Sulawesi & Halmahera - October 2010

Published by Allan Drewitt (allan AT

Participants: Allan Drewitt, Sue Rees


Photos with this report (click to enlarge)

Ivory-breasted Pitta
Ivory-breasted Pitta
Wallace's Standard-wing
Wallace's Standard-wing
Lilac-cheeked Kingfisher
Lilac-cheeked Kingfisher
Ochre-bellied Hawk-owl
Ochre-bellied Hawk-owl
Red-bellied Pitta
Red-bellied Pitta


A combined trip to Sulawesi and the nearby island of Halmahera in the North Moluccas provides an excellent introduction to species restricted to Wallacea, the region of Indonesian islands between Borneo and New Guinea. Many of the species here are restricted to Sulawesi (and adjacent islands), the Sundas and the Moluccas (or Spice Islands), with others found elsewhere only in the Philippines, New Guinea and Northern Melanesia. Sulawesi holds around 90 (depending on the status of the latest splits) and Halmahera a further 32 of Wallacea's 250 endemic birds species. The great majority of these can be seen in a three-week trip, with the exception of a few extremely localised or difficult birds (e.g. Blue-faced Rail, Sulawesi Woodcock, Lompobattang Flycatcher and Sulawesi White-eye on Sulawesi, and Drummer Rail and Moluccan Cuckoo on Halmahera). Non-avian highlights include Spectral Tarsier and the charismatic Crested Macaque.

Sulawesi and Halmahera are mostly mountainous and the predominant natural habitat is tropical lowland rain forest, with montane forests above 1,000 metres (700 metres on Halmahera). Although much of the lowland forest has been cleared for settlements and sugar-cane, as well as unsustainable logging, much of the montane forest on Sulawesi is less affected, though far from secure. On Halmahera, where there are currently no officially protected areas, much of the remaining forest is included within timber concessions or threatened by agriculture. We saw no evidence of commercial logging during our visit, but the frequent (or even continuous) noise of chainsaws, especially at Lore Lindu and on Halmahera, suggests that small-scale logging and agricultural clearance is widespread.

We organised a three-week trip through the local guide Royke Mananta, with all accommodation, ground and air transport, food, drink and authorisation to visit the national parks arranged and paid for in advance. We spent two weeks on Sulawesi at four main locations: Lore Lindu National Park, Luwuk (for Maleo), Tangkoko and Dumoga-Bone National Park. The remaining week was dedicated to Halmahera, where we travelled daily from our base at Sidangoli. During this three-week trip we saw over 240 species, of which at least 102 are endemic to Wallacea.

We travelled from London Gatwick to Jakarta via Dubai with Emirates for £495 including tax. Internal flights (seven in all) were all arranged by Royke and cost 630 Euros each. Flights were with a range of local airlines and were generally cramped and nearly always delayed (often by 2 hours or more). We used a range of accommodation, from relatively luxurious hotels in Palu, Makassar and Manado, to a basic but friendly homestay on Halmahera. Food was generally grilled chicken and/or fish with boiled rice and vegetables, with fresh fruit (usually banana or pineapple) for dessert. The local and excellent coffee was usually available and the beer was nearly always warm. We found the people to be extremely friendly and courteous, even to the point of politely asking if they could to take photographs of us with their friends and family. Tourists are clearly still a novelty for the residents of both islands and everywhere we went we were greeted from the roadside by a shout of 'Hello Mister!'.

The weather was hot (over 30 Celsius) and humid everywhere with the exception of Lore Lindu where it was relatively cool throughout the day. We had some rain in the last week especially, but this was usually confined to an occasional heavy shower, usually in the afternoon. We did not come across any leeches but chiggers were abundant at Tangkoko and slightly less so at Dumoga Bone. Mosquitoes were only evident at Tangkoko and Dumoga Bone, mainly in the evening.

We can thoroughly recommend Royke's services as a trip organiser and guide. Although he worked alone (apart from the drivers and the assistance of compulsory rangers at Tangkoko, Gunang Ambang and Dumoga Bone) he managed to keep everything to schedule and succeeded in finding nearly all the target birds, despite the unwillingness of many of the owls to make an appearance. His perseverance, enthusiasm and knowledge of the birds and their calls were impressive and he was unstinting in his efforts to give all members of the group a chance at seeing the maximum number of species.

