Central Brazil (Alta Floresta, Pantanal, Emas NP) - August 2008

Published by Catherine McFadden (mcfadden AT hmc.edu)

Participants: Cathy McFadden, Paul Clarke


After several short trips to Central America and northern South America, we finally had enough vacation time saved up to make the pilgrimage to that vast mecca of neotropical birding, Brazil. Nonetheless, we could still only afford three weeks, so decided to restrict our travels to central Brazil, leaving the Atlantic coastal areas for another time. For all of our international birding we make it a point to use local in-country guides and tour companies, usually arranging a custom tour just for the two of us. After seeing their name surface repeatedly in highly complimentary trip reports, we contacted the Mato Grosso-based Pantanal Bird Club (http://www.pantanalbirdclub.org/). Instead of arranging a custom tour, however, we decided to join one of their set tours, simply because the dates of travel and areas to be visited closely matched the itinerary we already had in mind. In every month from June to November, PBC offers four separate but consecutive 4-7 day tours (Atlantic Rainforest; Alta Floresta and Cristalino Jungle Lodge; Pantanal and Chapada dos Guimaraes; Emas NP) that can be strung together into a pleasant and productive 3-4 week trip. We opted for the latter three tours, all of which conveniently begin and end in Cuiabá, capitol city of the state of Mato Grosso. We were nervous about the potential size of the group, advertised as a maximum of 8, which sounded very large to us, given that we prefer to travel and bird on our own. We needn’t have worried, however, as we were joined by only one other couple.
Our guide was Braulio Carlos, a well known and highly respected authority on the birds of Mato Grosso. In addition to a fantastic knowledge of and ability to find the birds of his home state, Braulio has excellent people skills and a good sense of humor, which made for a very enjoyable tour. He is also currently collaborating with Robert Ridgely to produce a sorely needed field guide to the birds of central Brazil. Indeed, what book(s) to take with us created a considerable dilemma. The recently published “All the Birds of Brazil” (Souza, 2006) has the advantage of including, uh, all the birds of Brazil, but many of the plates are truly atrocious. We opted instead to carry the compact “Birds of South America, Non-Passerines: Rheas to Woodpeckers” (Erize et al., 2006) plus color photocopies of the plates from Ridgley & Tudor’s two volume tome, “The Birds of South America”. Drawbacks to the latter are that it doesn’t illustrate every species and is too old to include many recent splits, but the plates are superior to anything else available for central Brazil.

The Cristalino Jungle Lodge and Pantanal are well known and rank high on every world birder’s list of South American destinations, and we were not disappointed by either. Emas NP, on the other hand, is little known and infrequently visited, and we had not heard of it before exploring PBC’s very informative web site. A pristine expanse of the rapidly-disappearing cerrado habitat, Emas is virtually the only place to see two very localized bird species, the White-winged Nightjar and the recently rediscovered (by Braulio!) Cone-billed Tanager, as well as an odd mammal, the Maned Wolf. Although we are glad we visited it, this is definitely a site for the hardcore. It’s a long drive (600+ km from either Cuiabá or Campo Grande, the two nearest airports) into the center of Brazil’s vast, agribusiness-dominated heartland (think Kansas). The park has no tourism infrastructure (a special permit is required for entry), and the closest town with a hotel and restaurants is 30 km from the park entrance, necessitating a 60-minute round trip commute twice a day. Although we saw a number of species of birds in Emas that we didn’t see elsewhere, we spent most of our time there looking in vain for Cone-billed Tanagers and Maned Wolves, both of which are less of a certainty than advertised. October is apparently a better month to visit Emas than August.

With the exception of our rather luxurious bungalow at Cristalino Jungle Lodge, all of our accommodations fell into the category of “comfortable but basic”. Food was uniformly good and plentiful, the Brazilian custom of all-you-can-eat buffets guaranteeing that no one goes hungry. Always worried about flight delays, we arranged to fly to Cuiabá a day earlier than necessary, a plan that greatly reduced our stress level when we were in fact delayed by 6 hrs. Rather than spend 2 full days in Cuiabá, however, we continued on to Alta Floresta, and stayed at the Floresta Amazonica Hotel for a night in advance of the official start of our tour. This gave us a chance to do some relaxed birding on our own before the arrival of Braulio and the other tour participants, and produced one of the highlights of our trip (read on…).

Detailed Itinerary:
06 Aug: Arrive in Cuiabá. Hotel Diplomata.
07 Aug: To Alta Floresta. Floresta Amazonica Hotel.
08-11 Aug: Cristalino Jungle Lodge.
12 Aug: Return to Alta Floresta. Floresta Amazonica Hotel.
13 Aug: Return to Cuiabá. Hotel Diplomata.
14-15 Aug: Pantanal. Pousada Piuval.
16-17 Aug: Pantanal. Pousada Rio Claro.
18-19 Aug: Chapada dos Guimaraes. Hotel Turismo.
20 Aug: Return to Cuiabá. Hotel Diplomata.
21-23 Aug: Emas NP (Chapadão do Céu). Vitor Hotel.
24 Aug: Return to Cuiabá. Hotel Diplomata.
25 Aug: Return to U.S.

06 August
We flew American Airlines from Los Angeles to Sao Paulo via Dallas, and upon arriving in Brazil were scheduled to fly directly on to Cuiabá. Unfortunately, mechanical problems over the Gulf of Mexico necessitated a return to Dallas for minor repairs, which delayed our arrival in Sao Paulo by several hours and caused us to miss our connection to Cuiabá. The next flight wasn’t for another 6 hours, but American Airlines gave us a generous food voucher that allowed us to experience our first Brazilian-style buffet lunch (the main meal of the day in Brazil) at a very nice restaurant in the airport. We finally arrived in Cuiabá at about 6 p.m. (having left Los Angeles at 10 a.m. the previous day!), and went directly to Hotel Diplomata, conveniently located only a few hundred meters from the airport terminal. Dinner options in the area were pretty limited, so we opted for a quick meal at the pizza place next door to the hotel. In retrospect, we decided that the delay in Sao Paulo had been to our advantage, and our free meal in the airport had been much better than anything we would have found for lunch in Cuiabá!

07 August
After a bit of a lie-in and a leisurely breakfast at the hotel, we headed back to the airport for the noon flight to Alta Floresta. The flight was delayed by almost 2 hrs, and we finally arrived in this small, dusty town at about 3:30 p.m., flying in over smoke and flames as one of the few remnant forest patches left in the area was being cleared. A very depressing and all-too-realistic first view of Amazonian Brazil. There was some initial confusion regarding our reservation at the Floresta Amazonica Hotel (their online reservation system had sent us a confirmation, but had neglected to forward the information to the hotel), but their very friendly and helpful English-speaking manager, Priscilla, straightened everything out and then gave us a personal tour of the grounds to show us the birding trails.

Let the birding begin! We hastily unpacked our gear and then wandered around the edges of the forest, in quick succession picking up Red-necked Araçari, Scarlet Macaws, and a pair of Cinnamon-throated Woodcreepers. We then walked to nearby fish ponds where thousands of Cattle Egrets fly in at dusk to roost, turning the trees completely white. A half-dozen Capybaras wallowing around in the ponds allowed us to approach quite closely before disappearing underwater – very strange rodents! Parrots were also flying over on their way to roosts, and we picked out Red-bellied and Chestnut-fronted Macaws, Blue-headed Parrots, and the baritone Yellow-crowned Parrots. On our way back into the hotel grounds at dusk, we surprised a Blackish Nightjar sitting on the path outside the fitness center. Our education in Brazilian dining practices continued in the hotel’s restaurant, as we discovered that dishes ordered from the menu are meant to be shared by two persons. Fortunately, an English-speaking waiter tipped us off to this custom by questioning whether or not we really wanted as much food as we had unwittingly ordered!

08 August
We were out promptly at sunrise, admiring a pair of Thrush-like Wrens singing their raucous duet by the swimming pool. A pair of Plumbeous Kites left their roost and circled the hotel grounds, suddenly dive-bombing into a nearby tree to harass a… HARPY EAGLE!!! There above the fitness center sat a sub-adult bird (gray rather than black collar), presumably the juvenile that was born on the property 3 years ago. This huge bird posed nicely for us for about 5 minutes, occasionally dodging an incoming kite, and then flew off into the forest, pausing for a minute in another tree on the way. Wow! Nearly the first bird seen on our first morning of birding and before the arrival of our guide – how much better could it get?! As soon as the Harpy left, a White-browed Hawk flew in to take its place – another sought-after raptor seen well and early! The rest of the morning was a bit of an anticlimax as we worked our way through the very quiet forest, ending up back at the fish ponds. Here we had good views of perched Chestnut-fronted Macaws, and found a number of the widespread species characteristic of disturbed habitat, such as Yellow-bellied Seedeater, Red-capped Cardinal, Lineated and Yellow-tufted Woodpeckers, Squirrel Cuckoo, House Wren and Rufous-browed Peppershrike. As the day heated up, Swallow-tailed Kites appeared overhead with the vultures, and a Pearl Kite flew in to perch above us briefly.

The hotel was not serving lunches, so Priscilla kindly drove us into town to a very nice open-air buffet place. At about 3 p.m. Braulio arrived with the two other tour participants, Jeff and Suzanne, a couple from Vancouver. We loaded all of our gear and ourselves into a Land Rover and drove for about an hour over a very bumpy and dusty road to the boat landing on the Teles Pirres River. En route we stopped at a stand of mauritia palms where we managed good looks at Sulphury Flycatchers, a somewhat distant view of a Point-tailed Palmcreeper, and admired a flock of Red-and-Green Macaws perched in a pasture. As we approached the Teles Pirres we stopped in a wooded area for Spix’s Guan, Red-throated Piping-Guan, Blue-backed Manakin and the only Paradise Tanager of the trip. The sun had already set by the time we got in the boat for the approximately 30 min ride upriver to the Cristalino Jungle Lodge, and we arrived there in complete darkness. Our rooms – in the brand-new VIP bungalows – were quite a hike from the dining room. These were very luxurious accommodations that featured interesting modern architecture, and, most notably, a huge shower with full-length glass doors opening onto a small, fenced courtyard. The purpose of the courtyard wasn’t entirely clear to us, although it did attract large numbers of butterflies and wasps (many of whom subsequently ended up in the shower!).

