pipra erythocephala*

Brown-capped Tyrannulet - Ornithion brunneicapillus: 2 at RNA El Paujil.

Black-capped Tyrannulet - Phyllomyias nigrocapillus: One at RNA Arrierito.

Ashy-headed Tyrannulet - Phyllomyias cinereiceps: One on consecutive dates at La Suiza.

Plumbeous -crowned Tyrannulet - Phyllomyias plumbeiceps: One at La Suiza on March 3rd.

Venezuelan Tyrannulet - Zimmerius improbus - A couple at lower elevations in the Santa Marta mountains. The SACC says - Sibley & Monroe (1990) and Ridgely & Tudor (1994), followed by Hilty (2003) and Fitzpatrick (2004), considered the South American improbus group of subspecies to be a separate species from Zimmerius vilissimus (Paltry Tyrranulet). Proposal badly needed. Traylor (1982) suspected that the subspecies parvus, from Honduras to NW Colombia, should also be considered a separate species.

Golden-faced Tyrannulet Zimmerius chrysops: Seen at various loclalities. Variation in Golden-faced Tyrannulet subspecies is reasonably extensive and more than one species may be involved. Ridgely & Greenfield (2001) considered the subspecies flavidifrons of southwestern Ecuador and northwestern Peru to represent a separate species from Zimmerius chrysops based on differences in voice. Proposal needed. Ridgely & Greenfield (2001), Krabbe & Nielsson (2003), and Fitzpatrick (2004) also noted that the taxon albigularis from w. Ecuador and sw. Colombia might be a species distinct from Zimmerius chrysops.

Southern Beardless Tyrannulet - Camptostoma obsoletum

Yellow-crowned Tyrannulet Tyrannulus elatus: fairly common at various sites.

Forest Elaenia Myiopagis gaimardii* : Only heard this trip.

Greenish Elaenia - Myiopagis viridcauta restricta - a few above Ibague

Yellow-bellied Elaenia Elaenia flavogaster: Common in open country

Lesser Elaenia - Elaenia chiriquiensis: One near Camerones

Mountain Elaenia Elaenia frantzii: At Ibague and in Santa Marta. The subspecies we saw was pudica. The species was named after Alexander von Frantzius, a nineteenth century German collector in Brazil and Costa Rica.

White-throated Tyrannulet Mecocerculus leucophrys: We saw the subspecies montensis which is
endemic to the Santa Marta Mountains.

Torrent Tyrannulet - Serpophaga cinerea: 2vseen near La Suiza.

Yellow Tyrannulet - Capsiempis flaveola: Heard and one seen at RNA El Paujil.

Rufous-browed Tyrannulet - Phylloscartes superciliaris: One in the insectivore flock at RNA Arrierito.

Streak-necked Flycatcher - Mionectes striaticollis

Olive-striped Flycatcher - Mionectes olivaceus: Several seen well in the Santa Marta Mountains where
they are represented by the endemic subspecies galbinus.

Ochre-bellied Flycatcher - Mionectes oleaginea: Common at the El Paujil Reserve and near Minca.

Slaty-capped Flycatcher -Leptopogon amaurocephalus: Several throughout the tour.

Sepia-capped Flycatcher Leptopogon amaurocephalus: Small numbers seen well, at Serrania de los Quinches

Northern Scrub Flycatcher - Sublegatis arenarum: A playback responsive bird at Los Cocos and another the next day near Pericos.

Slender-billed Inezia - Inezia tenirostris: coomon by voice and half a dozen seen near Perico on the Guajira Pensisular. Note that the tarsal morphology of Inezia has been interpreted to indicate that it belongs in the Cotingidae!

Ornate Flycatcher - Myiotriccus ornatus: 4 seen at the RNA Reinita and one at RNA Arrierito.

Black-capped Pygmy-Tyrant - Myiornis atricapillus. 2 seen at the RNA Arrierito

Scale-crested Pygmy-Tyrant - Lophotriccus pileatus: Common above Ibague and also at Cerulean Warbler Reserve.

Pale-eyed Pygmy-Tyrant Atalotriccus pilaris: This tyrannid of drier woodland, was seen nicely in the Minca area in response to playback. Here the nominate race.

Southern Bentbill Oncostoma olivaceum: A weird little flycatcher, which we saw extremely well
on a couple of occasions at SerraniaQuinches RNA El Paujil.

Pearly-vented Tody-Tyrant - Hemitriccus maragaritaceiventer: One near Tobi and one on the Guajira peninsular. Comes from the lstin for pearl - margarita.

Black-throated Tody-Tyrant Hemitriccus granadensis: One in the Santa Marta Mountains,of the endemic subspecies lehmanni.

Black-headed Tody-Flycatcher Todirostrum nigriceps: at Ibague and at RNA El Paujil.

Slate-headed Tody-tyrant - Todirostrum Sylvia* - a few here and there.

Common Tody-Flycatcher Todirostrum cinereum: Small numbers seen at various locations.