Lore Lindu National Park

Lore Lindu is one Sulawesi's largest national parks (230,000ha) and includes lowland and montane forests up to 2,610 metres above sea level. The park holds 80% of the island's endemic species and it is an essential birding location, particularly for the montane specialities. The park is about four hours' drive from Palu. On the way we stopped at a few locations to find our first endemics of the trip. In particular we visited an area of riverside grassland, paddies and scrub on the outskirts of Palu where we saw roosting Savannah Nighjars and numerous Uniform Swiftlets and Blue-tailed Bee-eaters, along with Black-billed Koel and White-shouldered Triller. We also saw our only Gould's Bronze Cuckoo here, a race of Little Bronze Cuckoo according to the Handbook of the Birds of the World (HBW), but given full species status by Birds of Wallacea (BoW). A nearby wetland area adjacent to rice paddies held the first of many Javan Pond-herons as well as Chestnut and Scaly-breasted Munias, and some roadside gardens gave views of our first Lemon-bellied White-eyes and a single Yellow-sided Flowerpecker.

We arrived at our basic but comfortable accommodation at the Sendy Inn in the village of Wuasa, on the edge of Lore Lindu National Park, after dark. The following morning we birded from the roadside and focussed on the secondary woodland and cultivated areas below the park in order to get to grips with some of local specialities. Here we enjoyed a long line-up of endemics, including Sulawesi Pygmy Woodpecker, Sulawesi Drongo, Sulawesi Babbler, Caerulean Cuckooshrike, Sulawesi Cicadabird, Rusty-bellied Fantail, Grey-sided and Crimson-crowned Flowerpecker, Sulawesi Crested Myna and Grosbeak Starling, along with a Sulawesi Blue Flycatcher (a race of Mangrove Blue Flycatcher considered a separate species by some authors). Among the more common Glossy Swiftlets we saw some dark swiftlets with paler rumps. These are the sorurum race of Moluccan Swiftlet, considered by some to be a separate species known as 'Sulawesi Swiftlet'. The undoubted star birds of the morning were a pair of Knobbed Hornbills feeding in a fruiting tree above the road which gave prolonged scope-views for all. On our return trip to the hotel for lunch we were rewarded with another of Lore Lindu's main attractions: a group of stunning Ivory-backed Woodswallows.

Following lunch we headed into the park and visited Lake Tambing and its adjacent woodland. Even in the heat of the afternoon we always found this location to hold lots of bird activity and this was especially true of our first visit. Flocks of Brown Cuckoo-doves and Ornate and Yellow-and-Green Lorikeets were the first and most obvious birds seen, although obtaining good views of the lorikeets proved to be a challenge initially. We saw more Sulawesi swiftlets, pygmy woodpeckers and babblers before eventually tracking down a couple of Sulawesi Leaf-warblers and a Streak-headed Dark-eye among the parties of Mountain White-eyes. Other species included a family of Blue-fronted Flycatchers, several Yellow-vented Whistlers, Scarlet and Lesser Sulawesi Honeyeaters and, just before dusk, a Superb Fruit-dove and four Fiery-browed Mynas in the treetops.

On our return visit to the lake the following morning, stopping on route to see a Purple-bearded Bee-eater perched in its regular roadside tree, we first heard then eventually saw two Malias in the forest on the opposite side of the road from the path to the lake. Other species seen at the lake were Grey-streaked, Little Pied and Snowy-browed flycatchers. Elsewhere on the main road we also saw our first Purple-winged Roller and, at dusk, one of only two Sombre Pigeons seen during our trip.