09 August
Breakfast at 5 a.m. was to be our routine for the next few days, allowing us to hit the trail (or river) before sunrise. Today we hiked the short distance to the observation tower and climbed to the 30-meter platform, level with most of the forest canopy but still overshadowed by some of the tallest emergent trees. Early birds included Tooth-billed Wren, a pair of Kawall’s Parrots, Black-faced Dacnis, and a flock of the charismatic Curl-crested Araçaris. When a Brown-banded Puffbird landed out of view in the one tree that still towered above us, we made the climb to the 50-meter level, well above any surrounding vegetation. The platform sways disconcertingly at this height, but after a few nervous minutes and a few good birds we all relaxed our grip on the handrail and began to move about freely. From this vantage point we could see a long distance over the canopy, and in the course of the morning observed Black-girdled Barbet, Gray Elaenia, Variegated and Crowned Slaty Flycatchers, Spangled Cotinga, Bare-necked Fruitcrows and White-bellied Parrots perched nearby. Other parrots, including Golden-winged and White-eyed Parakeets and Blue-and-Yellow Macaws, screamed by occasionally, and we had spectacular views of a pair of Gray-headed Kites who circled the platform at eye level. In general, however, activity was pretty slow, although the quality of the birds made up for lack of quantity. Eventually we descended to the forest floor and made our way slowly back to the lodge, stopping along the way for Red-headed Manakin and a flock that included Masked and Bay-headed Tanagers, Dwarf Tyrant-Manakin, Screaming Piha and White-lored Tyrannulet, along with a couple of small flycatchers that remained unidentified. As we reached the lodge, a Black Hawk-Eagle soared over the bungalows.

At lunch we made the tragic discovery that in the course of the morning’s birding Paul had inadvertently taped over the video he had taken of yesterday’s Harpy Eagle. Initial disbelief and denial dissolved into depression and Paul retreated to the bungalow for a siesta. Cathy opted for a swim in the river and discovered (a) sand flies, and (b) some pretty good mid-day birding. Dusky-billed Parrotlets and Hellmayr’s Parakeets were roosting noisily in trees above the swimming raft, and a pair of Paradise Jacamars were coming and going from a nest hole. A large, mixed flock of Gray-rumped and Pale-rumped Swifts foraged over the river, along with White-winged, White-banded and Southern Rough-winged Swallows. Paul awoke from his siesta to find a pair of Bare-faced Curassows parading around the bungalows, a discovery he shared with the rest of us.

In the late afternoon we made our way up the river by boat, eventually landing and working our way into the forest to a small pool where birds were coming to drink and bathe before nightfall. As we sat and watched quietly, a procession of terrestrial as well as canopy species arrived, including Spot-winged and Saturnine Antshrikes, Spot-backed Antbird, Chestnut-winged Hookbill, Rufous-tailed and Pará Foliage-Gleaners, White-winged Shrike-Tanager, Pectoral Sparrow, Ruddy Quail-Dove, and – normally difficult to see anywhere other than at ant swarms – a group of three Bare-eyed Antbirds. In the surrounding forest we also located both White-crowned and Snow-capped Manakins. Braulio played a variety of owl tapes during the boat ride back to the lodge in the dark, but all was quiet.

10 August
We started the morning back on the river, disembarking at a spot where a Cryptic Forest-Falcon was calling from close inside the forest. We spent the first half of the morning here, getting only unsatisfactory flight views of this recently described species as it repeatedly responded to tape by flying over us and then perching out of view. In between attempts to lure the falcon closer, we managed to see White-chinned and Straight-billed Woodcreepers, Flame-crested Manakin and Hauxwell’s Thrush, and watched a Razor-billed Curassow warily come down to the river’s edge to drink. We spent the second half of the morning on the Haffer Trail, an area of forest dominated by bamboo. Here we made up for the poor views of the Cryptic Forest-Falcon by luring a Slaty-backed Forest-Falcon in to perch directly above our heads. We then encountered a nice mixed flock in the bamboo and underwent a period of intense activity as we all tried (with varying degrees of success) to get on Plain-winged, Amazonian, Cinereous and Fasciated Antshrikes, Gray and Blackish Antbirds, Emilia’s (Dot-winged) Antwren, Long-billed Gnatwren and an amazingly cooperative (for a hermit, that is) Tapajós Hermit, an impending split from Little Hermit.

After lunch and a siesta/swim we headed upriver once more. Our first stop was back at the Cryptic Forest-Falcon’s territory, where we got a few more flight views before giving up and moving on. We worked our way slowly upstream, getting great looks at both Sungrebe and Sunbittern and stopping to watch a trio of Cream-colored Woodpeckers before arriving at a spot where we had heard Pavonine Cuckoo calling at dusk on the previous evening. Playing a tape produced a response, and with patience Braulio was able to lure the cuckoo to our side of the river and into a tree directly above the boat. It was by now getting quite dark, but with a spotlight we had good views of this difficult species! We spotlighted our way back down the river, finding a Blackish Nightjar and a Common Potoo, who serenaded us with his ridiculous song. We also heard Ocellated Poorwill, Little Nightjar and Tawny-bellied Screech-Owl calling along the riverbanks, but were unable to tempt them into view.

We returned to the lodge a bit late for dinner, and as we approached the dining room a staff member came running up to Braulio. Following an urgent conversation in Portuguese, Braulio turned to us and commanded “Drop your gear here. Take only your binoculars and cameras. We’re going back out on the river.” Several hours earlier a jaguar had been seen along the riverbank and a number of people had subsequently found it again. We sped down the Rio Cristalino in the dark, pulling up beside a large tree whose trunk leaned out over the water. Draped over the trunk was the sleeping Jaguar! We cut the engine and everyone, boatman included, started taking photographs. Thus distracted, we drifted to within about 10 feet of the jaguar, who by this time had woken up and was looking down at us with irritation, easily close enough to jump into the boat had he so chosen! Fortunately the cat appeared to be digesting a big meal, and as we backed off he lay down again and went back to sleep. Wow! A Harpy Eagle and a Jaguar in the first three days of the trip – what next?

11 August
This morning’s boat trip was very short, as we crossed the river and disembarked at the Cacao Trail, almost directly opposite the lodge. Walking in a short distance, we spent some time trying to get satisfactory views of small canopy species such as Rose-breasted Chat, Helmeted Pygmy-Tyrant and Wing-barred Piprites. We were rescued from this neck-breaking endeavor by the appearance of our boatman, Jorge, who had located a Zigzag Heron in a nearby swampy area within the forest. We followed him there and eventually all got reasonably good scope views of this elusive bird. An American Pygmy Kingfisher was an added bonus. Dark-winged Trumpeters were calling nearby, so Braulio quickly set up a remote speaker at some distance from us, and we sat motionless as the tape enticed these wary birds ever closer. Eventually we managed some very good looks as a flock of about 20 circled us before disappearing invisibly back into the forest. We finished up the morning with a mixed flock that included Long-winged and Gray Antwrens, Striped Woodhaunter, Buff-throated Foliage-Gleaner and an Olivaceous Woodcreeper.

In the late afternoon we headed down the Rio Cristalino to visit several islands in the Teles Pirres. On the first small island we found Amazonian Tyrannulet, and flushed a Ladder-tailed Nightjar from her nest, a rocky scrape containing two tiny, fluffy chicks. We also saw a Little Ground-Tyrant, a species that has only recently been recorded in the area. On a second, larger and more vegetated island there was a lot of late afternoon activity, and we picked up Black Caracara, Glossy Antshrike, Rufous-tailed Attila, Spotted Tody-Flycatcher, Amazonian Streaked Antwren, Purple-throated Euphonia, Yellow-bellied Dacnis, and a flowering tree full of hummingbirds (Glittering-throated Emerald, Black-throated Mango, Long-billed Starthroat, Black-eared Fairy and various difficult-to-separate Sapphires). Cruising along the riverbanks at sunset turned up the aptly named Drab Water-Tyrant, Amazonian Oropendola and a Black-collared Swallow, but unfortunately no Amazonian Umbrellabirds. After dinner back at the lodge we went spotlighting along the trail to the tower, but the Ocellated Poorwills and Tawny-bellied Screech-Owls calling in the distance did not respond to tape and again went unseen.

12 August
Our final morning at Cristalino was spent on the Serra, a high, rocky outcrop that offers spectacular views down to the canopy below. From here we could watch four species of macaws and a variety of other parrots flying past, and managed good scope views of White-fronted Nunbird, Pied Puffbird, Gould’s Toucanet, Scale-breasted Woodpecker, Black-tailed Trogon, White-naped Xenopsaris, Masked and Black-crowned Tityras, two female Pompadour Cotingas, a pair of White-browed Purpletufts, and a small flock of Red-billed Pied-Tanagers. Bird of the morning, however, was the Masked Tanager that perched directly in front of us in full sunlight, showing off the spectacular iridescence no illustration can even begin to capture. Eventually Braulio pried us away from this pleasant site to hike across the very hot, open summit of the Serra. Despite the heat we continued to find good birds, including Natterer’s Slaty-Antshrike, Blue Ground-Dove, Yellow-breasted Flycatcher, and Thick-billed, White-lored and Rufous-bellied Euphonias. Descending through the cooler forest we picked up Forest Elaenia and White-browed Antbird, but were unable to entice a calling Broad-billed Motmot into view.

We left Cristalino shortly after lunch, but not before locating an 11th-hour Blue-necked Jacamar by the boat launch – a normally common species that had managed to elude us until now. On our way down the Rio Cristalino we ticked the second of the “South American Big Five” mammals, a Brazilian Tapir cooling off in the water. While waiting for the Land Rover to pick us up on the Teles Pirres riverbank we birded along the road, getting good looks at Red-stained Woodpecker, Pygmy Antwren, Short-tailed Pygmy-Tyrant, and a Cinnamon Attila that repeatedly flew back and forth over our heads but refused to perch in any convenient location. As we arrived on the outskirts of Alta Floresta at sunset we were welcomed by a Striped Owl sitting conspicuously in a tree alongside the road. We evacuated the Land Rover at record speed and abandoned the vehicle in the middle of the road with doors swinging – Braulio thought it was probably a first record for Alta Floresta.