Yellow-olive Tolmomyias - Tolmomyias sulphurescens: A few. The SACC says - The AOU (1998), Hilty (2003), and Fitzpatrick (2004) suggested that Tolmomyias sulphurescens almost certainly consists of multiple species

Olive-faced Tolmomyias - Tolmomyias virdiceps: Several seen around Minca. The SACC says Tolmomyias flaviventris (Yellow-breasted Flycatcher) almost certainly involves more than one species; see Bates et al. (1992) and Ridgely & Tudor (1994). The subspecies viridiceps is almost certainly a distinct species, and was so considered by Ridgely et al. (2001) and Hilty (2003). However, Zimmer (1939a) considered them conspecific because the subspecies he considered the subspecies subsimilis and dissors to represent taxa that were intermediate between the two, and this treatment was followed by Fitzpatrick (2004) in the absence of published data supporting a split. Proposal needed.

Yellow-throated Spadebill - Platyrinchus falvigularis Good looks in response to playback of this seldom seen cloud forest inhabitant at the Cerulean Warbler Reserve at the same spot we saw it in June 2007.

Northern Royal Flyctacher - Onychorhynchus mexicanus*: Heard at RNA El Paujil but would not come in to tape.

Flavescent Flycatcher Myiophobus flavicans: 2 at the RNA Reinita on March 9th.

Bran-colored Flycatcher - Myiophobus fasciatus fasciatus. 2 seen. The subspecies rufescens of arid western Peru and northern Chile was formerly (e.g., Cory & Hellmayr 1927) considered a separate species from Myiophobus fasciatus, but Zimmer (1939c) and Koepcke (1961) reported specimens that showed signs of intergradation between rufescens and M. f. crypterythrus (cf. Ridgely & Tudor 1994); thus, Meyer de Schauensee (1966) considered them conspecific, and this has been followed by subsequent authors. Jaramillo (2003), however, suggested that rufescens should be considered a separate species.

Cinnamon Flycatcher Pyrrhomyias cinnamomea: Regularly encountered in the Andes (pyrrhoptera), and in the Santa Marta Mountains we saw the endemic and much brighter assimilis.

Black-billed Flycatcher - Aphanotriccus audax A little known bird almost endemic to Colombia, but it does get into the Darien in Panama. We saw one at RNA El Paujil on March 6th. NEAR THREATENED.

Acadian Flycatcher - Empidonax virescens: Heard at RNA Paujil and seen at RNA Arrierito.

Olive-sided Flycatcher - Contopus cooperi: # seen in total. NEAR THREATENED.

Tropical Pewee - Contopus cinereus; 4 seen near Minca.

Black Phoebe - Sayornis nigricans: A bird of streams and rivers that was frequently seen sitting on

Vermilion Flycatcher Pyrocephalus rubinus: Small numbers seen at a number of sites.

Slaty-backed Chat-Tyrant Ochthoeca cinnamomeiventris: We had very good views of the nominate subspecies above Ibague. Note that the form nigrita from the Merida Andes in Venezuela is sometimes split off as Blackish Chat-Tyrant O. nigrita and thoracica of southern Peru and Bolivia is generally split off as Chestnut-belted (or Maroon-belted) Chat-Tyrant O. thoracica. The SACC says - García-Moreno et al. (1998) suggested that the plumage and genetic differences between subspecies groups north and south of the Marańon should be recognized at the species level, with Ochthoeca thoracica the name for the southern species. Ridgely & Tudor (1994) reported that there are also vocal differences that would support this split. Ridgely & Greenfield (2001) and Hilty (2003) further recognized Venezuelan nigrita as a separate species from O. cinnamomeiventris, as done by Cory & Hellmayr (1927); see Zimmer (1937b) for the rationale for treating them all as conspecific based on plumage pattern, the treatment followed by Fitzpatrick (2004). Proposal needed.

Yellow-bellied Chat-Tyrant Ochthoeca diadema: We had great looks at this around San Lorenzo where the subspecies jesupi is endemic to the Santa Marta Mountains.

Crowned Chat-Tyrant - Ochthoeca frontalis: A responsive bird at Alto las Ventanas.

Rufous-breasted Chat-Tyrant - Ochthoeca rufipedtoralis: 3 at Alto las Ventanas.

Streak-throated Bush-Tyrant - Myiotheretes striaticollis: 3seen above Jardin.

E Santa Marta Bush-Tyrant Myiotheretes pernix: Often a difficult bird to find, we saw two above San Lorenzo having been initially found by Phil), which showed at extremely close range. The world population is estimated at 1,000 - 2,499 individuals and is decreasing. This species has a very small range and is currently known from just one location (although there are likely to be others). Its habitat is declining, and concomitant declines in range and population are inferred. ENDANGERED

Smoky Bush-Tyrant - Myiotherete sfumigatus*: At Alta las Ventanas

Pied Water-Tyrant Fluvicola pica. 6 On the way to the Paujil reserve

White-headed Marsh-Tyrant Arundinicola leucocephala: 10 on the way to the Paujil reserve and at some other sites.

Long-tailed Tyrant - Colonia colonus: Several encounters in the lowlands of this pretty Flycatcher.

Cattle Tyrant Machetornis rixosus This speciesis expanding its range, and we noted scattered individuals in open country at a number of locations.