The old logging road known as the Anaso track, which is famed for its montane specialities, including the enigmatic and elusive Geomalia, ceased to be accessible to vehicles in 2008 when the crumbling bridge about 2 km up the track finally collapsed. Now the only way up is to walk, for at least 6 km to the first Geomalia location. As a result, few birders now see this species as it would probably entail several visits and many hours walking up and down the track. With only one day to explore the track our chances of seeing this secretive species were slim and we were not surprised (though obviously still disappointed) to miss it. However, even a single day spent on this track can be rewarding, and we saw a good range of other Lore Lindu specialities here including Red-eared Fruit Dove, a single Satanic Nightjar at a daytime roost, several more Purple-bearded Bee-eaters, Chestnut-back Bush-warbler and Sulawesi Thrush. Nearer the top of the track, at around 7km from the road and over 2000 metres above sea level, we saw Yellow-flanked Whistler, Greater Sulawesi Honeyeater and, briefly, Mountain Serin. We also saw two Black or Tonkean Macaques from the lower part of the track.

Our last day at Lore Lindu was spent catching up with some of those species still to be seen, in particular Great Shortwing which had eluded us on the Anaso Track. Finally, and after much effort, we were eventually rewarded with excellent views of one in an open area of roadside forest below the lake, quickly followed by another a little further down the road. Other species seen along the main road and in the adjacent forest included Sulawesi Serpent-eagle, Rufous-throated Flycatcher and Piping Crow.

The owls were frustratingly difficult at Lore Lindu, mainly because they appeared to completely ignore all attempts to call them in. As a result we missed Cinnabar Hawk-owl and Sulawesi Scops-owl here, despite several birds calling close by, but did manage to see a Speckled Hawk-owl.

Roadside birding on our way back to Palu was rewarding, providing views of our first Sulawesi Triller and, again at the Savannah Nightjar roost, our only Pale-headed Munias of the trip.

Luwuk and Taima Village

Tumbun in the Dumoga Bone NP in northeast Sulawesi has become increasingly unreliable for Maleo and, as an alternative, Royke arranged for us to visit a small cooperative conservation scheme near Luwuk in east Sulawesi, where the local people have set up a Maleo reserve and an observation tower for visiting tourists. This entailed a flight first to Makasser in south Sulawesi then another flight to Luwuk (direct flights from Palu to Luwuk being unavailable on the day we travelled), followed by a four-hour car journey to Taima. A lot of travelling but worth it for a chance to see one of the most threatened of Sulawesi's endemic birds.

We birded on the way to Taima, seeing a few new species including Barred Rail, the first of many Pink-necked and Grey-cheeked Green-pigeons and Green-imperial Pigeons, and several White-rumped Cuckooshrikes, as well as more Knobbed Hornbills and Purple-winged Rollers. We arrived at Taima in the dark and, after a meal around a campfire, retired to our bamboo huts for the night. The following morning we were happy to be informed by one of villagers that the birds were present. After a quick breakfast we all set off for the tower hide, where we were rewarded with at least 17 Maleos digging their burrows in a sandy clearing in the coastal forest.

The Taima colony is exceptional in that the number of breeding birds has actually increased here in the last few years, thanks to the efforts of the villagers in protecting the birds' nesting grounds from habitat destruction and egg collectors. Numbers of Maleos have tripled since 2006 when the Taima villagers, in partnership with the international 'Alliance for Tompotika Conservation' (, first decided to protect its threatened and declining Maleo population. Fees and donations from visiting tourists are critical to the success of this scheme as the local people now understand and appreciate the value of the birds both as an asset and in their own right.

On our return to Luwuk we stopped at some coastal lagoons for some new waterbirds for the trip and saw, among others, Little Pied Cormorant, Darter, Osprey, Grey-tailed Tattler and Common Kingfisher.

Karaenta Forest

Failure to visit this hillside forest on the outskirts of Makassar the previous afternoon (due, inevitably, to a delayed flight back from Luwuk) necessitated arriving at dawn the next day, in the hope of finding the highly restricted Black-ringed White-eye before checking in for our morning flight to Ternate. Thankfully, we managed to locate three birds shortly after dawn and, all having seen them well, spent a short while birding from the road before heading off to Makassar airport. Other species seen here included Hair-crested Drongo, Sulawesi Babbler and Black Sunbird.