13 August
The primary goal of this morning’s birding around the Floresta Amazonica Hotel grounds was to re-find the Harpy Eagle for Jeff and Suzanne (and of course we wouldn’t say ‘no’ ourselves to a second look and a chance to re-shoot the lost video footage!). We headed into the forest to the site of the nest tree, still an important point of reference for the juvenile Harpy, and hung around in that general area for much of the morning. While there we managed to see White-tailed Trogon, White-shouldered Antshrike, and Amazonian Barred and Dusky-billed Woodcreepers. We also heard a Harpy Eagle calling in the distance, from somewhere in the direction of the hotel grounds… A quick swing by the fish ponds yielded some soaring raptors, including Short-tailed and Roadside Hawks and a Double-toothed Kite. We returned to the hotel in mid-morning, and decided to spend the rest of our time sitting by the pool, hoping the Harpy would return to one of the trees in which we had seen it previously. This strategy netted us two new species, Red-fan Parrot and Crimson-bellied Parakeet, but, sadly, no Harpy, although we did hear it call again briefly from some tantalizingly close but invisible location. After another nice buffet lunch in Alta Floresta we headed to the airport for the flight back to Cuiabá, thus ending a very successful first leg of our trip. We explored the dinner options around Hotel Diplomata a bit more thoroughly tonight, and ended up at a very nice restaurant close to the airport terminal. Walking back to the hotel afterwards, we noticed several large, very pale nighthawks flying above the streetlamps, our first Nacunda Nighthawks.

14 August
Braulio picked us up bright and early for the 100 km drive to the Pantanal. Much excitement when the first Toco Toucan was sighted along the road south of Cuiabá! Before reaching Poconé, gateway to the Pantanal, we stopped for some roadside birding and hit upon a mixed flock that included Planalto Slaty-Antshrike, Large-billed Antwren, Pearl-vented Tody-Tyrant, Fuscous Flycatcher, Rufous Casiornis, Blue Dacnis, Masked Gnatcatcher, White-lined and Silver-beaked Tanagers, Chestnut-vented Conebill and Red-pileated Finch. A Long-tailed Tyrant was a bit distant but nonetheless unmistakeable. As we reached the Transpantaneira Highway pools appeared along the roadside, populated with various species of herons, egrets and ibis, Jabiru and Wood Storks, countless Limpkins, Snail Kites, Savannah Hawks, and the occasional Black-collared Hawk. At the turnoff to our destination, Pousada Piuval, we spied our first Greater Rheas grazing among the cattle and horses. Before and after lunch we had some time to bird the grounds of the pousada, and, between the fruit feeding station and the stable area, racked up quite a list of birds, many of them new for the tour: Yellow-chevroned, Peach-fronted and Monk Parakeets, Purplish Jay, Chestnut-eared Araçari, Rufous Hornero, Cattle Tyrant, White Woodpecker, Campo Flicker, Rufous-bellied Thrush, Chalk-browed Mockingbird, Grayish Saltator, Sayaca Tanager, Yellow-billed Cardinals and Saffron Finches, Bay-winged, Shiny and Giant Cowbirds, Chopi Blackbird, White-tipped Dove and Picui, Ruddy and Long-tailed Ground-Doves.

In the late afternoon we birded several nearby “forest islands”– areas that are literally islands in the water during the wet season but were currently surrounded by very dry grasslands. Here we found our first Hyacinth Macaws – a family group roosting noisily in a nest tree – along with Crimson-crested Woodpecker, Great Rufous and Buff-throated Woodcreepers, Red-billed Scythebill, White-lored Spinetail, and finally managed to see an Undulated Tinamou, a species we had been hearing daily. We watched the sunset atop a wooden observation tower, from which we also had excellent views of Orange-winged and Turquoise-fronted Parrots flying to roost, and Chaco Chachalachas and Piping-Guans (both Red- and Blue-throated) feeding on the blossoms of the flowering yellow ipé trees.

15 August
During the night the Pantanal Bird Club’s recently acquired safari jeep had arrived, an old army vehicle with three tiers of seats mounted on the back, modeled after those commonly seen in African safari parks. We climbed in and headed off to a nearby area of dry forest, along the way getting good looks at a pair of Chestnut-bellied Guans, our first Plumbeous Ibis, and a Crab-eating Raccoon. In the course of the morning we encountered several mixed flocks, one of them mobbing a Ferruginous Pygmy-Owl, and accumulated quite a number of new species: Blue-tufted Starthroat, White-wedged Piculet, Golden-green and Pale-crested Woodpeckers, Barred Antshrike, Rusty-backed and Black-bellied Antwrens, Rufous-fronted Thornbird, Narrow-billed Woodcreeper, Plain Tyrannulet, Tawny-crowned Pygmy-Tyrant, Rusty-fronted Tody-Flycatcher, Short-crested Flycatcher, Helmeted Manakin, Moustached Wren, Ashy-headed Greenlet, Tropical Parula, Flavescent Warbler, White-bellied Seedeater, Chestnut-bellied Seed-Finch, Orange-backed Troupial and Epaulet Oriole. Whew! On the way back to the lodge we stopped at a flooded area and from the vantage point of the safari jeep had great views of a diverse group of water birds that would otherwise have remained hidden in the vegetation. Among these were a pair of Southern Screamers, some White-backed Stilts, and a group of eight Hyacinth Macaws on the ground drinking. Seeing the macaws side-by-side with various herons and ibises made us fully appreciate just how large these largest parrots really are! We finished off the morning patiently stalking Yellowish Pipits in the short grass surrounding the wetland – although it was somewhat challenging to sneak up on them in a loud diesel vehicle, we eventually managed some very good close views.

While still a considerable distance from the lodge we began to hear a loud commotion, and returned to discover that a coach-load of young teenagers on a school outing had arrived for the weekend. Our siesta time was rather less peaceful than usual (we certainly didn’t have the pool to ourselves!), and we were happy to head out for a late-afternoon boat trip on a nearby lake. Cruising the lakeshore we found Black-capped Donacobius, White-headed Marsh-Tyrant, and Unicolored Blackbirds, and a lucky few of us glimpsed the head of a Least Bittern poking out of the tall marsh grass. We disembarked on a boardwalk that leads across a wetland to a small, forested island on which there is a wooden observation tower. In addition to the usual diversity of herons, the wetland held Rusty-collared Seedeaters and Lesser Kiskadees, and from the tower we could make out a distant Maguari Stork. A small mixed flock around the base of the tower included Little Cuckoo, Great Antshrike, Mato Grosso Antbird, Gray-crested Cacholote, more White-lored Spinetails and a Solitary Cacique. As the sun set, the sky filled with Nacunda Nighthawks flying low over the wetlands. It was quite dark by the time we returned to the launch site so we spotlighted our way back to the lodge, finding a Great Potoo, numerous Pauraques, and several Gray Brocket Deer. After dinner the teenagers turned the lodge grounds into a disco, complete with loud music and plenty of drink, while the chaperones apparently held a party of their own in the bar. Some of us didn’t get quite enough sleep…

16 August
When we met for breakfast at 5:30 a.m. we were all a bit cranky and glad to be moving on to another lodge for the rest of the weekend. We loaded all of our gear into the safari jeep and left the van behind to be picked up in two days. As we left the pousada, Braulio spied a pair of Red-legged Seriemas in an adjacent pasture – we were pleased to get good looks at this species, although we would end up seeing more of them later in the trip. We drove the Transpantaneira Highway slowly south, stopping frequently to watch the many birds gathered around the remaining pools of water. Even more impressive than the diversity of birds were the sheer numbers of Spectacled Caimans, in some places stacked up like cordwood on the muddy banks! Although we didn’t pick up any new waders, we did see another Maguari Stork, several stunning Scarlet-headed Blackbirds in the reeds, and a pair of Greater Thornbirds along the road. We arrived at Pousada Rio Claro in the late morning, and were welcomed enthusiastically by several excited employees. They had just discovered a large snake under a bench outside one of the guest rooms (ours, as it turned out!), and were very glad to have Braulio come to the rescue. He identified it as a non-venomous False Giant Water Cobra, and with the aid of a broom handle picked up the 2 m long snake and moved it to the safety of a nearby pasture. After this exciting introduction to the local wildlife, we had some time to explore the grounds before lunch. Species coming to the feeders were mostly the same as those we had seen at Pousada Piuval (large numbers of Yellow-billed Cardinals, Saffron Finches and various cowbirds and doves), but a large mango tree outside reception hosted a different selection of parakeets, including Nanday and Blue-crowned Parakeets.

After lunch we headed out onto the river, Giant Otter our primary target species for the afternoon. This goal was easily met – we encountered one within about 100 m of the dock! We continued on upriver, getting good looks at perched Golden-collared Macaws and a Laughing Falcon. Less conspicuous along the riverbank were a Pale-legged Hornero and pairs of Band-tailed Antbirds, Rusty-backed Spinetails and Buff-breasted Wren. We also saw all five species of neotropical kingfisher in the course of the afternoon! Late in the day we heard something large walking through the leaf litter along the riverbank. Braulio speculated that it was a peccary, and we were all stunned when a moment later a Giant Anteater stepped into view! We watched until the anteater was lost in the darkening forest and then started home, Band-tailed Nighthawks streaming overhead as they, too, made their way downriver. As dusk fell we rounded a bend to the spectacular sight of a huge, orange half-moon hanging in the sky above a tree full of egrets. Beautiful! Wait a minute…wasn’t the moon nearly full last night? Slowly it dawned on us that we were seeing a partial lunar eclipse, a magical moment! After dinner we tried spotlighting from the safari jeep, but the (by now) full moon put a damper on mammal activity and we saw little other than the ubiquitous Pauraques.