Flammulated Attila - Attila flammulatus. Seen at RNA El Paujil. (Mexico south to Western Ecuador) - A potential split from Bright-rumped Attila. The SACC says - Leger and Mountjoy (2003) found major vocal differences between South American and Middle American populations of Attila spadiceus, strongly suggesting that at least two species are involved, but did not adequately sample populations from west of Andes in South America; these are vocally similar to the Middle American flammulatus group (P. Coopmans, pers. comm.). Proposal needed?

Panama Flycatcher - Myiarchus panamensis: One only in the mangoves at Los Cocos.

Venezuelan Flycatcher - Myirachus venezuelensis: One near Perico.

Dusky-capped Flycatcher Myiarchus tuberculifer: As usual, the plaintive call was heard more often
than the bird was seen, but se it we did!

E Apical Flyctacher - Myirachus apicalis. 2 birds seen and recorded near Tobia - a very rare localized endemic and we had great looks at he pale tail tips.

Pale-edged Flycatcher - Myiarchus cephalotes: common and conspicuous especially at RNA Arrierito.

Great -crested Flycatcher - Myiarchus crinitus: Common at RNA EL Paujil

Brown-crested Flycatcher - Myiarchus tyrannulus: 2 at RNA El Paujil and 4 in the Santa Marta area.

Great Kiskadee - Pitangus sulphuratus: A widespread bird of open areas, even found right in the centre
of towns.

Lesser Kiskadee -Pitangus lector - 2 at RNA Paujil.

Boat-billed Flycatcher Megarynchus pitangua: Small numbers.

Rusty-margined Flycatcher Myiozetetes cayanensis: Numerous and widespread at lower elevations.

Social Flycatcher - Myiozetetes similis: Recorded at several locations

Streaked Flycatcher - Myiodynastes maculatus: A few.

Golden-crowned Flycatcher Myiodynastes chrysocephalus: fairly common at various loclaities

Piratic Flycatcher Legatus leucophaius: Vocal and easily seen. Small but fierce, and so-called because of its habit of harassing other bird species in order to appropriating their newly finished nest for their own use.

Tropical Kingbird Tyrannus melancholicus. Common throughout

Fork-tailed Flycatcher - Tyrranus savanna: Several on our drives with a maximum of 20 in one day.

Gray Kingbird - Tyrranus dominicensis: One in the mangroves at Camerones.

Rufous Mourner - Rhytipterna holererytra: Greta looks at one at the RNA El Paujil.

Cinereous Becard Pachyramphus rufus: One at the El Paujil Reserve and one near Minca

Cinnamon Becard Pachyramphus cinnamomeus: Fairly common at Serrnia de los Quinches

White-winged Becard - Pachyramphus polychopterus. A few seen many more heard.

Masked Tityra - Tityra semifasciatus: Two above Minca

Black-crowned Tityra - Tityra inquisitor: 2 at RNA El Paujil


White-winged Swallow - Tachycineta albiventer Half a dozen near Puerto Pinzon

Gray-breasted Martin Progne chalybea: Reasonably numerous at lower elevations.

Brown-bellied Swallow Notiochelidon murina: At Bogota airport

Blue-and-white Swallow Notiochelidon cyanoleuca: Widespread in small numbers

Southern Rough-winged Swallow Stelgidopteryx ruficollis: Common at lower elevations.

Bank Swallow - Riparia riparia: 20 on the Guajira peninsular on March 13th

Barn Swallow - Hirundo rustica: Two groups of migrating birds. The New World populations of Hirundo rustica were formerly (e.g., Ridgway 1904) treated as a separate species, H. erythrogastra, from Old World populations.

Black-chested Jay Cyanocorax affinis: A smart bird seen at the El Paujil Reserve and in the Santa Marta Mountains and other localities

Inca Jay Cyanocorax yncas: A most handsome bird. Ridgely & Greenfield (2001) and Hilty (2003) treated Middle American populations as a separate species, C. luxosus ("Green Jay") from South American C. yncas ("Inca Jay"), but no data presented; they were formerly (e.g., REFS) considered separate species.

Black-capped Donacobius - Donacobius atricapilla: Two pair near Puerto Pinzon.

Bicolored Wren Campylorhynchus griseus: A large and handsome wren, and a cousin of Central America’s Rufous-naped and Mexico’s Giant Wrens. Good shows.

Band-backed Wren Campylorhynchus zonatus*: Near San Vicente

Sooty-headed Wren - Thryothorus spadix; One responsive bird at RNA Arrierito. Genetic data (Mann et al. 2006) indicate that the broad genus Thryothorus is polyphyletic, and that true Thryothorus is not found in South America; Mann et al. (2006) recommended recognition of three genera for South American taxa by resurrecting two from the synonymy of Thryothorus (Pheugopedius and Thryophilus) and describing a new one (Cantorchilus). SACC proposal pending to redistribute South American "Thryothorus" into three genera did not pass.

Black-bellied Wren Thryothorus fasciatoventris: Great views of a pair and later an individual at the El Paujil Reserve

Whiskered Wren Thryothorus mystacalis: Commonly heard above Ibague, threes seen at RNA Hormiguero.

Rufous-breasted Wren Thryothorus rutilus: Good looks at several birds below Mindo here of the race laetus.

