Mexico, Oaxaca and Southern Veracruz - March 08

Published by Paul van Els (paulvanels AT

Participants: Vince Cavalieri (author), Sjoerd Radstaak, Paul van Els, Jason Heinen


Photos with this report (click to enlarge)

Nava's Wren
Nava's Wren
Boucard's Wren
Boucard's Wren
Cinnamon Hummingbird
Cinnamon Hummingbird
Bridled Sparrow
Bridled Sparrow
Colima Pygmy-Owl
Colima Pygmy-Owl
Golden-cheeked Woodpecker
Golden-cheeked Woodpecker
White Hawk
White Hawk
Doubleday's Hummingbird
Doubleday's Hummingbird
Citreoline Trogon
Citreoline Trogon

This trip to Oaxaca was highly successful. We saw 331 species, with many endemics recorded, including several Nava’s Wrens, Sumichrast’s Wren, Dwarf Jay, Sumichrast’s Sparrow, White-striped Woodcreeper, Rosita’s Bunting, Ocellated Thrasher, Gray-crowned Woodpecker and Colima Pygmy-Owl. Other spectacular species include Gray-throated Chat, Chestnut-sided Shrike-Vireo, Aplomado Falcon, White Hawk, South Polar Skua, Greater Swallow-tailed Swift & Mexican Antthrush. March seems a perfect time to visit this most diverse corner of Mexico, since migratory birds were abundant wherever we went.

Certainly, there is much to be discovered in Oaxaca, since we found several Rosita’s Buntings at a previously unvisited site, as well as a good selection of pelagic species off Zipolite, which with more observation hours will doubtlessly increase. Photos and sound recordings were taken of Nava’s Wren and other species. Sound recordings from the trip, including call notes of Nava’s Wren can be found on For more information e-mail us:, or

Oaxaca First Impressions or Bienvenidos a México: 3-14-08

Flying into Oaxaca City, the whole valley appeared quite arid, with large mountains surrounding the valley in all directions. After picking up the rental car at the airport we birded briefly in some nearby trees, picking up 3 species of tanagers, several migrant warblers, and a pair of Vermillion Flycatchers. We then found a small park near the airport where we picked up our first Mexican endemic, Dusky Hummingbird (1). We also added many other species to our birding trip list, including White-collared Seed-eater and Black Phoebe. We then birded a seemingly abandoned property full of garbage, adjacent to a sewage canal. To our surprise we were soon confronted by the owner for being on his property! As soon as he understood that we were birders, he was fine with the situation. As dusk fell we drove down to the Zócalo (main square) to look for a hotel. The whole area was jammed pack with people, shopping and just hanging around. The traffic was simply horrendous. Eventually we decided to head south of the Zócalo and quickly found a hotel for the night. We had a quick bite to eat at a nearby taquería and bought some supplies at a cool open air market. After reading descriptions of Oaxaca City as a “tired” or “sleepy” town we were somewhat surprised at the level of activity. Thousands of people walked the streets enjoying their Friday night, and traffic did not let up until well into the next morning. We found everyone that we talked to friendly however, and people seemed willing to joke around with us.

Un Día en el Valle de Oaxaca: 3-15-08

We started the morning at 4:45 am, quickly heading out for Monte Albán after deciding to stay for another night at our hotel, La Posada de Belén. It actually wasn’t very hard to find Monte Albán, finding the road up narrow and winding. As we expected we found the gate locked until the official opening time of 8:00 am. So we started hiking up the hill at about 5:30. Dawn birding proved successful, hearing a strange bird calling that we would later determine was a Buff-collared Nightjar. As the sun was coming up bird song increased dramatically. We picked up a couple of Mexican endemics right away with Blue Mockingbird (2-3) and White-throated Towhee (very common). We also heard several Ocellated Thrashers and Paul got a quick glimpse of one, but that would be the only sighting of this much wanted species on this day. For the next few hours birding was fairly slow and frustrating, missing several much wanted endemics though I still picked up several cool lifers, including Mangrove Swallow and Rufous-capped Warbler. For lunch we ate at the small restaurant in the Monte Albán visitor center, it was quite good and we ate plenty of delicious Oaxaca cheese. After buying a few souvenirs for significant others back home from the local people selling goods outside the ruins, we decided to go birding amongst the ancient tombs and temples of Monte Albán. Before entering the park proper, we picked up a Pileated Flycatcher (1) on a nearby trail. The Monte Albán official at the gate noticed our optics and cameras and turned out to be a wildlife enthusiast. He told us that he wanted to get Monte Albán designated as some sort of wildlife refuge and said we could enter for free if we promised to e-mail him some bird photographs. Inside the ruins birding was somewhat slow as the day was starting to get pretty hot. However we had both Canyon and Rock Wrens singing from the ruins, and more Dusky Hummingbirds, along with a large number of Empidonax and Myiarchus Flycatchers. Near one of the tombs a Zapotec man explained to us about several of the more interesting features of Monte Albán, including the local variation of the famous Meso-American ball game, common to many of the local cultures. Near the entrance to Monte Albán, we saw two distant Gray-breasted Woodpeckers as well as a Dwarf Vireo in a low shrub. Jason heard a song that turned out to be the Mexican endemic Boucard’s Wren (2). The pair was acting territorial and came in close enough for photographs.