17 August
We started the morning several km upriver, from which point we walked back to the lodge. New birds in the dry forest along the riverbank included Blue-crowned Trogon, Hooded Tanager, Plain Antvireo, Stripe-necked Tody-Tyrant and Yellow-olive Flycatcher. At the edge of an open pasture adjacent to the lodge we found Creamy-bellied Thrush, Red-crested Cardinal and a troop of Black-tailed Marmosets. A flock of 15-20 Guira Cuckoos provided much amusement and plenty of photo opportunities as they bathed in a flooded ditch below the water storage tank. Disheveled-looking at the best of times, when wet they are truly a sight to behold!

After lunch we drove south for about two hours, heading for the road’s terminus in Porto Jofre. Although the Transpantaneira Highway is a fairly well-maintained gravel road, it is punctuated by 126 wooden trestle bridges that are in various (mostly advanced!) states of disrepair. From our swaying perch very high in the back of the open safari jeep it was difficult not to imagine a whole variety of lurid accident scenarios as we careened across these bridges at high speed! We were happy to reach our destination and spend some time birding on foot along a spur road, where we found Scaly-headed Parrot, Fawn-breasted Wren and Planalto Woodcreeper, as well as some Black Howler Monkeys. At dusk we donned bug goggles (and quickly learned to keep our mouths shut!) and headed back north, spotlighting for big game along the road. Unfortunately, no cats crossed our path, but we did see several Crab-eating Foxes, a small Brazilian Tapir, and a Great Horned Owl.

18 August
We left Pousada Rio Claro immediately after breakfast and took our time driving back to Pousada Piuval, stopping to bird along the roadside at several points. The first stop, an area of tall grasses, produced Chotoy Spinetail and Grassland Sparrow. Next, birding on foot along the “highway”, we found Aplomado Falcon, Streaked and Fuscous Flycatchers, and Rufous-browed Peppershrike. Finally, while stopped at a roadside pond looking at Yellow-chinned Spinetails, we spied a pair of Green-barred Woodpeckers coming to a nest hole in a farm gate. While watching them, we attracted a Ferruginous Pygmy-Owl and attendant mob, which included a new hummer – White-tailed Goldenthroat – along with several more Red-crested Cardinals. Eventually we made it to Pousada Piuval, transferred our gear back into the van, and hit the road for Cuiabá.

We arrived in the city center at noon, and combined some shopping for bottled water, beer and other necessities with lunch at a restaurant conveniently located within the very large “hypermarket”. We then left for the 60 km drive north to Chapada dos Guimaraes, winding our way up to the top of the plateau in the heat of the day, and going straight to our hotel in the center of this small, artsy tourist town. On the way we stopped briefly at the national park entrance and received the unwelcome news that the waterfalls, a traditional roosting site for macaws and swifts, were still closed to the public, the result of a rockfall that had killed a tourist several months earlier. In the late afternoon we headed out in search of an alternative location to see macaws, but first paid a visit to an area of very hot, dry and dusty cerrado. Braulio quickly located our target bird, a Checkered Woodpecker, and a sudden pulse of activity also brought us Rufous-winged Antshrike, White-rumped and White-banded Tanagers (the latter really should be called Shrike-like Tanager, as Braulio is proposing!), and Black-throated Saltator. A pair of Horned Sungems zoomed past, one in rapid pursuit of the other; unfortunately, that was the only look we would get at this fantastic hummingbird.

Today was our first encounter with the sweat bees that had received so much advance publicity in our pre-trip readings, and the distraction that resulted from these little insects crawling persistently into our eyes, ears, nose, mouth soon persuaded us to move on to another location. We proceeded back down the road to a pull-out below cliffs at the edge of the plateau, and here had good views of Red-and-Green and Blue-winged Macaws coming to roost. Across the road we could look down into a wooded valley where the treetops held a large flock of Swallow Tanagers along with birds such as Boat-billed Flycatcher, Pale-breasted Thrush, Blue Dacnis, and a trio of “buff birds”: Buff-fronted Foliage-Gleaner, Buff-throated Saltator and Burnished-buff Tanager. We watched the sunset from a scenic cliff-top viewpoint where we also hoped to find Cliff Flycatchers. A very distant individual showed very briefly, but a pair of Bat Falcons put on a great show, chasing White-eyed Parakeets through the forest below.

19 August
At first light we were back out in the cerrado – morning activity ends and the sweat bees arrive early in this hot environment. We returned first to yesterday’s site, hoping to get a better look at the Horned Sungems. Unfortunately they didn’t reappear. In their place we found Swallow-tailed Hummingbird and White-vented Violetear, along with Rusty-backed Antwrens, Plain-crested and Yellow-bellied Elaenias, a pair of White-eared Puffbirds, and the tiny Rufous-sided Pygmy-Tyrant, a threatened endemic. Further down the road a large flock of Plumbeous Seedeaters included an individual of another near-threatened species, Coal-crested Tit, and Black-faced and Cinnamon Tanagers put in brief appearances. Burrowing Owls and Gray Monjitas occupied fence posts along the road, a Pearl Kite perched in a distant tree, and we watched a Red-legged Seriema catch and swallow a small snake, still wriggling as it went down. After the sweat bees arrived, we retreated into the van and drove through the national park to the Cidade de Pedra where we enjoyed the spectacular view. Not much bird activity here, other than a distant King Vulture and (finally!) a Chapada Flycatcher, a recently described species Braulio had been trying all morning to attract.

Following lunch at a pleasant restaurant in the town we explored the numerous crafts shops and bought some souvenirs (plenty of toucan and macaw tchotchkes to choose among!). Braulio then drove us to a patch of dense woodland where we found Collared Trogon and Blue-crowned Motmot, as well as a canopy flock that included White-bellied Warbler, Red-eyed Vireo and White-crested Elaenia. A surprise find was a Gray-hooded Flycatcher, a species Braulio had recorded here only once many years ago. As sunset approached we headed for nearby cliffs to watch swifts fly in to roost, but on the way stopped at another wooded area to try for Southern Antpipit. Eventually everyone got on this hyperactive little flycatcher, but not before it was too late to catch the swifts arriving. But that’s OK – just as we were leaving the site a Pheasant Cuckoo called. Braulio called back and the bird responded, coming quite close – good looks at another Dromococcyx!

20 August
At first light we were…that’s right, back out in the cerrado, this time to look for Pale-breasted Spinetail, a species we had missed yesterday. It didn’t take long to find one, after which we moved on to a nearby forest fragment. Blue-winged Macaws were feeding in a recently burned area of cerrado adjacent to the forest, and a variety of other small birds were moving through, including Swallow-tailed Hummingbird, Glittering-bellied Emerald (not to be confused with Glittering-throated Emerald, also present!), Planalto Tyrannulet, Green-backed Becard, and – much excitement – our first flock of Curl-crested Jays. A pair of Plumbeous Kites sat on a nest at the forest’s edge. Mixed flocks of euphonias and tanagers were moving through the canopy, among them Flame-crested Tanager and a White-shouldered Tanager (seen by Cathy only), Sepia-capped Flycatcher, Crested Becard, and (at last!), after numerous rather dull females and juveniles, a bright orange male Band-tailed Manakin. A pair of White-backed Fire-eyes showed well along the roadside, as did a pair of Rufous-tailed Jacamars. Intent on a canopy flock, nobody paid much attention as a raptor swooped past and landed in a nearby tree (“probably just a Plumbeous Kite…”) until Cathy looked closely and realized – just as it flew off, of course – that it was a sub-adult Ornate Hawk-Eagle! Fortunately, the bird returned and perched briefly where everyone could see it. The culmination of an already-good morning’s birding began when Braulio glimpsed a coquette leaving a flowering tree. Hoping it would return, we waited and watched some other hummers, including Fork-tailed Woodnymphs and a Rufous-throated Sapphire. Then someone noticed a Common Potoo, perched in the sunlight in a classic “dead wood” pose – a great photo opportunity that occupied us for a few minutes. Meanwhile, from somewhere close by came a 4-note call in a minor key. Braulio to Paul: “Did you just whistle?” Paul: “Huh?” Moments later, as Braulio looked for the source of the call, not one but two Pavonine Cuckoos flew across the road. One responded to tape and came gradually closer, eventually sitting up and singing from an open perch right over the road! Amazing! Good looks (actually, in the case of the Pavonine Cuckoo, knock-your-socks-off looks!) at both Dromococcyx species in less than 24 hrs!

Exhilarated by a great morning of birding we “did the list” over another nice lunch in the town, and then prepared to return once more to Cuiabá and a third night at Hotel Diplomata. But we still had some business to finish before leaving the chapada and descending to the plains below…and this time the Cliff Flycatchers cooperated fully, one bird perching right above us in a tree on the cliff top while several others sallied out to catch flies from the cliff face below. Before reaching Cuiabá we turned off on the road to Coxipo d‘Ouro and stopped at a small patch of dry forest to try for Green-winged Saltator. The target bird did show up eventually, but, frankly, other birds we found here turned out to be much more interesting! First in was a Spot-backed Puffbird, a species we had very much been hoping to see. Next, a Small-billed Tinamou called close to the road. Braulio set everyone up to watch for it to cross a small open gap as he lured it to the tape player. This bird had an amazing ability to sneak right past us unseen, and it took several tries of this sort before everyone but Paul finally managed a glimpse. While staring intently at the path taken by the invisible tinamou, Cathy spied a Scissor-tailed Nightjar sleeping in the leaf litter. As sunset neared, we drove on to an open, rocky area where Least Nighthawks roost, and watched as they took off into the evening sky. And so ended the second leg of the tour. Back in Cuiabá we patronized the pizza place again, somehow ending up ordering one medium pizza with two toppings instead of the intended two pizzas each with one topping – clearly our sign language and mispronounced Spanish failed us somewhere along the line!