Rufous-and-white Wren Thryothorus rufalbus: A bird with an unforgettable song, that we saw near Ocana and above Minca.

Buff-breasted Wren Thryothorus leucotis*

Southern House Wren Troglodytes (aedon) musculus: Common and widespread. Many authors (e.g., Hellmayr 1934, Pinto 1944, Phelps & Phelps 1950a) formerly treated Neotropical mainland populations as a separate species T. musculus; see also Brumfield and Capparella (1996); this treatment was followed by Brewer (2001) and Kroodsma & Brewer (2005). The Falklands population, T. a. cobbi, might also be best treated as a species (Wood 1993), as was done by Brewer (2001), Mazar Barnett & Pearman (2001), Jaramillo (2003), and Kroodsma & Brewer (2005);

E Apolinars Marsh Wren - Cistothorus apolinari: A co-operative pair scoped on top of the reeds at Parque La Florida on our first morning. This species has a very small population and range. It is thought to be declining rapidly, owing to loss and degradation of its severely fragmented habitat. All subpopulations are suspected to be extremely small, and some have been extirpated over the last few decades. ENDANGERED

Sharpe’s Wren - Cinnicerthia sharpei : half a dozen of this sonster seen at Alto las Ventanas.

White-breasted Wood-Wren Henicorhina leucosticte: Many heard and a couple seen.

Grey-breasted Wood-Wren Henicorhina leucophrys: Regularly heard at higher elevations with a number of good views. In the Santa Marta Mountains we saw the bangsi race at lower elevations and the anachoreta race higher. Two species are porbbaly involved- they look pretty much the same but the song is different. Elsewhere we saw the nominate leucophrys.

Southern Nightingale-Wren Microcerculus marginatus*

Chestnut-breasted Wren - Cyphorinus thoracicus: Commonly heard at La Suiza and 2 seen scurrying across the track.

Tropical Mockingbird Mimus gilvus: A common open country species.

Andean Solitaire Myadestes ralloides* - Above Ibague

Orange-billed Nightingale-Thrush - Catharus aurantiirostris: Several heard and one seen by Phil

Gray -cheeked Thrush - Catharus minimus: One seen at Clarita Botero above Ibague.

Swainson’s Thrush - Catharus ustulatus: Several sightings throughout the tour.

Yellow-legged Thrush Platycichla flaviceps: Common in the Santa Marta Mountains and at Ocona where the subspecies is venezuelensis.

Great Thrush Turdus fuscater: Ubiquitous at higher elevations. We saw quindio (endemic) in the Central and Western Andes, and cacozelus (a very pale subspecies that is also endemic) in the Santa Marta Mountains.

Black-hooded Thrush Turdus olivater: One on the San Lorenzo ridge at middle elevations in the Santa Marta Mountains, of the endemic race sanctaemartae, also a responisve pair of the race caucae at RNA Hormiguero

Chestnut-bellied Thrush - Turdus fulviventris: One seen at the Bushbird Reserve. Despite its large size this is a real skulker.

Pale-breasted Thrush - Turdus leucomelas: Relatively common.

Pale-vented Thrush - Turdus obsoletus: Fairly common.

Black-billed Thrush - Turdus ignobilis: Fairly common in the lowlands.

Long-billed Gnatwren Ramphocaenus melanurus: One near Mindo showed well.

Tropical Gnatcatcher - Polioptila plumbea: Common on the Guajira Peninsular.

Rufous-browed Peppershrike Cyclarhis gujanensis At least two seen.

Black-billed Peppershrike - Cyclarhis nigrisrostris*: Several heard at La Suiza but we failed to see them in the canopy.

Red-eyed (Chivi) Vireo - Vireo (chivi) olivaceus: Some classifications (e.g., Pinto 1944) have considered the South American chivi group as a separate species ("Chivi Vireo") from V. olivaceus, or as conspecific with V. flavoviridis (Hamilton 1962), but see Hellmayr (1935), Zimmer (1941d), Eisenmann 1962a, Johnson & Zink (1985), and Ridgely & Tudor (1989). Ridgely & Greenfield (2001) suggested, however, that more than one species may be involved within the South American chivi group.

Brown-capped Vireo - Vireo leucophrys: A few here and there.

Rufous-naped Greenlet - Hylophilus semibrunneus: Small numbers of this distinctive, snazzy greenlet were recorded, particularly at La Suiza and RNA Arrierito.

Scrub Greenlet - Hylophilus flavipes: Fairly common here and there and very vocal

Golden-winged Warbler - Vermivora chrysoptera: One joined us for lunch at RNA Arrierito. NEAR THREATENED

Tennessee Warbler - Vermivora peregrina: 5 recorded all in the Santa Marta Mountains.

Tropical Parula - Parula pitiayumi: A few mostly at La Suiza.

Yellow Warbler - Dendroica petechia: Fairly common.

Bay-breasted Warbler - Dendroica castanea: Regularly recorded throughout the tour.

Blackburnian Warbler - Dendroica fusca: Regularly recorded throughout the tour.

American Redstart - Setophaga ruticilla: Regularly recorded in small numbers throughout the tour.