Our six days on Halmahera were the undoubted highlight of the entire trip. On arriving at Ternate, a small volcanic island just off the northwest coast of Halmahera, we boarded a small boat and undertook the 30 minute crossing to the coastal village of Sidangoli. Little was seen from the boat, apart from three Lesser Frigatebirds, until we reached the mangroves fringing the Halmaheran coastline. Here we quickly located two Beach Kingfishers perched in the overhanging branches, before disembarking at a small quayside and driving the short distance to our accommodation at the Sidangoli Indah homestay.

We spent much of our time on Halmahera birding from the road between Sidangoli and Tobelo. A stretch about 30 minutes from Sidangoli gave particularly good views over some reasonably intact hillside forest. It was here that we had our introduction to many of the more widespread and abundant North Moluccan species, including Grey-headed Fruit-dove, White Cockatoo, Blue-and-white Kingfisher, Dusky-brown Oriole and Long-billed Crow, as well as the colourful Eclectus Parrot, Red-cheeked Parrot and Blyth's Hornbill. We also saw some of the more restricted a difficult species here, such as Moluccan Goshawk, the threatened Chattering Lory, Halmahera Cuckooshrike, Paradise Crow, Dusky Friarbird and, at night, Moluccan Owlet-nightjar.

We also went further afield to Kali Batu Putih, about an hour east of Sidangoli, and the Lame Forest area on the road to Tobelo. A morning at Kali Batu Putih produced a good number of new species such as the widespread Variable Goshawk, Spotted Kestrel, Moluccan Hanging-parrot, Goliath Coucal, Cream-throated White-eye, Rufous-bellied Triller, Golden Bulbul and Slaty Flycatcher, along with less commonly seen species, notably Gurney's Eagle, Scarlet-breasted Fruit-dove, Sombre Kingfisher, Moluccan Starling and Flame-breasted Flowerpecker. The highlight here was a single Purple Dollarbird, an uncommon and difficult to find species which is often missed by visiting birders. Birding at Lame Forest seemed, by comparison, to be much slower, but we found a few new species here including the scarce Metallic Pigeon, Red-flanked Lorikeet and Moustached Treeswifts.

The main event of any trip to Halmahera is, of course, the early morning visit to the standard-wing lek, and this certainly proved to be the case for us. Access to the lek is from a dirt track off the main Sidangoli-Tobelo road and then by a narrow forest path, which necessitates a three-hour walk in the dark and wading across one or more streams (the precise number depending on amount of rainfall preceding the time of visit). Having picked up Anu, our local guide and the proprietor of the lek area, we made slow but steady progress through the dark, stopping to look for owls and other birds on the way, and successfully calling in a Moluccan Scops-owl.

We reached the lek on a steep hillside in thick forest at first light (around 06.00). We first heard the raucous calls of the standard-wings and then, as the light increased, we quickly made out the distinctive silhouettes of two displaying males. As the light improved further still we were better able to appreciate their iridescent green breast plates and conspicuous white 'standards', and their extravagant display which involves leaping into the air and descending back into the canopy with wings and plumes arranged in parachute fashion. We enjoyed good views of the birds until about 06.30 when they suddenly and quietly vanished into the surrounding forest.

As if views of displaying Standard-wing Birds of Paradise were not enough, the trip to and from the lek produced a host of other excellent birds, notably Ivory-breasted Pittas, including a bird roosting conveniently close to the path, Blue-capped Fruit-dove, Cinnamon-bellied Imperial Pigeon, Common Paradise-kingfisher, Spectacled, Shining and White-naped Monarchs, Common Golden Whistler and White-streaked Friarbird.

On our last day on Halmahera we added a few new birds to the list as we travelled back to Ternate, including Great Crested Tern and Little Curlew. While on Ternate, Royke took our delayed flight to Manado as an opportunity to squeeze in a quick visit to the nearby Lake Tolire, where we enjoyed excellent views of Great-billed Parrot along with many Red-throated Grebes evading the attentions of a local crocodile.