21 August
Today was the start of the final leg of the tour and the end of the good luck we had been enjoying so far. While we were in Chapada, Braulio had received news that the safari jeep had been in an accident in Cuiabá. No one had been injured and the damage to the vehicle could be fixed, but today we learned that the repairs had not been completed in time for the jeep to make the trip to Emas. This was disappointing, as Braulio had been touting the advantages of using the safari jeep to see over the long grass that can obscure the view. We left Cuiabá at 7 a.m., anticipating that the 600 km drive – on a two-lane road with very heavy truck traffic – would take 8-10 hrs. About 250 km (4 hrs) out we began passing a line of trucks parked bumper-to-bumper along the shoulder. Still passing them after 10 km, we finally pulled over to ask what was going on. We learned that there had been an accident involving a fuel truck the previous day, and the road ahead had been closed for the past 24 hrs! With no alternative route to Emas, we pulled into the nearby town of Pedra Petra for an early lunch and to consider our options. A local policeman assured us that the road was scheduled to re-open at 2 p.m., so we decided to drive as far forward as possible to get ahead of most of the trucks. On the way we passed a pond with about a dozen Horned Screamers in it, and stopped briefly to admire these bizarrely ornamented birds. We arrived at the scene of the accident to find the fuel truck still lying on its side in the middle of the road, and nothing about the state or pace of the clean-up operation suggested that the road was going to be ready to open in the next hour. Fortunately, after half an hour a policeman came through with the news that a farmer had opened the gates to a private road that cars could use to bypass the accident site. A local man offered to show us the way, and subsequently led us along a dusty farm road at breakneck speed – it was all we could do to keep the cloud of dust that engulfed his pickup truck in sight! After about 30 minutes we emerged back onto the main road, safely past the accident site and having added a new species to our list, a pair of Black Skimmers hastily ticked as we careened past a small farm pond!

The accident had added 2-3 hrs to our journey (we learned later that the road finally re-opened at 5 p.m., by which time trucks were backed up 50 km in each direction!), and we arrived at the gates to Emas NP as the sun was setting. With 100 km still to go (70 km through the park plus another 30 km to the town on the far side) we fired up the spotlight and looked for night birds and mammals along the way, a Barn Owl and a pair of rare Hoary Foxes the highlights of the drive. We finally arrived at the Vitor Hotel in Chapadão do Céu at about 8:30 p.m., only to discover that there was a big festival going on in the town. A well-known Brazilian pop band was also staying at the Vitor Hotel, and the lobby was crowded with young women having their photos taken with the musicians. While we waited for Braulio to check us in, we noticed a narrow, wrought-iron spiral staircase disappearing through the ceiling in one corner of the lobby, and joked about having to carry our luggage up it. Five minutes later that’s exactly what we were doing – the second floor of the hotel appeared to have been added as an afterthought, and this glorified ladder was the only means of access! The restaurants in the town were all closed for the festival, so Braulio braved the mob scene to pick up take-out pizza that we ate in the hotel lobby, a fitting end to a long day that hadn’t quite gone as planned.

22 August
After a 4:30 a.m. breakfast we drove the 30 km back to Emas NP, along the way catching some Pampas Deer and a Brazilian Tapir heading back into the park after a night spent grazing in the adjacent agricultural fields. A small flock of the endemic Yellow-faced Parrots adorned a tree alongside the road, and shortly thereafter Blue-and-Yellow Macaws, Turquoise-fronted Parrots and Red-shouldered Macaws began their noisy morning passage overhead. Once inside the park we stopped in an area of high grass and found lots of… grass birds: Sharp-tailed Grass-Tyrant, Wedge-tailed Grass-Finch, Grassland Sparrow, Blue-black Grassquit. Also Bearded Tachuri, Fork-tailed Flycatcher, Eared Dove, and a Collared Crescent-chest calling from atop a termite mound. Next into an area of wet forest for a run of planalto specialties: Planalto Hermit, Planalto Foliage-Gleaner, Planalto Woodcreeper… This forest patch is one of the known territories of the recently rediscovered Cone-billed Tanager, so we spent the remainder of the morning here, hoping to find this species. No sign of it, but we did see a number of other species new for the tour including Gray-fronted Dove, Highland Elaenia, Common Tody-Flycatcher, Swainson’s Flycatcher, Southern Yellowthroat, the endemic White-striped Warbler, and a Double-collared Seedeater. Flying overhead were White-rumped Swallows and an occasional Long-winged Harrier. By mid-morning it started to get hot and quiet so we drove back into Chapadão do Céu, only to find the town deserted and all businesses (banks, grocery stores, restaurants…) still shuttered. Turns out the festival still had another two days to go! Fortunately, a small restaurant next door to the hotel was open for lunch. Unfortunately, the food was not particularly good.

After a short siesta we returned to the park, specifically back to the Cone-billed Tanager territory. Another hour or two there produced no sign of the target birds, mostly just additional views of the same species (probably the same individuals!) we had seen in the morning. Eventually we drove on into the cerrado deep within the park, where we found flocks of the amusing little Cock-tailed Tyrants, resembling miniature Cessnas as they fly low across the tops of the grass. We waited out in the cerrado for dusk to fall, and then began to drive the dirt tracks while spotlighting for White-winged Nightjar, a species known only from Emas and a single site in Paraguay. Initially we were only getting brief flight views of birds out at the limits of the spotlight’s beam, but eventually Braulio saw one perched on a termite mound. When sitting like this they are remarkably tame, and we were able to walk up to within about a meter of the bird for very close photos. With this species ticked well, we now turned our attention to finding Maned Wolf, the other nocturnal specialty of Emas and the only one of the South American “Big Five” mammals we had yet to see. After driving around for an hour without seeing much of anything, we stopped at the park headquarters for a picnic dinner of cheese sandwiches and yogurt, the only provisions Braulio had managed to scare up in the closed town. Not a great day gastronomically! Another circuit of the park came up negative for wolves and we finally returned to the hotel at 10 p.m., exhausted, a bit dispirited, and not at all looking forward to…

23 August
…breakfast at 4 a.m. By shortly after 5 a.m. we were standing in the dark in knee-high marsh grass, watching for Giant Snipe to arrive at their day-roost. Suddenly there was a slight movement and soft d-r-r-r-r-r at our feet and Braulio barked “Don’t move.” First thought: a snipe just landed beside us! Instant replay: snake! Sure enough, a rattlesnake was coiled at our feet, less than a foot away from both Cathy and Suzanne. Fortunately the snake was facing away from us, and, despite the warning rattle, looked more interested in fleeing than attacking. Braulio orchestrated an orderly retreat whereby we each took turns stepping away to a safe distance, and the snake then fled into a nearby shrub. Not surprisingly, it was a bit difficult to concentrate on looking for snipe after this interruption, and after a few more minutes we VERY carefully picked our way through the grass back to the van.

We spent the rest of the morning working our way along the edge of an extensive area of wet forest, another known Cone-billed Tanager territory. Once again, no sign of the tanagers, but once again we turned up a few more new species: White-throated Kingbird, Gray-headed Tanager, a flock of Yellow-rumped Marshbirds, a young male White-browed Blackbird, Crane Hawk, and flight views of two Red-winged Tinamous flushed from the tussock-grass. In the course of the morning we complained to Braulio that we hadn’t yet seen any Streamer-tailed Tyrants, and, lo, we returned to where the van was parked to find about six of them actively feeding right there! Driving back towards town we surprised a Red-legged Seriema on the narrow dirt track, and followed as he ran down the road in front of the van, clocking him at a steady 40 kph for 3 km before he finally veered into the roadside vegetation! And he didn’t even look particularly winded! Fortunately, a different restaurant was open for lunch today. Unfortunately, the food was no better (and quite possibly worse) than yesterday’s.

This afternoon’s routine was much the same. Another hour or two in the Cone-billed Tanager territory. Nothing new. A drive deep into the cerrado, this time with the promise of Giant Anteaters. Indeed, three anteaters could be seen on the far side of a river valley. Invisible to the naked eye, with binoculars they resolved into small gray lumps, and through the spotting scope it was possible to imagine that they actually were anteaters, although it was difficult to decide which end was which. Not exactly the close looks we had anticipated, and we were very glad we had seen the one in the Pantanal. A White-tailed Hawk and a pair of Campo Miners in display flight lifted our spirits slightly, but we voted unanimously to return to town for a proper dinner rather than spend another evening scouring the park for wildlife. We did, of course, spotlight our way out of the park, getting some much better flight views of White-winged Nightjars, but still no Maned Wolves. We’d have to settle for only four of the Big Five. The festival was in full swing in the town, but we braved the din (dueling car stereo systems, each with rock-band-sized speakers built into the trunk!) to go out to a pizza place, which turned out to be quite good.

24 August
Last chance for Cone-billed Tanagers. We packed our gear and left the hotel, arriving in the park well after sunrise (we had voted to have breakfast at a civilized 5 a.m. this morning). Back out the boardwalk to the patch of wet forest, a route we knew well by now. This time, however, as we approached the forest, two birds flew high overhead on their way elsewhere. Braulio identified them as female-plumaged Cone-billed Tanagers, but to the rest of us who saw them (not everyone did) they could have been just about anything. And that was the closest we would get to seeing this species. End of story. We did hang around for another hour or so just in case, and finished up with a pair of Lesser Grass-Finches (with Wedge-tailed nearby for comparison), sightings of Blue-headed Parrot and Long-tailed Tyrant, both rare in Emas, and Bran-colored Flycatcher, a somewhat anti-climactic last new species. We left the park at about 9 a.m. for the long drive back to Cuiabá, stopping for lunch at an unpromising looking truck stop that turned out to serve a very popular (and tasty!) Sunday rodízio. In this variation of the all-you-can-eat buffet a never-ending procession of waiters files past the table with slabs of barbecued meat on skewers – just point to the part you want and a slice is deposited on your plate. Kind of like a Brazilian version of dim sum! No accidents delayed us today, and we arrived back at Hotel Diplomata at about 5:30 p.m. We bade farewell to Braulio, and then celebrated the end of a very enjoyable tour over dinner at that nice restaurant down the road.

25 August
A final breakfast with Jeff and Suzanne and then we accompanied them to the airport to say farewell. We spent the last of our Brazilian reais (actually a bit more – fortunately there was a nearby ATM!) at a nice little gift shop in the airport, and then returned to the hotel to pack. Our flight was not leaving until 5:30 p.m. but we had to vacate the hotel room by 2 p.m., so spent most of the afternoon back at the airport terminal. Our flights to Sao Paulo (via Campo Grande) and on to Dallas and Los Angeles all went without a hitch and we arrived home on time, luggage and all.