Black and White Warbler - Mniiotilta varia: Cool bird! Seen at La Suiza and RNA Arrierito - around 8 in total.

Prothonotary Warbler - Protonotaria citra: 3 seen in the Mangroves at Los Cocos.

Northern Waterthrush - Seiurus novoboracensis: half a dozen in the Santa Marta area.

Mourning Warbler - Oporornis philadelphia: 3 in total.

Canada Warbler - Wilsonia Canadensis: Common.

Wilson’s Warbler - Wilsonia pusilla: One seen above Jardin om March 20th

Slate-throated Whitestart - Myioborus miniatus: A common, widespread and delightful resident of the montane forests.

E Golden-fronted Whitestart - Myioborus ornatus: We saw the chrysops race at Alto las Ventanas - a very pretty bird.

E Yellow-crowned Whitestart - Myioborus flavivertex: We saw 4 of these delightful birds on the San Lorenzo Ridge - it is one of the most conspicuous Santa Marta endemics. Slightly atypical for a Myioborus whitestart, being somewhat slow and deliberate in its movements and almost (Basileuterus) warbler-like in appearance.

Golden-crowned Warbler - Basileuterus culicivorus: 1 at RNA Hormiguero. Not very responsive to playback at this time of year.

Russet-crowned Warbler - Basileuterus coronatus: Common above Ibague and at La Suiza.

Citrine Warbler - Basiluterus luteoviridis richardsoni : We saw the different looking richardsoni race. This subspecies richardsoni of western Colombia was formerly (e.g. Hellmayr 1935) treated as a separate species - Richardson’s Warbler.

Gray-throated Warbler - Basileuterus cinereicollis - Not very responsive to playback at this time of year, but we managed 3-4. A range restricted species shared with Venezuela. Seen well at the Bushbird reserve. NEAR THREATENED

E White-lored Warbler Basileuterus conspicillatus: This Santa Marta endemic was numerous at middle elevations allowing us several great views. It is relatively common in the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, where it inhabits humid montane forest, forest borders and well-developed second growth and shade-coffee plantations at 450-2,200m, where it forages at low to mid-levels, principally
in the undeR growth and understorey. It appears tolerant of a degree of habitat degradation. All remaining forest in the Santa Marta mountains is seriously threatened by agricultural expansion, logging and burning. Only 15% of the sierra's vegetation is unaltered, with the south-east slope extensively deforested, and the west slope, between 800 and 1,600m, largely cleared for coffee and illegal marijuana plantations. NEAR THREATENED

Rufous-capped Warbler Basileuterus rufifrons delatterii: Common above Ibague and near Minca. The delatrii group of subspecies, from Guatemala south to northwestern South America, was formerly (e.g., Hellmayr 1935) treated as separate species from the Basileuterus rufifrons of (mainly) Mexico, but they evidently intergrade in Guatemala and Honduras (Monroe 1968, AOU 1983).

Three-striped Warbler Basileuterus tristriatus: Common at La Suiza and at the Cerulean Warbler Reserve

E Santa Marta Warbler Basileuterus basilicus: 2 sen and tape recorded. Another warbler endemic to the Santa Marta Mountains, which is quite tricky to see. A large, slow and aberrant species, that perhaps does not belong in Basileuterus - it was formerly placed in Hemispingus! It is likely to have undergone a rapid and continuing decline. VULNERABLE

Buff-rumped Warbler Basileuterus fulvicauda: Seen a few times.

Bananaquit Coereba flaveola: As usual, common and widespread.
Silver-throated Tanager - Tangara icterocephala: A few at RNA Arrierito.

Golden Tanager Tangara arthus: A stunning montane species that we saw at a number of sites.

Saffron-crowned Tanager Tangara xanthocephala: Seen well at two sites

Metallic-green Tanager Tangara labradorides: 2 At La Suiza

Blue-necked Tanager Tangara cyanicollis: Common and widespread but nonetheless striking.

Golden-hooded Tanager - Tangara larvata: 10 or so at RNA El Paujil

Plain-coloured Tanager Tangara inornata: A few at Ibague and at El Paujil

Speckled Tanager - Tangara guttata - several sighting sof the bogotensis race at the Cerulean Warbler Reserve

Golden-naped Tanager - Tangara ruficervix: 2 at RNA Reinita.

Bay-headed Tanager Tangara gyrola: Two distinctive races were seen of this one: the turquoisebellied
deleticia in the Andes, and toddi in the Santa Marta Mountains, which is all grass green except for the bay head. The name ‘gyrola’ is derived from the Latin ‘gyros’, or ring, and refers to the golden nuchal collar present in most races of this species.

Scrub Tanager - Tangara vitriolina: Another species which prefers second growth. One of the most
numerous and widespread tanagers in Colombia’s valleys and on the adjacent slopes, but outside the country it is a localized speciality in northern Ecuador.

Burnished-Buff Tanager - Tangara cayana: 4 seen near Pueblo Nuevo.

Beryl-spangled Tanager - Tangara nigroviridis: 2 at La Suiza and common at RNA Arrierito.

Blue-and-Black Tanager - Tangara vassorii: One at RNA Arrierito was the only one recorded.