After leaving Monte Alban we decided to try the famous weaving town of Teotitlán del Valle. Our first stop here was near a small reservoir several kilometers beyond the town, which hosted a number of water birds, including high numbers of Ruddy Ducks and Least Grebes. This spot also gave up some of the only shorebirds encountered on the trip. A large flower bed here also proved quite productive for hummingbirds. Several kilometers up the road we pulled over at a turn-off and with a little hiking located several endemics, including Bridled Sparrow (4-5), Oaxaca Sparrow (4), and heard another Ocellated Thrasher(1). Some nocturnal birding here produced Mexican Whip-poor-will and Buff-collared Nightjar.

Over the Mountains, Cerro San Felipe: 3-16-08

After an early departure from our hotel in Oaxaca City, we began our long and winding ascent into the Sierra Madre de Mihuatlán. We reached La Cumbre shortly after dawn and found a man to let us through the gate for the standard fee. After finding the recommended turn-off at the 2 km mark we parked the car and started walking up the road. Good birding started almost immediately as we ran into a mixed flock of Mexican Chickadees and migrant warblers these included Hermit’s, Townsend’s and Tennessee’s, and a lone Chestnut-capped Brush-Finch. We also saw many Painted Redstarts and Slate-throated Restarts, along with the interesting Black-eared form of Bushtit. Soon thereafter we found and photographed the Mexican endemic Red Warbler (5), surely one of the most beautiful of the Wood-warblers.

I personally enjoyed the habitat at La Cumbre very much, with mixed oaks and pines, all draped in mosses and bromeliads with the occasional fir tree thrown in, it was strange to see fir trees, much like those in my native Michigan, down here in the tropics! We continued birding up the road, viewing beautiful mountain vistas, listening to the haunting song of the Brown-backed Solitaire, watching Gray Silky-Flycatchers flying through the skies and Yellow-eyed Juncos hopping on the ground.

We also enjoyed listening to and getting brief looks at Mountain Trogon (2). After reaching a fork in the road, we decided to head down one for a short distance and while down there, watching Crescent-chested and Red Warblers we ran into the only others birders we met in the field during the entire trip and much to Paul and Sjoerd’s surprise they were also from the Netherlands! Heading back down towards the car at around noon, we were afraid we had missed our chance for several wanted species, but after hearing a few Steller’s Jays calling from the edge of a power line corridor, we were all of a sudden surprised by several calling Dwarf Jays (4-5) flying by! We scrambled up the hillside in search of better looks and also found a large number of Gray-barred Wrens (20) in with the Steller’s and Dwarf Jays. Jason soon located a Chestnut-sided Shrike-vireo (1) that unfortunately I was never able to see.

After heading back down to the car we started off for the rest of the journey over the mountains to the Atlantic Slope. The drive continued to be extremely winding and tortuous even in the valley between the two mountain ranges. A short stop at the “noisy metal bridge” mentioned by Howell produced a number of new species for the trip list including my life (and I believe the only one for the trip) Green Kingfisher. At the top of the next mountain range we stopped at a foggy Mirador were we saw our first Cinammon-bellied Flower-piercer (2) also began seeing one of the most common birds in high elevations here the Common Bush Tanager (4). The dusk chorus we heard near here was simply beautiful, with Black Robins, Slate-colored Solitaires and Nightingale-thrushes serenading us. When we finally reached Valle Nacional after our descent from the mountains we were all feeling somewhat sick and after suffering what was to be our only traffic accident (a broken drivers side mirror) of the trip, we decided to get two hotel rooms in the only hotel in town that still had vacancies.

First day on the Atlantic Slope, Valle Nacional: 3-17-08

We awoke early in Valle Nacional and immediately heard a calling Ferruginous Pygmy Owl, it was quickly located by Sjoerd and Paul and we got excellent looks in the spotlight. After departing from the hotel, we went back up towards the mountains. We started getting nice tropical birds at the first placed we stopped near kilometer marker 75. This included both Spectacled Foliage-gleaner (1) and Buff-throated Foliage-gleaner (2). Other interesting/cool species at this location included Blue-headed Euphonia (2), Collared Aracari (3) and Slaty-tailed Trogon (1). We also had our first Golden-browed Warbler (1) of the trip here. The habitat here was decidedly more “tropical” looking than at La Cumbre, with large tree ferns, and many different species of trees. We headed up near KM marker 84, where we added Flame-colored Tanager (2), Amethyst-throated Hummingbird (1) and a flyby Dusky Antbird (1). We stopped at a small village called La Esperanza near Kilometer marker 80 to eat lunch. After birding here for a short while and seeing a Cinnamon-bellied Flowerpiercer pierce a flower, as well as a Wedge-tailed Sabrewing (1); we were told we needed to leave the district for unknown reasons. Driving back towards Valle Nacional we stopped at a trail near the Río Valle Nacional where we found nice numbers of migrant warblers, as well as both Scrub and Yellow-throated Euphonias, White-bellied Wren and an unexpected Lucifer Hummingbird. We also saw our first parrots for the trip Aztec Parakeets (5). After this we made our way towards Tuxtepec, finding the drive trough the lowlands a relief after the grueling trip through the mountains the day before. Tuxtepec turned out to be a nice city and we found a hotel almost immediately. After a small dinner we got some beer and enjoyed them while sitting on a balcony on the back or our hotel that overlooked the river. Here Sjoerd saw a Snail Kite (1), and we also saw an Aplomado Falcon (1) following the course of the river. After some attempted nocturnal birding that didn’t produce anything, we enjoyed some delicious hamburgers in the Zócalo and returned to our hotel for the night.