We concluded the trip having seen 455 species of birds and 23 mammals, including four of the South American Big Five (Jaguar, Brazilian Tapir, Giant Otter and Giant Anteater, missing only Maned Wolf). The highlights were many, but a Harpy Eagle on the first morning and a Jaguar from a distance of 10 feet both rate as pretty unforgettable moments!

Species Lists

Complete list of all birds seen:
F: Alta Floresta (including Teles Pirres Landing)
C: Cristalino Jungle Lodge
P: Pantanal
G: Chapada dos Guimaraes (including Coxipo d’Ouro)
E: Emas NP

Greater Rhea (Rhea americana) P, G, E
Undulated Tinamou (Crypturellus undulates) P
Small-billed Tinamou (Crypturellus parvirostris) G
Red-winged Tinamou (Rhynchotus rufescens) E
Neotropic Cormorant (Phalacrocorax brasilianus) C, P
Anhinga (Anhinga anhinga) F, C, P
Whistling Heron (Syrigma sibilatrix) P, E
Capped Heron (Pilherodius pileatus) C, P
Cocoi Heron (Ardea cocoi) C, P
Great Egret (Ardea alba) C, P, E
Little Blue Heron (Egretta caerulea) P
Snowy Egret (Egretta thula) C, G, P
Cattle Egret (Bubulcus ibis) F, P, E
Striated Heron (Butorides striata) C, P
Black-crowned Night-Heron (Nycticorax nycticorax) P
Boat-billed Heron (Cochlearius cochlearius) C
Rufescent Tiger-Heron (Tigrisoma lineatum) C, P
Zigzag Heron (Zebrilus undulates) C
Least Bittern (Ixobrychus exilis) P
Wood Stork (Mycteria americana) C, P
Maguari Stork (Ciconia maguari) P
Jabiru (Jabiru mycteria) P
Plumbeous Ibis (Theristicus caerulescens) P
Buff-necked Ibis (Theristicus caudatus) P, E
Green Ibis (Mesembrinibis cayennensis) C, P, E
Bare-faced Ibis (Phimosus infuscatus) P
Roseate Spoonbill (Platalea ajaja) P
Horned Screamer (Anhima cornuta) Pedra Petra
Southern Screamer (Chauna torquata) P
Muscovy Duck (Cairina moschata) F, E
Brazilian Teal (Amazonetta brasiliensis) P
Black Vulture (Coragyps atratus) F, C, P, G, E
Turkey Vulture (Cathartes aura) P, G, E
Lesser Yellow-headed Vulture (Cathartes burrovianus) P, E
Greater Yellow-headed Vulture (Cathartes melambrotus) F, C
King Vulture (Sarcoramphus papa) C, G
Gray-headed Kite (Leptodon cayanensis) C
Swallow-tailed Kite (Elanoides forficatus) F, G
Pearl Kite (Gampsonyx swainsonii) F, E
White-tailed Kite (Elanus leucurus) E
Snail Kite (Rostrhamus sociabilis) F, P
Double-toothed Kite (Harpagus bidentatus) F, C
Plumbeous Kite (Ictinia plumbea) F, C, G, E
Long-winged Harrier (Circus buffoni) E
Crane Hawk (Geranospiza caerulescens) P, E
White-browed Hawk (Leucopternis kuhli) F
Great Black-Hawk (Buteogallus urubitinga) C, P
Savanna Hawk (Buteogallus meridionalis) P, G, E
Black-collared Hawk (Busarellus nigricollis) P
Roadside Hawk (Buteo magnirostris) F, P, G
Short-tailed Hawk (Buteo brachyurus) F
White-tailed Hawk (Buteo albicaudatus) E
Harpy Eagle (Harpia harpyja) F
Black Hawk-Eagle (Spizaetus tyrannus) C
Ornate Hawk-Eagle (Spizaetus ornatus) G
Black Caracara (Daptrius ater) C
Red-throated Caracara (Ibycter americanus) C
Southern Caracara (Caracara plancus) F, P, G, E
Yellow-headed Caracara (Milvago chimachima) P, G, E
Laughing Falcon (Herpetotheres cachinnans) P
Cryptic Forest-Falcon (Micrastur mintoni) C
Slaty-backed Forest-Falcon (Micrastur mirandollei) C
American Kestrel (Falco sparverius) P, G, E
Aplomado Falcon (Falco femoralis) P, E
Bat Falcon (Falco rufigularis) C, G
Chaco Chachalaca (Ortalis canicollis) P
Spix's Guan (Penelope jacquacu) F
Chestnut-bellied Guan (Penelope ochrogaster) P
Blue-throated Piping-Guan (Pipile cumanensis) P
Red-throated Piping-Guan (Pipile cujubi) F, C, P
Razor-billed Curassow (Mitu tuberosum) C
Bare-faced Curassow (Crax fasciolata) C, P
Limpkin (Aramus guarauna) P
Dark-winged Trumpeter (Psophia viridis) C
Gray-necked Wood-Rail (Aramides cajanea) C, P
Purple Gallinule (Porphyrio martinica) P
Sungrebe (Heliornis fulica) C, P
Sunbittern (Eurypyga helias) C, P
Red-legged Seriema (Cariama cristata) P, G, E
Wattled Jacana (Jacana jacana) F, P, G
White-backed Stilt (Himantopus melanurus) P
Pied Lapwing (Vanellus cayanus) C
Southern Lapwing (Vanellus chilensis) F, C, P, G, E
Solitary Sandpiper (Tringa solitaria) P
Large-billed Tern (Phaetusa simplex) C, P
Black Skimmer (Rhynchops nigra) Pedra Petra
Scaled Pigeon (Patagioenas speciosa) G
Picazuro Pigeon (Patagioenas picazuro) P, G, E
Pale-vented Pigeon (Patagioenas cayennensis) P, G, E
Eared Dove (Zenaida auriculata) E
Ruddy Ground-Dove (Columbina talpacoti) F, P, E
Picui Ground-Dove (Columbina picui) P
Scaled Dove (Columbina squammata) P, E
Blue Ground-Dove (Claravis pretiosa) C
Long-tailed Ground-Dove (Uropelia campestris) P
White-tipped Dove (Leptotila verreauxi) P
Gray-fronted Dove (Leptotila rufaxilla) E
Ruddy Quail-Dove (Geotrygon montana) C
Hyacinth Macaw (Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus) P
Blue-and-yellow Macaw (Ara ararauna) F, C, E
Scarlet Macaw (Ara macao) F, C
Red-and-green Macaw (Ara chloropterus) F, C, G
Chestnut-fronted Macaw (Ara severus) F, C
Red-bellied Macaw (Orthopsittaca manilata) F
Blue-winged Macaw (Primolius maracana) G
Golden-collared Macaw (Primolius auricollis) P
Red-shouldered Macaw (Diopsittaca nobilis) E
Blue-crowned Parakeet (Aratinga acuticaudata) P
White-eyed Parakeet (Aratinga leucophthalma) F, C, P, G
Peach-fronted Parakeet (Aratinga aurea) P, G, E
Nanday Parakeet (Nandayus nenday) P
Crimson-bellied Parakeet (Pyrrhura perlata) F
Hellmayr's Parakeet (Pyrrhura amazonum) F, C
Monk Parakeet (Myiopsitta monachus) P
Dusky-billed Parrotlet (Forpus sclateri) C
Yellow-chevroned Parakeet (Brotogeris chiriri) P, G
Golden-winged Parakeet (Brotogeris chrysoptera) C
White-bellied Parrot (Pionites leucogaster) C
Orange-cheeked Parrot (Pionopsitta barrabandi) C
Blue-headed Parrot (Pionus menstruus) F, C, G, E
Scaly-headed Parrot (Pionus maximiliani) P
Yellow-faced Parrot (Amazona xanthops) E
Turquoise-fronted Parrot (Amazona aestiva) P, E
Yellow-crowned Parrot (Amazona ochrocephala) F
Kawall's Parrot (Amazona kawalli) C
Orange-winged Parrot (Amazona amazonica) P
Red-fan Parrot (Deroptyus accipitrinus) F
Squirrel Cuckoo (Piaya cayana) F, C, P, G
Black-bellied Cuckoo (Piaya melanogaster) C
Little Cuckoo (Piaya minuta) P
Smooth-billed Ani (Crotophaga ani) F, P, E
Guira Cuckoo (Guira guira) P, G, E
Pheasant Cuckoo (Dromococcyx phasianellus) G
Pavonine Cuckoo (Dromococcyx pavoninus) C, G
Barn Owl (Tyto alba) E
Great Horned Owl (Bubo virginianus) P
Ferruginous Pygmy-Owl (Glaucidium brasilianum) P
Burrowing Owl (Athene cunicularia) P, G, E
Striped Owl (Pseudoscops clamator) F
Great Potoo (Nyctibius grandis) C, P
Common Potoo (Nyctibius griseus) C, P, G
Short-tailed Nighthawk (Lurocalis semitorquatus) C
Least Nighthawk (Chordeiles pusillus) G, E
Nacunda Nighthawk (Podager nacunda) P, E
Band-tailed Nighthawk (Nyctiprogne leucopyga) P
Pauraque (Nyctidromus albicollis) C, P, E
White-winged Nightjar (Caprimulgus candicans) E
Blackish Nightjar (Caprimulgus nigrescens) F, C
Ladder-tailed Nightjar (Hydropsalis climacocerca) C
Scissor-tailed Nightjar (Hydropsalis torquata) G
Gray-rumped Swift (Chaetura cinereiventris) C, E
Pale-rumped Swift (Chaetura egregia) C
Fork-tailed Palm-Swift (Tachornis squamata) F, E
Planalto Hermit (Phaethornis pretrei) E
Buff-bellied Hermit (Phaethornis subochraceus) P
Little (Tapajós) Hermit (Phaethornis longuemareus aethopyga) C
Gray-breasted Sabrewing (Campylopterus largipennis) C
Swallow-tailed Hummingbird (Campylopterus macrourus) G, E
White-vented Violet-ear (Colibri serrirostris) G, E
Black-throated Mango (Anthracothorax nigricollis) F, C
Glittering-bellied Emerald (Chlorostilbon aureoventris) G
Fork-tailed Woodnymph (Thalurania furcata) F, C, P, G, E
Rufous-throated Sapphire (Hylocharis sapphirina) G
White-tailed Goldenthroat (Polytmus guainumbi) P
Glittering-throated Emerald (Polyerata fimbriata) P, G
Black-eared Fairy (Heliothryx auritus) C
Horned Sungem (Heliactin bilophus) G
Long-billed Starthroat (Heliomaster longirostris) C
Blue-tufted Starthroat (Heliomaster furcifer) P
White-tailed Trogon (Trogon viridis) F, C
Collared Trogon (Trogon collaris) C, G
Blue-crowned Trogon (Trogon curucui) P, G
Black-tailed Trogon (Trogon melanurus) C
Ringed Kingfisher (Ceryle torquatus) F, C, P
Amazon Kingfisher (Chloroceryle amazona) F, C, P
Green Kingfisher (Chloroceryle americana) C, P
Green-and-rufous Kingfisher (Chloroceryle inda) C, P
American Pygmy Kingfisher (Chloroceryle aenea) C, P
Blue-crowned Motmot (Momotus momota) C, G
Brown Jacamar (Brachygalba lugubris) C
Blue-necked Jacamar (Galbula cyanicollis) C
Rufous-tailed Jacamar (Galbula ruficauda) C, P, G, E
Paradise Jacamar (Galbula dea) C
Brown-banded Puffbird (Notharchus ordii) C
Pied Puffbird (Notharchus tectus) C
White-eared Puffbird (Nystalus chacuru) G
Spot-backed Puffbird (Nystalus maculates) G
Black-fronted Nunbird (Monasa nigrifrons) F, C, P, G
White-fronted Nunbird (Monasa morphoeus) C
Swallow-wing (Chelidoptera tenebrosa) C
Black-girdled Barbet (Capito dayi) C
Lettered Aracari (Pteroglossus inscriptus) C
Red-necked Aracari (Pteroglossus bitorquatus) F, C
Chestnut-eared Aracari (Pteroglossus castanotis) F, C, P, G
Curl-crested Aracari (Pteroglossus beauharnaesii) C
Gould's Toucanet (Selenidera gouldii) C
Cuvier’s Toucan (Ramphastos tucanus) C
Toco Toucan (Ramphastos toco) P, G, E
White-wedged Piculet (Picumnus albosquamatus) P, E
White Woodpecker (Melanerpes candidus) P
Yellow-tufted Woodpecker (Melanerpes cruentatus) F, C, G
Checkered Woodpecker (Picoides mixtus) G
Little Woodpecker (Veniliornis passerinus) P
Red-stained Woodpecker (Veniliornis affinis) F, C
Golden-green Woodpecker (Piculus chrysochloros) P
Green-barred Woodpecker (Colaptes melanochloros) P
Campo Flicker (Colaptes campestris) P, G, E
Scaly-breasted Woodpecker (Celeus grammicus) C
Pale-crested Woodpecker (Celeus lugubris) P, G, E
Cream-colored Woodpecker (Celeus flavus) C
Lineated Woodpecker (Dryocopus lineatus) F, E
Crimson-crested Woodpecker (Campephilus melanoleucos) P
Campo Miner (Geobates poecilopterus) E
Pale-legged Hornero (Furnarius leucopus) P
Rufous Hornero (Furnarius rufus) P, G, E
Chotoy Spinetail (Schoeniophylax phryganophilus) P
Pale-breasted Spinetail (Synallaxis albescens) G
White-lored Spinetail (Synallaxis albilora) P
Rusty-backed Spinetail (Cranioleuca vulpina) P, E
Yellow-chinned Spinetail (Certhiaxis cinnamomeus) P
Rufous-fronted Thornbird (Phacellodomus rufifrons) P
Greater Thornbird (Phacellodomus ruber) P, E
Gray-crested Cacholote (Pseudoseisura unirufa) P
Point-tailed Palmcreeper (Berlepschia rikeri) F
Striped Woodhaunter (Hyloctistes subulatus) C
Chestnut-winged Hookbill (Ancistrops strigilatus) C
Rufous-tailed Foliage-gleaner (Philydor ruficaudatum) C
Buff-fronted Foliage-gleaner (Philydor rufum) G
Planalto Foliage-gleaner (Philydor dimidiatum) E
Buff-throated Foliage-gleaner (Automolus ochrolaemus) C