Tangkoko Nature Reserve

The 500km-long northern Minahassa peninsula of Sulawesi holds the majority of the island's remaining lowland forest. About two hours' drive from Manado, the 8,000ha Tangkoko Nature Reserve lies on the end of the peninsula and, with its mangroves and coastal, lowland and montane forests, is another of Sulawesi's essential birding locations. While at Tangkoko we stayed at Mama Roo's Guest House in the small settlement of Batuputih, conveniently located opposite the entrance to the main access trail into the reserve. As at Dumoga-Bone, the use of rangers is compulsory here, costing IDR100,000 (about £7 at the time of travel) per person per half day, or IDR200,000 for a full day including evening trips to look for owls. Although costly, our rangers (particularly Sammy) were excellent birders and knew the locations of the more elusive species. We birded the lowland forest along the first part of the trail by foot from our accommodation, visited the higher forest by motorbike and went by vehicle to a roadside viewpoint overlooking the forest. We also took a late afternoon boat trip into the mangroves to look for Great-billed Kingfishers.

The forest at Tangkoko was some of the best we encountered during our trip, thankfully without the continuous sound of distant chainsaws which was a depressing feature of other locations, especially on Halmahera. Highlights from the lower trail included White-faced Cuckoo-dove (or Sulawesi Black Pigeon), Stephan's Dove, Black-naped Fruit-dove, Silver-tipped Imperial Pigeon, Blue-backed Parrot, some skulking Bay Coucals, Ruddy and Lilac-cheeked Kingfishers, Ashy Woodpecker, White-necked Myna (nesting at the campsite) and, after some effort, Red-backed Thrush. Some open, scrubby areas near the adjacent beach also gave views of Isabelline Scrub-hen, a single Philippine Scrub-fowl, Barred Buttonquail, a treetop Spot-tailed Gowhawk, our best views of Yellow-billed Malkoha and, at dusk, Sulawesi Nightjar. After much effort, night-birding on the lower trail also turned up an obliging Sulawesi Scops-owl.

The higher forest held similar species to those of lower elevations but also rewarded us with fine views of Green-backed and Sulawesi Dwarf Kingfishers along with Pied Cuckooshrike, two roosting Ochre-bellied Hawk-owls and a very obliging Red-bellied Pitta. Equally memorable were the mammals, with at a group of at least fifty Crested Macaques seen on the trail and a single Spectral Tarsier at its roosting tree. The macaques appeared to be mostly oblivious to our presence, feeding on fallen fruit and grooming only metres away from us as we all attempted to take photographs of these charismatic and highly endangered primates.

Birding from the viewpoint on the main road above the reserve allowed a different style of birding, giving us an opportunity to look into the treetops from above rather than below. Here we had fine views of White-bellied and Grey-headed Imperial-pigeons, Golden-mantled and Yellow-breasted Raquet-tails, the only Small Sulawesi (or Red-billed) Hanging-parrots of the trip, Ornate Lorikeet, Knobbed Hornbill and a brief view of a Bear Cuscus before it slipped into shade of the canopy.

The boat-trip from the beach at Tangkoko lasts for about two hours and is timed to occur at high-tide which maximises the chance of seeing the kingfisher. The palm boat is a narrow, high-seated affair with outriggers on each side, which is ideal for birding the shallow mangrove creeks. We quickly found several Great-billed Kingfishers in the mangroves and, on our way to a from the creeks, we also saw Blue Rock Thrush and Grey-rumped Tattler. The cliffs here are also the location for nesting Sulawesi Masked Owl, though unfortunately there was no sign of occupancy during our visit.

Tumpaan Fish Restaurant

This convenient roadside lunch stop gives good views over a wide area of rice paddies and provides a welcome break during the four-hour journey west from Manado to the town of Kotamobagu. This is a location for Javan Sparrow, though its provenance in Sulawesi is questionable and it is almost certainly introduced rather than native. Highlights during our outward and return stops were Spotted Harrier, Sunda Teal, seven Javan Sparrows (entailing a walk into the paddies, to the great amusement of the locals) and an unexpected Greater Painted Snipe.