Humid tropical Lowlands and Rainforest, Tuxtepec and Uxpanapa: 3-18-08

We woke up early and headed to the recommended birding location south and west of town, arriving at dawn. After checking for waterbirds in Presa Miguel Aleman, we headed up steep limestone karst hill to look for one of our main target birds, Sumichrast’s Wren. We found the hill heavily deforested and planted with various crops. Eventually we did hear a Sumichrast’s Wren (1), but were never able to see it. We did however see some other nice birds on the hill, including Little Hermit (1), Masked Tityra (2), Rufous-breasted Spinetail (1), Band-backed Wren (4-5), and heard Plain Chachalacas. After checking out the hill we decided to head back in the direction of Tuxtepec to check some areas of secondary forest and agriculture for some roadside birds. As we birded our way back we picked up my first Squirrel Cuckoo and also saw another Aplomado Falcon. We also saw both Grayish (1) and Buff-throated Saltators (1), along with Brown Jays and other common lowland birds.

In the afternoon we decided to make the long trek to Uxpanapa road, having to drive through portions of adjacent Veracruz on the way. Though, the drive was long it was relatively straight and flat, with only the occasional giant speed bump to slow us down. We found Uxpanapa Road has now been paved all the way to the large bridge, which made the 41 km from the main highway fly by, even if there are still a few huge pot holes. The habitat along the road is severely degraded up until 4 or so KM before the bridge but from that point until the bridge the forest is still relatively intact, though there are numerous trails and even some clearings near the road. The large amounts of limestone cliffs and boulders in this area seem to be saving it for now. As dusk neared we concentrated our birding on one particular trail leading south into the forest about one east of the bridge. This trail leads into a relatively large clearing with some planted banana and papaya trees. The edge of the clearing proved quite birding as we found lekking White-bellied Emeralds (5), heard a Crested Guan (1), and while I was trying to track that bird down the other guys spotted a Violaceous Trogon (1). We then move back towards the car, hearing Mexican Ant-thrush (1) on the way, and spying Red-throated Ant-tanagers (4) and flyover White-fronted Parrots (3). While listening to the haunting calls of Slaty-breasted (2) and Thicket Tinamous (1), we heard a strange screaming noise, which upon investigation turned out to be a troop of Central American Spider Monkeys!

Rainforest!, Uxpanapa Road and then, let’s head for the Pacific; 3-19-08

After and interesting night at the hotel in Piedras Blancas, we got an early start and arrived at the good habitat at Uxpanapa slightly after dawn. We decided to head down the trail towards the large clearing that we had birded the day before. After getting out of the car we immediately started to get good birds. We heard both a Black-headed Trogon (1) and the distinctive Campephilus double knock of the Pale-billed Woodpecker (1). After only a short distance and after having been distracted by some of the same birds we saw the night before, Paul realized that the source of some call notes we had been ignoring was a NAVA’S WREN! We were all able to get excellent looks at this very rare, localized and hard to see endemic. We ended up seeing or hearing 3-4 Nava’s Wrens, at this location.

After this the birds just kept coming, first picking up a canopy flock including the Beautiful, Black-faced Grosbeak (5), White-winged Tanager (2), and Red-legged Honeycreeper (1). On the way to the clearing we saw a Streak-headed Woodcreeper and a Rose-throated Becard. In the clearing we picked up Montezuma Oropendola (1), Keel-billed Toucan (2), Black-headed Saltator and a beautiful male Golden-hooded Tanager (1).

We continued to have flyover parrots; these included White-crowned Parrots, Mealy Parrots and White-fronted Parrots. As we headed back towards the car I finally got excellent looks at some Bananaquits (4). We then headed to the river to see what kind of birds were still moving in the secondary growth near the river. It was overcast and a bit rainy which I think extended the period of activity for many of the birds. Upon arrival near the bridge we walked along a trail right along the river. One of the first birds we spotted was our old Oklahoma friend, the Scissor-tailed Flycatcher. There were also numerous Mangrove and Rough-winged Swallows flying over the river. Soon we saw a pair of Amazon Kingfishers patrolling along the river.

Other trip firsts at the spot included a flyover Bat Falcon, and some very cooperative Barred Antshrikes, including a beautiful male who posed right above us while singing. An interesting occurrence at the spot was Paul finding a very large, dead Indigo Snake. After placing the snake out onto a rock, it was soon mobbed by both an Ovenbird, and a Northern Waterthrush! On the way back across the road we ran into a Passerini’s Tanager.

Upon returning to the car, we found the weather still pretty conducive for keeping birds active so we decided to return to the clearing. On the way back in we got excellent looks at an Olivaceous Woodcreeper and also Blue-black Grosbeak. A bigger surprise awaited us back in the clearing itself however when Paul yelled out White Hawk!

On the way back to the car, Jason just randomly put up his binoculars and realized he was looking directly at a male Grey-throated Chat (1)! Eventually all of us got excellent views of this beautiful and highly unanticipated species.

Counting our time at Uxpanapa road a huge success, we decided to head towards Tehuantepec. Not wanting to totally waste the good birding time before dusk, we decided to bird a random side road into some nice dry forest on a hillside 15-20 km north of La Ventosa, near KM marker 229. To our surprise we almost immediately flushed a Citreoline Trogon (5-6), which proved to be quite common here and at other stops on dry Pacific slope. We soon also encountered other good Pacific slope birds, including White-throated Magpie-jays (10), Doubleday’s Hummingbird (3) and White-lored gnatcatcher (5).

The biggest surprise however was yet to come, after someone yelled out Orange-breasted Bunting, we all looked and realized it was instead a gorgeous male Rosita’s Bunting (5-7)! We continued to see this small flock of Rosita’s Buntings for awhile. We were very surprised as we thought we were going to miss this beautiful endemic, as the only place listed for it in Howell is quite a ways east of Tehuantepec, near the Chiapas border. Eventually we did see an Orange-breasted Bunting and also several Stripe-headed Sparrows. After an excellent day where we counted 104 species, our best one day total for the trip, we got a hotel in Tehuantepec and settled down for the night.