Pará Foliage-gleaner (Automolus paraensis) C
White-chinned Woodcreeper (Dendrocincla merula) C
Olivaceous Woodcreeper (Sittasomus griseicapillus) C, P, E
Cinnamon-throated Woodcreeper (Dendrexetastes rufigula) F
Great Rufous Woodcreeper (Xiphocolaptes major) P
Amazonian Barred-Woodcreeper (Dendrocolaptes certhia) F
Planalto Woodcreeper (Dendrocolaptes platyrostris) P, G, E
Buff-throated Woodcreeper (Xiphorhynchus guttatus) P
Dusky-billed Woodcreeper (Xiphorhynchus guttatus eytoni) F
Straight-billed Woodcreeper (Dendroplex picus) C, P
Narrow-billed Woodcreeper (Lepidocolaptes angustirostris) P, G
Red-billed Scythebill (Campylorhamphus trochilirostris) P
Fasciated Antshrike (Cymbilaimus lineatus) C
Great Antshrike (Taraba major) P
Glossy Antshrike (Sakesphorus luctuosus) C
Barred Antshrike (Thamnophilus doliatus) P, E
White-shouldered Antshrike (Thamnophilus aethiops) F
Plain-winged Antshrike (Thamnophilus schistaceus) C
Natterer's Slaty-Antshrike (Thamnophilus stictocephalus) C
Planalto Slaty-Antshrike (Thamnophilus pelzelni) P
Amazonian Antshrike (Thamnophilus amazonicus) C
Rufous-winged Antshrike (Thamnophilus torquatus) G
Spot-winged Antshrike (Pygiptila stellaris) C
Plain Antvireo (Dysithamnus mentalis) P
Saturnine Antshrike (Thamnomanes saturninus) C
Cinereous Antshrike (Thamnomanes caesius) C
Pygmy Antwren (Myrmotherula brachyura) F, C
Amazonian Streaked Antwren (Myrmotherula multostriata) C
Long-winged Antwren (Myrmotherula longipennis) C
Gray Antwren (Myrmotherula menetriesii) C
Large-billed Antwren (Herpsilochmus longirostris) P, G
Dot-winged (Emilia’s) Antwren (Microrhopias quixensis emiliae) C
Black-bellied Antwren (Formicivora melanogaster) P
Rusty-backed Antwren (Formicivora rufa) P, G, E
Gray Antbird (Cercomacra cinerascens) C
Blackish Antbird (Cercomacra nigrescens) C
Mato Grosso Antbird (Cercomacra melanaria) P
White-backed Fire-eye (Pyriglena leuconota) G
White-browed Antbird (Myrmoborus leucophrys) C
Black-faced Antbird (Myrmoborus myotherinus) C
Band-tailed Antbird (Hypocnemoides maculicauda) C, P
Bare-eyed Antbird (Rhegmatorhina gymnops) C
Spot-backed Antbird (Hylophylax naevius) C
Collared Crescent-chest (Melanopareia torquata) E
White-browed Purpletuft (Iodopleura isabellae) C
Screaming Piha (Lipaugus vociferans) C
Spangled Cotinga (Cotinga cayana) C
Pompadour Cotinga (Xipholena punicea) C
Bare-necked Fruitcrow (Gymnoderus foetidus) C
Blue-backed Manakin (Chiroxiphia pareola) F
Red-headed Manakin (Pipra rubrocapilla) C
Band-tailed Manakin (Pipra fasciicauda) C, G
White-crowned Manakin (Dixiphia pipra) C
Snow-capped Manakin (Lepidothrix nattereri) C
Helmeted Manakin (Antilophia galeata) P, E
Flame-crested Manakin (Heterocercus linteatus) C
Dwarf Tyrant-Manakin (Tyranneutes stolzmanni) C
Wing-barred Piprites (Piprites chloris) C
White-lored Tyrannulet (Ornithion inerme) C
Southern Beardless-Tyrannulet (Camptostoma obsoletum) C, P, E
Forest Elaenia (Myiopagis gaimardii) C, P, G
Gray Elaenia (Myiopagis caniceps) C
Yellow-bellied Elaenia (Elaenia flavogaster) G, E
White-crested Elaenia (Elaenia albiceps) G
Plain-crested Elaenia (Elaenia cristata) G
Highland Elaenia (Elaenia obscura) E
Gray-hooded Flycatcher (Mionectes rufiventris) G
Sepia-capped Flycatcher (Leptopogon amaurocephalus) G
Planalto Tyrannulet (Phyllomyias fasciatus) G
Chapada Flycatcher (Suiriri islerorum) G
Plain Tyrannulet (Inezia inornata) P
Amazonian Tyrannulet (Inezia subflava) C
Sharp-tailed Grass-Tyrant (Culicivora caudacuta) E
Bearded Tachuri (Polystictus pectoralis) E
Tawny-crowned Pygmy-Tyrant (Euscarthmus meloryphus) P
Rufous-sided Pygmy-Tyrant (Euscarthmus rufomarginatus) G
Short-tailed Pygmy-Tyrant (Myiornis ecaudatus) F
Helmeted Pygmy-Tyrant (Lophotriccus galeatus) C
Rusty-fronted Tody-Flycatcher (Poecilotriccus latirostris) P, G
Stripe-necked Tody-Tyrant (Hemitriccus striaticollis) P
Pearly-vented Tody-Tyrant (Hemitriccus margaritaceiventer) P
Spotted Tody-Flycatcher (Todirostrum maculatum) C
Common Tody-Flycatcher (Todirostrum cinereum) E
Southern Antpipit (Corythopis delalandi) G
Yellow-olive Flycatcher (Tolmomyias sulphurescens) P, G
Yellow-breasted Flycatcher (Tolmomyias flaviventris) C
Bran-colored Flycatcher (Myiophobus fasciatus) E
Cliff (Swallow) Flycatcher (Hirundinea ferruginea bellicosa) G
Fuscous Flycatcher (Cnemotriccus fuscatus) P
Euler's Flycatcher (Lathrotriccus euleri) C
Vermilion Flycatcher (Pyrocephalus rubinus) C, P, E
Drab Water-Tyrant (Ochthornis littoralis) C
Gray Monjita (Xolmis cinereus) G, E
White-rumped Monjita (Xolmis velatus) P, E
Little Ground-Tyrant (Muscisaxicola fluviatilis) C
Black-backed Water-Tyrant (Fluvicola albiventer) P
White-headed Marsh-Tyrant (Arundinicola leucocephala) P
Cock-tailed Tyrant (Alectrurus tricolor) E
Streamer-tailed Tyrant (Gubernetes yetapa) E
Long-tailed Tyrant (Colonia colonus) P, E
Cattle Tyrant (Machetornis rixosa) P, E
Rufous-tailed Attila (Attila phoenicurus) C
Cinnamon Attila (Attila cinnamomeus) F
Rufous Casiornis (Casiornis rufa) C, P, E
Swainson's Flycatcher (Myiarchus swainsoni) E
Short-crested Flycatcher (Myiarchus ferox) P
Brown-crested Flycatcher (Myiarchus tyrannulus) C, P, G, E
Lesser Kiskadee (Philohydor lictor) P
Great Kiskadee (Pitangus sulphuratus) F, C, P, G, E
Boat-billed Flycatcher (Megarynchus pitangua) F, C, G
Rusty-margined Flycatcher (Myiozetetes cayanensis) F, C, P, E
Streaked Flycatcher (Myiodynastes maculatus) P
Piratic Flycatcher (Legatus leucophaius) C
Variegated Flycatcher (Empidonomus varius) C
Crowned Slaty Flycatcher (Griseotyrannus aurantioatrocristatus) C
Sulphury Flycatcher (Tyrannopsis sulphurea) F
White-throated Kingbird (Tyrannus albogularis) C, E
Tropical Kingbird (Tyrannus melancholicus) C, P
Fork-tailed Flycatcher (Tyrannus savana) C, P, E
White-naped Xenopsaris (Xenopsaris albinucha) C
Green-backed Becard (Pachyramphus viridis) P, G
Crested Becard (Pachyramphus validus) G
Masked Tityra (Tityra semifasciata) C, G
Black-crowned Tityra (Tityra inquisitor) C, P
Brown-chested Martin (Progne tapera) P
Gray-breasted Martin (Progne chalybea) F, C, P
White-winged Swallow (Tachycineta albiventer) C, P
White-rumped Swallow (Tachycineta leucorrhoa) E
White-banded Swallow (Atticora fasciata) C
Black-collared Swallow (Atticora melanoleuca) C
Southern Rough-winged Swallow (Stelgidopteryx ruficollis) F, C, P, G, E
Barn Swallow (Hirundo rustica) F
Yellowish Pipit (Anthus lutescens) P
Black-capped Donacobius (Donacobius atricapilla) P
Thrush-like Wren (Campylorhynchus turdinus) F, P, G
Tooth-billed Wren (Odontorchilus cinereus) C
Moustached Wren (Thryothorus genibarbis) P
Buff-breasted Wren (Thryothorus leucotis) P
Fawn-breasted Wren (Thryothorus guarayanus) P
House Wren (Troglodytes aedon) F
Chalk-browed Mockingbird (Mimus saturninus) P, G, E
Rufous-bellied Thrush (Turdus rufiventris) P, G
Pale-breasted Thrush (Turdus leucomelas) G, E
Creamy-bellied Thrush (Turdus amaurochalinus) P, E
Hauxwell's Thrush (Turdus hauxwelli) C
Long-billed Gnatwren (Ramphocaenus melanurus) C
Masked Gnatcatcher (Polioptila dumicola) P, E
Purplish Jay (Cyanocorax cyanomelas) P
Curl-crested Jay (Cyanocorax cristatellus) G, E
House Sparrow (Passer domesticus) P, G, E
Red-eyed (Chivi) Vireo (Vireo olivaceus chivi) C, G
Ashy-headed Greenlet (Hylophilus pectoralis) P
Rufous-browed Peppershrike (Cyclarhis gujanensis) F, P, G, E
Tropical Parula (Parula pitiayumi) P, G, E
Southern Masked Yellowthroat (Geothlypis aequinoctialis velata) E
White-bellied Warbler (Basileuterus hypoleucus) G
White-striped Warbler (Basileuterus leucophrys) E
Flavescent Warbler (Basileuterus flaveolus) P
Rose-breasted Chat (Granatellus pelzelni) C
Bananaquit (Coereba flaveola) C, P, G
Chestnut-vented Conebill (Conirostrum speciosum) P
Cinnamon Tanager (Schistochlamys ruficapillus) G
Black-faced Tanager (Schistochlamys melanopis) G
White-banded Tanager (Neothraupis fasciata) G, E
White-rumped Tanager (Cypsnagra hirundinacea) G, E
Red-billed Pied Tanager (Lamprospiza melanoleuca) C
Hooded Tanager (Nemosia pileata) P
Gray-headed Tanager (Eucometis penicillata) E
White-winged Shrike-Tanager (Lanio versicolor) C
Flame-crested Tanager (Tachyphonus cristatus) C, G
White-shouldered Tanager (Tachyphonus luctuosus) G
White-lined Tanager (Tachyphonus rufus) P, G
Silver-beaked Tanager (Ramphocelus carbo) C, P, G
Blue-gray Tanager (Thraupis episcopus) F
Sayaca Tanager (Thraupis sayaca) P, G
Palm Tanager (Thraupis palmarum) F, C, P, E
Purple-throated Euphonia (Euphonia chlorotica) C, P, G, E
Thick-billed Euphonia (Euphonia laniirostris) C, G, E
White-lored Euphonia (Euphonia chrysopasta) C
Rufous-bellied Euphonia (Euphonia rufiventris) C
Turquoise Tanager (Tangara mexicana) C
Paradise Tanager (Tangara chilensis) F
Bay-headed Tanager (Tangara gyrola) C
Burnished-buff Tanager (Tangara cayana) G, E
Masked Tanager (Tangara nigrocincta) C
Black-faced Dacnis (Dacnis lineata) C
Yellow-bellied Dacnis (Dacnis flaviventer) C
Blue Dacnis (Dacnis cayana) C, P, G, E
Red-legged Honeycreeper (Cyanerpes cyaneus) E
Swallow-Tanager (Tersina viridis) C, G, E
Coal-crested Finch (Charitospiza eucosma) G
Red-pileated Finch (Coryphospingus cucullatus) P, G
Blue-black Grassquit (Volatinia jacarina) F, C, P, G, E
Plumbeous Seedeater (Sporophila plumbea) G, E
Rusty-collared Seedeater (Sporophila collaris) P
Yellow-bellied Seedeater (Sporophila nigricollis) F
Double-collared Seedeater (Sporophila caerulescens) E
White-bellied Seedeater (Sporophila leucoptera) P
Chestnut-bellied Seed-Finch (Oryzoborus angolensis) P
Saffron Finch (Sicalis flaveola) P, E
Wedge-tailed Grass-Finch (Emberizoides herbicola) E
Lesser Grass-Finch (Emberizoides ypiranganus) E
Red-crested Cardinal (Paroaria coronata) P
Red-capped Cardinal (Paroaria gularis) F, C
Yellow-billed Cardinal (Paroaria capitata) P
Pectoral Sparrow (Arremon taciturnus) C
Grassland Sparrow (Ammodramus humeralis) P, G, E
Rufous-collared Sparrow (Zonotrichia capensis) P
Grayish Saltator (Saltator coerulescens) P
Buff-throated Saltator (Saltator maximus) G
Green-winged Saltator (Saltator similis) G, E
Black-throated Saltator (Saltator atricollis) P, G, E
Unicolored Blackbird (Agelasticus cyanopus) P
White-browed Blackbird (Sturnella superciliaris) E
Bay-winged Cowbird (Molothrus badius) P
Shiny Cowbird (Molothrus bonariensis) P, E
Giant Cowbird (Molothrus oryzivorus) P
Epaulet Oriole (Icterus cayanensis) P
Orange-backed Troupial (Icterus croconotus) P
Yellow-rumped Cacique (Cacicus cela) C, P, G
Solitary Cacique (Cacicus solitarius) P
Crested Oropendola (Psarocolius decumanus) F, C, P
Amazonian Oropendola (Gymnostinops bifasciatus) C
Yellow-rumped Marshbird (Pseudoleistes guirahuro) E
Scarlet-headed Blackbird (Amblyramphus holosericeus) P
Chopi Blackbird (Gnorimopsar chopi) P, G, E