Gunang Ambang Nature Reserve

This high elevation forest about 90 minutes up a rough, winding road from Kotamobagu is a location for the highly restricted and threatened Matinan Flycatcher, known only from the hill forests of the Minahassa Peninsula. It also offers a second chance of seeing some species otherwise only seen at Lore Lindu. The road eventually reaches a small village amid neat, cultivated land bearing nothing but a few rotting stumps as a memorial to the original forest. The remaining forest appears largely intact though is evidently subject to small scale but persistent logging by the villagers, as evidenced by the eroded path into the forest, worn down into a deep, narrow gully by years of timber extraction by oxen. The climb to the higher forest for the flycatcher is therefore steep, muddy and slippery in places.

We first visited this area in the early evening in the hope of recovering Cinnabar Hawk-owl after missing it at Lore Lindu. Unfortunately the owl has become much more difficult to see at Gunang Ambang in recent years and, despite hearing several calling, with at least one close to the footpath, we again failed to see one. Speckled Hawk-owl and Scaly Kingfisher were also heard.

Our early morning return the next day was much more rewarding. On hearing a Scaly Kingfisher on our way up to the village at first light we stopped and spent several anxious minutes peering into the gloom of the forest below the road. Eventually we caught sight of the bird, partly hidden within a tangle of low vegetation, and eventually all had good views. We then continued up the hill beyond the village and walked up the slippery forest path until reaching a level area where we were relieved to hear the distinctive song of the Matinan Flycatcher. With a bit of persistence we eventually saw the bird, perched and singing in overhanging branches above the path.

On our way back through the farmland along the forest edge we saw many of the more common species not seen since Lore Lindu, as well as Sulawesi Goshawk, Buff-banded Rail and a group of Purple Needletails.

Bogani Nani Wartabone NP (formerly Dumoga-Bone National Park)

At 285,000ha, Dumoga-Bone NP is Sulawesi's largest protected area. The park shares much of its avifauna with Tangkoko, though the highland areas also have much in common with Lore Lindu. We visited Toraut, where the park HQ and accommodation is located just a short walk and a river crossing by raft away from a patch of swampy, riverside forest with a maze of trails. The HQ itself is a rather strange place. Apparently, due to the conflicts in Sulawesi in the early 2000s, the place was left abandoned from many years, before eventually being partially renovated to encourage tourists to return. Although some buildings have been refurbished, many others remain in a state of dereliction and provide day roosts for several Speckled Hawk-owls.

Species seen here include many of those seen at Tangkoko, with the notable addition of Maroon-chinned Fruit-dove and Sulawesi Dwarf Hornbill in the forest, and Speckled Hawk-owls and a Japanese Sparrowhawk at the park HQ. We also heard a Sulawesi Masked Owl around the accommodation but could not locate it (unfortunately the roost tree which offered reliable views of this owl recently collapsed). A nearby lake held Barred and Buff-banded Rails, White-browed Crake and a resident Water Monitor.



Coates, B.J. & Bishop, K.D. 1997. A guide to the birds of Wallacea. Dove Publications, Alderley, Queensland, Australia.
Jepson, P. & Ounsted, R. 1997. Birding Indonesia. Periplus Editions and Birdlife International.
del Hoyo, J., Elliott, A. & Sargatal, J. Eds (1997). Handbook of the Bird of the World: Vol. 4 Sandgrouse to Cuckoos. Birdlife International & Lynx Edicions, Barcelona
del Hoyo, J., Elliott, A. & Christie, D.A. Eds (2006). Handbook of the Birds of the World: Vol. 11 Old World Flycatchers to Old World Warblers. Birdlife International & Lynx Edicions, Barcelona

Cooper, D & Cooper, J.F. Sulawesi & Halmahera, 25th May 2002 to 15th June 2002.
Hornbuckle, J. Wallacea, Indonesia Birding Trip Report, 5 October – 17 November 2001. Worldtwitch
Vermeulen, J. Sulawesi & Halmahera, August 14th - September 5th 2009.
Zalinge, R. van. Sulawesi & Halmahera (Indonesia), 11 September - 9 October 2009.