First sighting of the Pacific, Tehuantepec to Puerto Angel: 3-20-08

We woke before dawn to head over to the birding sites west of town. It was pretty quiet and unbirdy which was kind of a downer after the amazing day we had the day before. We did get excellent looks at a male Orange-breasted Bunting. We decided to check for some better/ less windy habitat farther west but on the way we got stopped at an army checkpoint. It was a pretty interesting experience having your stuff searched through by a bunch of young soldiers holding machine guns. While we were stopped here, we saw our first Streak-backed Oriole (1). I think the soldiers thought we were a bit crazy, they were all talking in low voices and giggling like kids. We then drove a few kilometers past the army checkpoint where we birded for awhile. We got some brief views of Sumichrast’s Sparrows (4) here as well as some West Mexican Chachalacas (3) and a Plain-capped Starthroat (1). After this we headed towards La Ventosa Lagoon which unfortunately lived up to its name, it was ridiculously windy and about the only thing we added to the trip list were Magnificent Frigatebirds flying overhead. After this we headed towards Puerto Angel stopping first in Salina Cruz to eat. I don’t think they see many turistas here because they were taking pictures of us in the little diner we stopped at. They were also videotaping us and told us we were going to be in a commercial, which we all found hilarious. We stopped at a couple of places before getting to Puerto Angel. At one place along the highway we added Golden-cheeked Woodpecker (2), and Rufous-naped (2) and Banded Wrens (1).

We drove straight through Puerto Angel to Playa Zipolite looking for the birding sites mentioned by Howell. We couldn’t find exactly what he was talking about but did find a road leading up a hillside west of town where we added, Orange-fronted Parakeet (3), Russet-crowned Motmot (1) and a Peregrine Falcon.

After this we headed back into town and ate dinner at a restaurant on the beach. Playa Zipolite is a destination for many free spirited types and many people sleep in hammocks on the beach. We got a room in a little beach hotel/shack, where we sat and watched the Pacific break against the beach before heading off to sleep.

Beach birding, Playa Zipolite; 3-21-08

We got up early to head out birding but found that our car had been blocking in. So we just started walking to get west of town. On the way we saw many Yellow-winged Caciques (±50) and White-throated Magpie-Jays.

We also added Rufous-backed Robin (10) to our lists. We found a road heading up from the beach into the forest, this eventually lead us to a dry streak bed that proved quite birdy. We found Citreoline Trogons and Streak-backed Orioles to be quite numerous.

We added Olive Sparrow (2) to the trip list and immensely enjoyed the song and beauty of the many Happy Wrens (6) here. After awhile we saw a swarm of army ants that were all over the trail. There was a group of 6-7 Groove-billed Anis that kept landing in the swarm. I am not sure they were eating the ants or looking for other insects that the ants disturbed. Soon after this we spotted the first of two male Red-breasted Chats, which gave excellent views, what a beautiful bird! Walking farther down the trail we added a couple more cool species including Thick-billed Kingbird (1) and Cinnamon Hummingbird (1).

Back at the hotel/shack we found that we could scope out the Booby Rock mentioned in Howell right from our Balcony, there were probably greater than 1000 Brown Boobies sitting on the rocking or flying nearby. There were also Red-billed Tropicbirds (3-4) flying around the rock and a Masked Booby (1) flew across the ocean directly in front of us. Farther out, we could see a few Pink-footed Shearwaters and a couple of Wedge-tailed Shearwaters. Paul then saw perhaps the most unexpected bird of the whole trip when he spotted a South Polar Skua, attacking some gulls near a fishing boat! After a short siesta we went back to the trail from earlier in the morning. Here we saw and photographed both Ferruginous and Colima Pygmy Owls (1), calling within 50 meters of one another! We also added Hooded Oriole to the trip list.

That night in town there was a really loud and really bad music near where we were staying which resulted in all of us getting a really poor nights sleep.

Over the mountains again, La Soledad; 3-22-08

We got up very early as La Soledad is about an hour and a half north of Puerto Angel. We couldn’t find the track mentioned by Howell because it has become really overgrown and hard to see. We instead drove a couple kilometers past La Soledad to a small house/eating place that had trails leading down into the forested valley below. We followed this track down into the valley and immediately began to see new birds. Some of these included White-throated Thrush (4), Black-headed Siskin (10) and Greater Pewee (1). We started hearing and seeing Grace’s Warblers and called one in using a recording. Shortly after this we got excellent views of a calling Chestnut-sided Shrike-vireo which really made my day as I was really disappointed about not seeing the one at La Cumbre. Almost immediately after this we saw a White-striped Woodcreeper (1), which was an unexpected and really cool endemic. Soon after this we added three nice species near the stream in the valley, these were Tufted Flycatcher (2), Sulphur-bellied Flycatcher (1) and a female Blue-capped Hummingbird (1), unfortunately we never saw a male of this species. An unexpected find was a shy Gray-crowned Woodpecker After walking back to the car we drove back down to a little restaurant south of La Soledad where we added Greater Swallow-tailed Swift (5) while we ate! We stopped at the logging road recommended for White-throated Jay in Howell and though we didn’t see any of those there were many flowering trees here that were attracting many hummingbirds and warblers. Here we added a beautiful male Garnet-throated Hummingbird as well as several Amethyst-throated Hummingbirds (1), which I think was the nicest looking hummingbird on the whole trip. After this we continued on our drive back towards Oaxaca City stopping near a small Reservoir, where there weren’t a lot of birds active and a town Zócalo surrounded by cacti which held several Gray-breasted Woodpecker nests. We stayed at a hotel a little bit outside of the city to avoid any Easter celebrations downtown.