Black-capped Tanager - Tangara heinei: A few seen at various sites

Black-headed Tanager - Tangara cyanoptera: Seen commonly at the Bushbird Reserve.

Purplish-mantled Tanager - Iridosornis porphyrocephalus. A near endemic creeping into NW Ecuador, Common at RNA Arrierito with around 20 recorded. NEAR THREATENED

Golden-crowned Tanager - Iridosornis rufivertex: Quite a stunner! One seen at Alto las Ventanas

E Multicolored Tanager - Chlorochrysa nitidissima: I must say I never expected to see this species on this trip. . A male in the frugivore flock at La Suiza and a pair in the frugivore flock on March 19th at RNA Arrierito. Quite a cracker! VULNERABLE

Hooded Mountain Tanager- Buthraupis montana: Always great to see - 4 at Lato las Ventanas.

E Santa Marta Mountain-Tanager - Anisognathus melanogenys: Another handsome Santa Marta endemic which was fairly common but great to see!

Lacrimose Mountain Tanager - Anisognathus lacrymosus: Around 10 at Alto las Ventanas.

Blue-winged Mountain-Tanager Anisognathus somptuosus: At the Cerulean Warbler Reserve and RNA Arrierito.

Buff-breasted Mountain Tanager - Dubusia taeniata: 2 of this undergrowth tanager at Alto las Ventanas

Blue-gray Tanager - Thraupis episcopus: Numerous and widespread. The scientific name is derived
from the ‘episcopal blue’ plumage.

Palm Tanager Thraupis palmarum: Common and widespread.

Blue-capped Tanager Thraupis cyanocephala: Common at RNA Hormiguero and near Minca.

Crimson-backed Tanager Ramphocelus dimidiatus: A widespread tanager of open and secondary

Lemon-rumped Tanager Ramphocelus ictronotus: Common at the Cerulean Warbler reserveand RNA Arrierito. The SACC says: The taxon icteronotus was formerly (e.g., Hellmayr 1936, Meyer de Schauensee 1970) considered a separate species from Ramphocelus flammigerus, but intergradation between them in southwestern Colombia (Chapman 1917, Sibley 1958) led Storer (1970a) to consider them conspecific, and this treatment has been followed by most authors subsequently (e.g., Ridgely & Tudor 1989, Sibley & Monroe 1990). However, as noted by Ridgely & Greenfield (2001), the differences between these two are comparable to those between two Ramphocelus taxa (passerinii and costaricensis) recently treated as separate species (Hackett 1996, AOU 1998). Proposal needed

E Flame-rumped Tanager - Ramphocelus flammigerus: 1 seen by Robert on the drive into Jardin and 2 seen in the coffee plantations the next day. See the former species for the taxanomic status of this endemic.

Summer Tanager - Piranfa rubra : Coomon throughout the tour.

Scarlet Tanager - Piranga olivacea: only one at RNA Puajil.

White-winged Tanager - Piranga leucoptera: One at RNA Arrierito.

E Sooty Ant-Tanager Habia gutturalis: A superb Nechí endemic. Ewe saw 7 intotal very well. It has a restricted range within north-west Colombia, where it occurs in the upper Sinú valley at the north end of the West Andes, and east along the north base of the Andes to the middle Magdalena valley. Despite a report that it may benefit from forest destruction, it is now adjudged rare in (often streamside) undergrowth in tall secondary and patchy woodland at 100-1,100m. It is highly insectivorous, with pairs or small family groups following swarms of army ants or joining mixed-species flocks. Suitable habitat within its range is unprotected and relatively reduced. The middle and lower Magdalena valley has been extensively deforested since the 19th century (for agriculture), and clearance of its
foothills has been near total since the 1950s. NEAR THREATENED

White-lined Tanager Tachyphonus rufus: A couple seen near san Vicente and 10 near Minca.

White-shouldered Tanager Tachyphonus luctuosus: three at RNA El Paujil.

Grey-headed Tanager Eucometis penicillata: A few here and there. This species is often
associated with ant swarms.

Dusky-faced Tanager - Mitrospingus cassini: 2 at RNA Arrierito seen by Phil.

Guira Tanager - Hemithraupis guira: 2 in a flock on March 10th

Yellow -backed Tanager - Hemithraupis flavicollis: 6 at RNA El Paujil

Gray-hooded Bush Tanager - Cnemoscopus rubrirostris: 4 of the nominate form that do have pink bills at RNA Arrierito.

Common Bush-Tanager Chlorospingus ophthalmicus: Fialrly common. A species with a lot of geographical variation.

Yellow-throated Bush-Tanager - Chlorospingus flavigularis: A dozen seen at RNA Arrierito.

Ashy-throated Bush-Tanager - Chlorospingus canigularis: Common at La Suiza.

Black-capped Hemispingus - Hemispingus atropileus: Small groups at RNA Reinita and RNA Arrierito.

Oleaginous Hemispingus Hemispingus frontalis: Common above Ibague and some at Alto las Ventanas in bamboo. Oleaginous means oily.

Black-faced Tanager Schistochlamys melanopis: A single at RNA Arrierito.

Rusty Flowerpiercer - Diglossa sittoides: One at Parque La Florida and 2 near Minca.