Giant Anteater (Myrmecophaga tridactyla) P, E
Southern Tamandua (Tamandua tetradactyla) P
Forest Rabbit (Tapeti) (Sylvilagus brasiliensis) P
Azara's Agouti (Dasyprocta azarae) P
Brazilian (Red-rumped) Agouti (Dasyprocta leporina) F
Capybara (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris) F, C, P
Jaguar (Panthera onca) C
Hoary Fox (Lycalopex vetulus) E
Crab-eating Fox (Cerdocyon thous) P, E
Neotropical River Otter (Lutra longicaudis) C, P
Giant Otter (Pteronura brasiliensis) P
Striped Hog-nosed Skunk (Conepatus semistriatus) E
Tayra (Eira barbara) P
South American Coati (Nasua nasua) P
Crab-eating Raccoon (Procyon cancrivorus) P
Greater Bulldog Bat (Noctilio leporinus) P
Black-tailed (Silvery) Marmoset (Callithrix argentata) P
Brown Capuchin (Cebus apella) F, C, P
Black Howler Monkey (Alouatta caraya) P
Pampas Deer (Ozotoceros bezoarticus) G, E
Marsh Deer (Blastocerus dichotomus) P
Gray Brocket (Mazama gouazoupira) P
Brazilian (South American) Tapir (Tapirus terrestris) C, P, E