The End, Monte Albán and departure; 3-23-08

We woke before dawn and headed back to Monte Alban for one more try for Ocellated Thrasher and Slaty Vireo. After arriving at the gate we immediately got excellent looks of a Blue Mockingbird sitting on top of a small tree. A few minutes later we saw an Ocellated Thrasher (1) in much the same manner, then if flew even closer into excellent light, giving all four of us excellent views. Another addition was a skulking Lesser Roadrunner.

Further birding above tomb 7 yielded mixed flocks of warblers and also a Dwarf Vireo (1). However Slaty Vireo continued to elude us and we had to let it go. We then headed for the airport and said goodbye to Oaxaca.


Sounds: Boesman, P. Birds of Mexico, mp3 sound collection

Howell SNG, Webb, S (1995) A guide to the birds of Mexico and northern Central America. Oxford University Press, Oxford
Howell SNG (1999) A bird-finding guide to Mexico. Cornell University Press, Ithaca, NY
Sibley DA (2000) The Sibley guide to birds. Chanticleer Press, New York

Species Lists

Species List (sites names represent those mentioned in text, and in ‘A bird-finding guide to Mexico)

1) Thicket Tinamou, Crypturellus cinnamomeus, UXP
2) Slaty-breasted Tinamou, C. boucardi, UXP
3) Least Grebe, Tachybaptus dominicus, TDV
4) Pink-footed Shearwater, Puffinus creatopus, ZIP
5) Wedge-tailed Shearwater, P. pacificus, ZIP
6) Red-billed Tropicbird, Phaeton aethereus, ZIP
7) Masked Booby, Sula dactylatra, ZIP
8) Brown Booby, S. leucogaster, ZIP
9) Brown Pelican, Pelecanus occidentalis, ZIP
10) Neotropic Cormorant, Phalacrocorax olivaceus, TUX
11) Magnificent frigatebird, Fregata magnificens, ZIP
12) Great Blue Heron, Ardea Herodias
13) Great Egret, A. alba
14) Snowy Egret, Egretta thula
15) Tricolored Heron, E. tricolor, road from TEH to ZIP
16) Cattle Egret, Bubulcus ibis
17) Green Heron, Butorides virescens
18) Black-bellied Whistling-duck, Dendrocygna autumnalis, TUX
19) Green-winged Teal, Anas carolinensis, TDV
20) Blue-winged Teal, A. discors, TDV
21) Cinnamon Teal, A. cyanoptera, TDV
22) Ruddy Duck, Oxyura jamaicensis, TDV
23) Black Vulture, Coragyps atratus
24) Turkey Vulture, Cathartes aura
25) Osprey, Pandion haliaetus, TUX
26) White-tailed Kite, Elanus leucurus, Oaxaca Ciudad
27) Snail Kite, Rostrhamus sociabilis, TUX
28) Sharp-shinned Hawk, Accipiter striatus, TEH
29) White Hawk, Leucopternis albicollis, UXP
30) Common Black-hawk, Buteogallus anthracinus, SOL
31) Gray Hawk, Buteo nitidus, ZIP
32) Roadside Hawk, B. magnirostris, UXP
33) White-tailed Hawk, B. albicaudatus, MAL
34) Zone-tailed Hawk, B. albonotatus, TEH
35) Red-tailed Hawk, B. jamaicensis
36) Short-tailed Hawk, B. brachyurus, TUX
37) Northern Crested Caracara, Caracara cheriway
38) American Kestrel, Falco sparverius
39) Aplomado Falcon, F. femoralis, TUX
40) Bat Falcon, F. rufigularis, UXP
41) Peregrine Falcon, F. peregrinus, ZIP
42) Plain Chachalaca, Ortalis vetula, VNC
43) West Mexican Chachalaca, O. poliocephala, TEH
44) Crested Guan, Penelope purpurascens, UXP
45) Spotted Wood-Quail, Odontophorus guttatus, VNC
46) American Coot, Fulica Americana, TDV
47) Killdeer, Charadrius vociferus
48) Black-necked Stilt, Himantopus mexicanus, road TEH to ZIP
49) American Avocet, Recurvirostra Americana, road TEH to ZIP
50) Lesser Yellowlegs, Tringa flavipes
51) Spotted Sandpiper, Actitis macularia
52) Least Sandpiper, Calidris minutilla
53) South Polar Skua, Catharacta maccormicki, ZIP
54) Laughing Gull, Larus atricilla
55) Ring-billed Gull, L. delawarensis
56) Royal Tern, Sterna maxima, ZIP
57) Short-billed Pigeon, Patagioenas nigrirostris, UXP
58) Band-tailed Pigeon, P. fasciatus, LAC
59) White-winged Dove, Zenaida asiatica
60) Mourning Dove, Z. macroura
61) Inca Dove, Columbina inca
62) Common Ground-Dove, C. passerina
63) Ruddy Ground-Dove, C. talpacoti, TUX
64) White-tipped Dove, Leptotila verreauxi
65) Gray-headed Dove, L. plumbeiceps, TUX
66) Aztec Parakeet, Aratinga astec, VNC
67) Orange-fronted Parakeet, A. canicularis
68) White-crowned Parrot, Pionus senilis, UXP
69) Mealy Parrot, Amazona farinosa, UXP
70) Squirrel Cuckoo, Piaya cayana, TUX
71) Lesser Roadrunner, Geococcyx velox, MAL
72) Groove-billed Ani, Crotophaga sulcirostris
73) Colima Pygmy-Owl, Glaucidium palmarum, ZIP
74) Ferruginous Pygmy-Owl, G. brasilianum, TUX, ZIP
75) Pauraque, Nyctidromus albicollis, VNC
76) Buff-collared Nightjar, Caprimulgus ridgwayi, MAL, TDV