Black Flowerpiercer - Diglossa humeralis: Six seen at RNA Reinita.

White-sided Flower-piercer - Diglossa albilatera: Perhaps the most common and widespread of the flower-piercers. Here the nominate race.

Masked Flowerpiercer - Diglossa cyanea: Four at RNA Arrierito.

White-eared Cobebill - Conirostrum leucogenys: A total of seven seen near San Vicente and scoped. Thanks for putting me onto those Bob - I owe you one!

Blue-backed Conebill - Conirostrum sittcolor: Three at Alto las Ventanas.

Bicolored Conebill - Conirostrum bicolor: 10+ in the Mangroves at Los Cocos.

E Rufous-browed Conebill - Conirsotrum rufum: One of the first birds of the trip at Parque La Florida and one of the best of the trip - quite a little gem and its respinded to playback splendidly.

Rosy Thrush-Tanager - Urotraupis stolzmanni: One above Ibague was hard to see but then a female hopping in the leaflitter in the Mangroves at Camerones put on a great show, followed by another near Minca. A stunner.

Swallow Tanager - Tersina viridis: Common.

Green Honeycreeper - Chlorophanes spiza: 2 seen at Serrania de los Quinches

E Turquoise Dacnis - Dacnis hartlaubi: 5 seen at the Ceulean Warbler Reserve, one of the very few localities from which this handsome species is known. The world population is estimated at 2,500 - 9,999 individuals and is decreasing. This species has a highly disjunct and poorly-understood range. It is very close to qualifying as Endangered, because the known range is very small and presumably declining (with possibly some local extirpations) in response to continuing habitat loss. However, it has been recorded at more than five locations and exhibits some habitat tolerance. Named after Karl Hartlaub, German naturalist who wrote the Birds of Madagascar in 1877. VULNERABLE

Yellow-tufted Dacnis - Dacnis egregia: 1 at Tobias and 1 near san Vicente. The SACC says - Ridgely & Tudor (1989) pointed out the trans-Andean egregia group may deserve species rank. Ridgely et al. (2001) considered egregia a species separate from lineata based on plumage differences and disjunct range. SACC proposal to recognize Dacnis egregia as a separate species did not pass because of insufficient published data.

Blue-naped Chlorophonia - Chlorophonia cyanea: A few at different localities

Trinidad Euphonia - Euphonia trintatis: 5 on the Guajira Peninsular.

Orange-bellied Euphonia - Euphonia xanthogaster: several throughout the tour and like most races, the birds we saw (oressinoma), are actually yellow-bellied. A species conspicuously absent from the (impoverished) Santa Marta Mountains.

Thick-billed Euphonia - Euphonia laniirostris. Common throughout.

Fulvous-vented Euphonia - Euphonia fulvicrissa: half a dozen seen at RNA El Paujil

Vermillion Cardinal - Cardinalis phoeniculus : A Guajira endemic and a smart bird. 10 seen on March 13th.

Rose-breasted Grosbeak - Pheuticus ludovicianus: A few in various plumages.

Buff-throated Saltator - Saltator maximus: Fairly common

Black-winged Saltator - Saltator atripennis: At La Suiza, above Ibague and at RNA Arrierito.

Streaked Saltator Saltator striatipectus: Fairly common.

Blue-black Grosbeak - Cyanocompsa cyanoides: One near Pueblo Nuevo.

Yellow-throated Brush-Finch Atlapetes gutturalis: A smart bird seen above Ibague and at La Suiza. The SACC says- Paynter (1964) provided rationale for merging the Atlapetes gutturalis group into A. albinucha; and this treatment was followed by Paynter (1970a), AOU (1998), and Dickinson (2003

E Yellow (Olive)-headed Brush-Finch - Atlapetes flaviceps. 4 seen in the early morning above Ibague. An estremely localized endemic in real danger. Formerly (e.g., Meyer de Schauensee 1970, Hilty & Brown 1986, Dickinson 2003) known as "Olive-headed Brush-Finch". Called "Yellow-headed Brush-Finch" in BirdLife International (2000). SACC proposal passed to change English name to the latter because the historical name is inaccurate and misleading. ENDANGERED

E Santa Marta Brush-Finch - Atlapetes melanocephalus: 20 daily of the endemic and often in the lodge garden.

Moustached Brush-Finch - Atlapetes albofrenatus: Small numbers of this relatively arboreal species seen at RNA Hormiguero. We saw the albofrenatus race.

Slaty Brush-Finch - Atlapetes schistaceus: The nominate race was seen at RNA Arrierito by Ries and then by all above Jardin, six birds

Chestnut-capped Brush-Finch Atlapetes brunneinucha: 2 at La Suiza and 4 at RNA Arrierito.

Stripe-headed Brush-Finch - Atlapetes torquatus: 1 above Ibague and 1 above Jardin (lacking the black breast band) of the assimilis race and another seen in the Santa Marta Mountains, of the endemic race basilicus (which, along with several other subspecies, does have a black breast band). More than one species are likely involved.

Golden-winged Sparrow - Arremon schlegeli: 2 seen by those who went for the Todd’s Parakeet and then 8 seen in the Minca area. A localized and pretty bird.