77) Mexican Whip-poor-will, C. arizonae, TDV
78) Chestnut-collared Swift, Cypseloides rutilus, VNC
79) White-collared Swift, Streptoprocne zonaris
80) Great Swallow-tailed Swift, Panyptila sanctihieronymi, SOL
81) Little Hermit, Phaethornis longuemareus, UXP
82) Wedge-tailed Sabrewing, Campylopterus curvipennis, VNC
83) Green-breasted Mango, Anthracothorax prevostii
84) Green Violet-ear, Colibri thalassinus
85) Bumblebee Hummingbird, Selasphorus heloisa, VNC
86) Dusky Hummingbird, Cynanthus sordidus, MAL
87) Doubleday’s Hummingbird, C. (latirostris) doubledayi, TEH
88) White-eared Hummingbird, Basilinna leucotis, TDV
89) White-bellied Emerald, Amazilia candida, UXP
90) Berylline Hummingbird, A. beryllina
91) Rufous-tailed Hummingbird, A. tzacatl
92) Buff-bellied Hummingbird, A. yucatanensis
93) Cinnamon Hummingbird, A. rutila, ZIP
94) Blue-capped Hummingbird, Eupherusa (poliocerca) cyanophrys, SOL
95) Amethyst-throated Hummingbird, Lampornis amethystinus, SOL
96) Garnet-throated Hummingbird, Lamprolaima rhami, SOL
97) Plain-capped Starthroat, Heliomaster constantii
98) Lucifer Hummingbird, Calothorax lucifer, VNC
99) Beautiful Hummingbird, C. pulcher, TEH
100) Ruby-throated Hummingbird, Archilochus colubris, VNC
101) Black-headed Trogon, Trogon melanocephalus, UXP
102) Citreoline Trogon, T. citreolus, TEH
103) (Northern) Violaceous Trogon, T. (violaceus) braccatus, UXP
104) Mountain Trogon, T. mexicanus, LAC
105) Collared Trogon, T. collaris, SOL
106) Slaty-tailed Trogon, T. massena, UXP
107) Russet-crowned Motmot, Momotus mexicanus, ZIP
108) Ringed Kingfisher, Ceryle torquatus, UXP
109) Amazon Kingfisher, C. amazona, UXP
110) Green Kingfisher, C. Americana, road from LAC to VNC
111) Collared araçari, Pteroglossus torquatus, VNC
112) Keel-billed toucan, Ramphastos sulfuratus, UXP
113) Acorn Woodpecker, Melanerpes formicivorus, road from UXP to TEH
114) Black-cheeked Woodpecker, Centurus pucherani, VNC
115) Golden-cheeked Woodpecker, C. chrysogenys, ZIP
116) Gray-breasted Woodpecker, C. hypopolius, MAL
117) Golden-fronted Woodpecker, C. aurifrons
118) Hairy Woodpecker, Picoides villosus, SOL
119) Gray-crowned Woodpecker, Piculus (rubiginosus) auricularis, SOL
120) Lineated Woodpecker, Dryocopus lineatus, UXP
121) Pale-billed Woodpecker, Campephilus guatemalensis, UXP
122) Rufous-breasted Spinetail, Synallaxis erythrothorax, UXP
123) Spectacled Foliage-gleaner, Anabacerthia variegaticeps, VNC
124) Buff-throated Foliage-gleaner, Automolus ochrolaemus, VNC
125) Olivaceous Woodcreeper, Sittasomus griseicapillus, SOL
126) Strong-billed Woodcreeper, Xiphocolaptes promeiropirhynchus, SOL
127) (Northern) Barred Woodcreeper, Dendrocolaptes (certhia) sanctithomae, UXP
128) White-striped Woodcreeper, Lepidocolaptes leucogaster, SOL
129) Streak-headed Woodcreeper, L. souleyetii, UXP
130) Great Antshrike, Taraba major, UXP
131) (Northern) Barred Antshrike, Thamnophilus doliatus, UXP
132) Dusky Antbird, Cercomacra tyrannina, VNC
133) Mexican Antthrush, Formicarius moniliger, UXP
134) Yellow-bellied Tyrannulet, Ornithion semiflavum, UXP
135) Northern Beardless-tyrannulet, Camptostoma imberbe
136) Greenish Elaenia, Myiopagis viridicata, UXP
137) Northern Bentbill, Oncostoma cinereigulare, UXP
138) Slate-headed Tody-Flycatcher, Todirostrum sylvia, TUX
139) Sulphur-rumped Flycatcher, Myiobius sulphureipygius, UXP
140) Pileated Flycatcher, Xenotriccus mexicanus, MAL
141) Tufted Flycatcher, Mitrephanes phaeocercus, LAC
142) Greater Pewee, Contopus pertinax, SOL
143) Western Wood-pewee, C. sordidulus, MAL
144) Least Flycatcher, Empidonax minimus
145) Dusky Flycatcher, E. oberholseri, Oaxaca Ciudad
146) Pacific Slope Flycatcher, E. difficilis, ZIP
147) Cordilleran Flycatcher, E. occidentalis
148) Black Phoebe, Sayornis nigricans
149) Vermillion Flycatcher, Pyrocephalus rubinus
150) Dusky-capped Flycatcher, Myiarchus tuberculifer
151) Ash-throated Flycatcher, M. cinerascens, ZIP
152) Nutting’s Flycatcher, M. nuttingi, TEH
153) Brown-crested Flycatcher, M. tyrannulus
154) Great Kiskadee, Pitangus sulfuratus
155) Boat-billed Flycatcher, Megarhynchus pitangua, TUX
156) Social Flycatcher, Myiozetetes similis
157) Sulphur-bellied Flycatcher, Myiodynastes luteiventris, UXP
158) Tropical Kingbird, Tyrannus melancholicus
159) Couch’s Kingbird, T. couchii, TUX
160) Cassin’s Kingbird, T. vociferans, MAL
161) Thick-billed Kingbird, T. crassirostris, ZIP
162) Western Kingbird, T. verticalis, MAL
163) Scissor-tailed Flycatcher, T. forficatus, UXP
164) Rose-collared becard, Pachyramphus aglaiae
165) Masked Tityra, Tityra semifasciata, TUX
166) Gray-breasted Martin, Progne chalybea
167) Mangrove Swallow, Tachycineta albilinea
168) Violet-green Swallow, T. thalassina
169) Northern Rough-winged Swallow, Stelgidopteryx serripennis
170) Ridgway’s Rough-winged Swallow, S. (serripennis) ridgwayi, UXP
171) Bank Swallow, Riparia riparia, TUX
172) Cliff Swallow, Hirundo pyrrhonota
173) Barn Swallow, H. rustica
174) Steller’s Jay, Cyanocitta stelleri, LAC
175) White-throated Magpie-Jay, Calocitta formosa, TEH
176) Brown Jay, Cyanocorax morio
177) Dwarf Jay, Cyanolyca nana, LAC
178) Northern Raven, Corvus corax
179) Mexican Chickadee, Poecile sclateri, LAC
180) Bushtit, Psaltriparus minimus, MAL
181) Band-backed Wren, Campylorhynchus zonatus
182) Gray-barred Wren, C. megalopterus, LAC
183) Rufous-naped Wren, C. nuchalis
184) Boucard’s Wren, C. jocosus, MAL
185) Rock Wren, Salpinctes obsoletus
186) Canyon Wren, Catherpes mexicanus, MAL
187) Sumichrast’s Wren, Hylorchilus sumichrasti, TUX
188) Nava’s Wren, H. navai, UXP
189) Spot-breasted Wren, Thryothorus maculipectus
190) Happy Wren, T. felix, ZIP
191) Banded Wren, T. pleurostictus, road from TEH to ZIP
192) White-bellied Wren, Uropsila leucogastra, VNC
193) Northern House Wren, Troglodytes aedon
194) Brown-throated Wren, T. (aedon) brunneicollis, road LAC to VNC
195) Gray-breasted Wood-wren, Henicorhina leucophrys, VNC
196) Ruby-crowned Kinglet, Regulus calendula
197) Blue-gray Gnatcatcher, Polioptila caerulea
198) White-lored Gnatcatcher, P. albiloris, TEH
199) Tropical Gnatcatcher, P. plumbea, UXP
200) Brown-backed Solitaire, Myadestes occidentalis, LAC+SOL
201) Slate-colored Solitaire, M. unicolor, VNC
202) Orange-billed Nightingale-Thrush, Catharus aurantiirostris, VNC
203) Russet Nightingale-Thrush, C. occidentalis, LAC, VNC
204) Ruddy-capped Nightingale-Thrush, C. frantzii, LAC, VNC
205) Swainson’s Thrush, C. ustulatus, LAC
206) Black Robin, Turdus infuscatus, VNC, SOL
207) Clay-colored Robin, T. grayi
208) White-throated Robin, T. assimilis, SOL
209) Rufous-backed Robin, T. auropalliatus, ZIP
210) American Robin, T. migratorius
211) Gray Catbird, Dumetella carolinensis, MAL
212) Blue Mockingbird, Melanotis caerulescens, MAL
213) Northern Mockingbird, Mimus polyglottos, MAL
214) Curve-billed Thrasher, Toxostoma curvirostre, TDV
215) Ocellated Thrasher, T. ocellatum, MAL
216) American Pipit, Anthus rubescens, TDV
217) Cedar Waxwing, Bombycilla cedrorum
218) Gray Silky, Ptilogonys cinereus, LAC
219) Loggerhead Shrike, Lanius ludovicianus
220) Slaty Vireo, Vireo brevipennis, MAL
221) Dwarf Vireo, V. nelsoni, MAL
222) Cassin’s Vireo, V. cassinii
223) Plumbeous Vireo, V. plumbeus, ZIP
224) Hutton’s Vireo, V. huttoni, LAC
225) Golden Vireo, V. hypochryseus, SOL
226) Warbling Vireo, V. gilvus
227) Yellow-green Vireo, V. flavoviridis
228) Chestnut-sided Shrike-Vireo, Vireolanius melitophrys, LAC+SOL
229) Blue-winged Warbler, Vermivora pinus
230) Tennessee Warbler, V. peregrina
231) Orange-crowned Warbler, V. celata
232) Nashville Warbler, V. ruficapilla
233) Virginia’s Warbler, V. virginiae, MAL
234) Crescent-chested Warbler, V. superciliosa, LAC
235) Northern Parula, Parula americana
236) Tropical Parula, P. pitiayumi, UXP
237) Yellow Warbler, Dendroica petechia
238) Chestnut-sided Warbler, D. pensylvanica, VNC
239) Magnolia Warbler, D. magnolia, VNC
240) Yellow-rumped Warbler, D. coronata
241) Black-throated Gray Warbler, D. nigrescens, MAL
242) Townsend’s Warbler, D. townsendi
243) Hermit Warbler, D. occidentalis
244) Black-throated Green Warbler, D. virens
245) Grace’s Warbler, D. graciae, SOL
246) Black-and-White Warbler, Mniotilta varia
247) American Redstart, Setophaga ruticilla
248) Ovenbird, Seiurus aurocapillus, UXP
249) Northern Waterthrush, S. noveboracensis, UXP
250) Louisiana Waterthrush, S. motacilla, road from TEH to ZIP
251) MacGillivray’s Warbler, Oporornis tolmiei
252) Common Yellowthroat, Geothlypis trichas
253) Hooded Warbler, Wilsonia citrina
254) Wilson’s Warbler, W. pusilla
255) Red Warbler, Ergaticus ruber, LAC
256) Painted Redstart, Myioborus pictus
257) Slate-throated Redstart, M. miniatus
258) Golden-crowned Warbler, Basileuterus culicivorus
259) Rufous-capped Warbler, B. rufifrons
260) Golden-browed Warbler, B. belli, LAC
261) Yellow-breasted Chat, Icteria virens, TUX
262) Red-breasted Chat, Granatellus venustus, ZIP