Orange-billed Sparrow - Arremon aurantirostris:

Black-striped Sparrow Arremonops conirostris: One seen well at El Paujil

Yellow-faced Grassquit - Tiaris olivacea: Small numbers at the Cerulean Warbler Reserve and near Tobia,

Dull-coloured Grassquit Tiaris obscura: Only one near Minca.

Black-faced Grassquit - Tiaris bicolor: Fairly common especially at RNE Reinita,

Paramo Seedeater Catamenia homochroa: Some had views of the Santa Marta distinct race which may deserve species status.

Lesser Seed-Finch Oryzoborus angolensis: One near Minca. A slightly strange scientific name, this species having nothing to do with Angola - an error!

Thick-billed Seed-Finch - Oryzoborus funereus - Seen at the El Paujil Reserve. A spottily distributed species and not easy to see.

Large-billed Seed -Finch - Oryzoborus carssirostris 1 male on the way to Puerto Pinzon.

Grey Seedeater Sporophila intermedia: Four near Tobia.

Yellow-bellied Seedeater Sporophila nigricollis: Small numbers at several sites.

Ruddy-breasted Seedeater Sporophila minuta: Small numbers at several sites

Pileated Finch - Coryhospingus pileatus: One o the Guajira peninsular - not common in Colombia.

Blue-black Grassquit Volatinia jacarina: A few here and there.

Saffron Finch Sicalis flaveola: Common

Rufous-collared Sparrow Zonotrichia capensis: Numerous at higher elevations.

Andean Siskin - Carduelis spinescens: Only four on our first morning at Parque La Florida.

Yellow-bellied Siskin Carduelis xanthgastra: 5 near Ibague

Lesser Goldfinch - Carduelis psaltria: Many seen

Chestnut-headed Oropendola Zarhynchus wagleri*

Crested Oropendola - Psarocolius decumanus: Easy to see at middle elevations in the Santa Marta Mountains.

Russet-backed Oropendola - Psarocolius angustifrons: At RNA Reinita & Arrierito

Mountain Cacique - Cacicus chrysonotus: We saw the leucoramphus subspecies. The SACC says -The northern (leucoramphus) and southern (chrysonotus) groups of subspecies were treated as separate species by Blake (1968b), but most classifications have treated them as a single species (e.g., Hellmayr 1937, Meyer de Schauensee 1966, 1970, Ridgely & Tudor 1989, Fjeldsĺ & Krabbe 1990; and usually as Cacicus leucoramphus, an error, because chrysonotus has priority) because specimens near the contact zone show some signs of gene flow (Hellmayr 1937, Bond 1953). However, see Jaramillo & Burke (1999) for possible reasons for ranking them as species; this was followed by Ridgely & Greenfield (2001) and Hilty (2003). Proposal needed

Scarlet-rumped Cacique - Cacicus uropygialis : A group of 4 at RNA Reinita with Oropendolas.

E Mountain Grackle - Macroagelaius subalaris*: Heard in the diatnce at RNA Reinita but would not come close.

E Red-bellied Grackle - Hypopyrrhus pyrohpogaste: A total of 4 seen very well at RNA Arrierito- a very striking species and very localized. ENDANGERED

Yellow-hooded Blackbird Agelaius icterocephalus: One near Puerto Pinzon

Orange-crowned Oriole Icterus auricapillus: A few at Serrania de los Quinches and near Minca.

Yellow Oriole - Icterus nigrogularis: Several seen throughout the tour.

Yellow-backed Oriole Icterus chrysater: An attractive bird with a beautiful song that we saw at Ibague, near Minca.

Yellow-hooded Blackbird - Chrysmus icterocephalus: Common at parquet La Florida and near Puerto Pinzon.

Giant Cowbird - Molothorus oryzivorus: only one of this brood parasite, on the drive to Ocana.

Bronzed Cowbird - Molothorus aeneus: Six seen near Perico - red eyes and all!

Shiny Cowbird - Molothorus bonariensis: Common

Great-tailed Grackle - Quiscalus mexicanus: Fair numbers in the Sanat Marta, Camerones area.

Red-breasted Blackbird - Sturnella militaris - 10 near Puerto Pinzon and others elsewhere.

Eastern Meadowlark - Sturnella magna: 1 seen at Parque La Florida. There is some evidence that the resident South American form may deserve species rank.


Neotropical Red Squirrel - Sciurus granatensis: A few at several localities. Very annoying in the Santa Marta Mountains when we were calling in an Antpitta.

Colombian Dwarf Squirrel - Microsciurus santanderanensis: At lest as common as the previous.

Sword-nosed Bat - Lonchorina sp.: Some identified by Bob on March 5th.

Northern Tamandua - Tamandua mexicana: One as we were looking at Colombian Chachalacas on March 5th.

Crab-eating Fox - Cerdocyon thous: Two at La Suiza

White-fronted Capucchin - Cebus albifrons. A few at the Paujil Reserve.

Brown Spider Monkey - Ateles hybridus. A large group at the El Paujil Reserve. CRITICALLY ENDANGERED

Venezuelan Red Howler Monkey - Alouatta seniculus: Heard commonly and two troops of 3 and 4 seen at La Suiza and near Puerto Pinzon.