263) Gray-throated Chat, G. sallaei, UXP
264) Bananaquit, Coereba flaveola
265) Golden-hooded Tanager, Tangara larvata, UXP
266) Red-legged Honeycreeper, Cyanerpes cyaneus
267) Green Honeycreeper, Chlorophanes spiza, UXP
268) Scrub Euphonia, Euphonia affinis
269) Yellow-throated Euphona, E. hirundinacea
270) Blue-hooded Euphonia, E. elegantissima
271) Olive-backed Euphonia, E. gouldi, UXP
272) Blue-gray Tanager, Thraupis episcopus
273) Yellow-winged Tanager, T. abbas
274) Red-throated Ant-Tanager, Habia fuscicauda, UXP
275) Hepatic Tanager, Piranga flava
276) Summer Tanager, P. rubra
277) Western Tanager, P. ludoviciana
278) Flame-colored Tanager, P. bidentata
279) Scarlet-rumped Tanager, Ramphocelus passerinii, UXP
280) Common Bush-Tanager, Chlorospingus ophthalmicus
281) Grayish Saltator, Saltator coerulescens, TUX
282) Buff-throated Saltator, S. maximus, UXP
283) Black-headed Saltator, S. atriceps
284) Black-faced Grosbeak, Caryothraustes poliogaster, UXP
285) Northern Cardinal, Cardinalis cardinalis
286) Blue-black Grosbeak, Cyanocompsa cyanoides, UXP
287) Blue Bunting, C. parellina, TEH+ZIP
288) Blue Grosbeak, Guiraca caerulea
289) Rosita’s Bunting, Passerina rositae, site north of TEH
290) Indigo Bunting, P. cyanea
291) Orange-breasted Bunting, P. leclancherii, TEH
292) Painted Bunting, P. ciris, UXP
293) Chestnut-capped Brushfinch, Atlapetes brunneinucha, LAC
294) Orange-billed Sparrow, Arremon aurantiirostris, UXP
295) Olive Sparrow, Arremonops rufivirgatus, ZIP
296) White-throated Towhee, Pipilo albicollis, MAL+TDV
297) Blue-black Grassquit, Volatinia jacarina
298) White-collared Seedeater, Sporophila torqueola
299) Yellow-faced Grassquit, Tiaris olivacea, VNC
300) Cinnamon-bellied Flowerpiercer, Diglossa baritula, VNC
301) Bridled Sparrow, Aimophila mystacalis, TDV
302) Stripe-headed Sparrow, A. ruficauda, north of TEH
303) Sumichrast’s Sparrow, A. sumichrasti, TEH
304) Botteri’s Sparrow, A. botteri, MAL
305) Rufous-crowned Sparrow, A. ruficeps
306) Oaxaca Sparrow, A. notosticta, MAL+TDV
307) Rusty Sparrow, A. rufescens, SOL
308) Chipping Sparrow, Spizella passerina
309) Lark Sparrow, Chondestes grammacus
310) Lincoln’s Sparrow, Melospiza lincolni
311) Yellow-eyed Junco, Junco phaeonotus
312) Red-winged Blackbird, Agelaius phoeniceus
313) Eastern Meadowlark, Sturnella magna
314) Melodious Blackbird, Dives dives
315) Great-tailed Grackle, Quiscalus mexicanus
316) Bronzed Cowbird, Molothrus aeneus
317) Brown-headed Cowbird, M. ater
318) Orchard Oriole, Icterus spurius
319) Hooded Oriole, I. cucullatus
320) Black-vented Oriole, I. wagleri, TDV
321) Audubon’s Oriole, I. graduacauda, north of TEH
322) Streak-backed Oriole, I. pustulatus
323) Spot-breasted Oriole, I. pustulatus, THE
324) Altamira Oriole, I. gularis
325) Bullock’s Oriole, I. bullocki
326) Yellow-winged Cacique, Cacicus melanicterus, ZIP
327) Montezuma Oropendola, Psarocolius montezuma
328) House Finch, Carpodacus mexicanus
329) Black-headed Siskin, Cardualis notata, SOL
330) Lesser Goldfinch, C. psaltria, Oaxaca Ciudad
331) House Sparrow, Passer domesticus