Royke Mananta, PT. Explore Iso Indonesia Tours and Travel or

Species Lists

Annotated Checklist of birds seen and heard

Common Tern (Sterna hirundo) - 1 Halmahera

Whiskered Tern (Chlidonias hybridus) - 2 Luwuk-Taima lagoon

White-winged Tern (Chlidonias leucopterus) - 10-20 on two dates at Tumpaan restaurant

Lesser Frigatebird (Fregata ariel) - 3 on boat trip from Ternate to Halmahera and a single bird over accommodation at Sidangoli

Red-throated Little Grebe (Tachybaptus novaehollandiae) - at least 20 on Lake Tolire on Ternate, including at least one pair with chicks

Little Pied Cormorant (Phalacrocorax melanoleucos) - 6 on lagoon on route from Taima village to Luwuk

Oriental Darter (Anhinga melanogaster) Near threatened - small numbers over road and several between Luwuk and Taima village; 1 Lame forest area of Halmahera

Purple Heron (Ardea purpurea) - 1-4 on seven dates at Lore Lindu NP, near Taima village, Tangkoko, Gunang Ambang and Dumoga Bone NP; 11 on rice paddies around Tumpaan restaurant

Great-billed Heron (Ardea sumatrana) - 1 in flight over Patrajasa Hotel, Kotamobagu

Great Egret (Ardea alba) - 1-2 on four dates at Lore Lindu NP, Taima-Luwuk lagoon, Lame Forest and Dumoga Bone NP

Intermediate Egret (Mesophoyx intermedia) - small numbers on wetlands on Sulawesi and common on paddies between Dumoga Bone NP and Manado

Little Egret (Egretta garzetta) - frequent to common on wetlands and paddies on Sulawesi

Pacific Reef-egret (Egretta sacra) - 2 at the Taima-Luwuk lagoon and single birds in Sidangoli and Tangkoko mangroves

Cattle Egret (Bubulcus ibis) - small numbers to common on wetlands and paddies throughout

Javan Pond-heron (Ardeola speciosa) - frequent to common on wetlands and paddies on Sulawesi

Striated Heron (Butorides striatus) - 2 Taima-Luwuk lagoon and 4 Tangkoko mangroves

Yellow Bittern (Ixobrychus sinensis) - 1 from road between Kotamobagu and Dumoga Bone NP

Cinnamon Bittern (Ixobrychus cinnamomeus) - 1 in flight over a road in Kotamobagu

Osprey (Pandion haliaetus) - 2 Taima-Luwuk lagoon and 1 Luwuk airport

Black Kite (Milvus migrans) - 1-6 on two dates at Gunang Ambang

Brahminy Kite (Haliastur indus) - 1-15 on thirteen dates throughout

White-bellied Sea-eagle (Haliaeetus leucogaster) - singles at Taima-Luwuk lagoon, Ternate, Tangkoko and between Tangkoko and Mandano

Grey-headed Fish-eagle (Ichthyophaga ichthyaetus) Near threatened - 1 Dumoga Bone NP

Sulawesi Serpent-eagle (Spilornis (cheela) rufipectus) Sulawesi sub-region and Sula Islands - frequently heard and up to 4 seen at Lore Lindu NP; 4 Tangkoko and 4 Dumoga Bone NP

Spotted Harrier (Circus assimilis) - singles seen on two dates from Tumpaan restaurant hunting over paddies and a single individual on route from Tumpaan to Kotamobagu

Sulawesi Goshawk (Accipiter griseiceps) Sulawesi sub-region - singles at Gunang Ambang and Dumoga Bone NP

Spot-tailed Goshawk (Accipiter trinotatus) Sulawesi sub-region - 1 at Taima village; 1 briefly perched and in flight at Tangkoko; and 1 heard at Dumoga Bone NP

Variable Goshawk (Accipiter novaehollandiae) - 1-4 on two dates on Halmahera

Moluccan Goshawk (Accipiter henicogrammus) North Moluccas - 1 briefly in flight and perched in
roadside trees above Sidangoli

Japanese Sparrowhawk (Accipiter gularis) - a single bird on two dates at Dumoga Bone NP

Indian Black Eagle (Ictinaetus malayensis) - 1-2 on four dates at Lore Lindu NP and Dumoga Bone NP

Gurney's Eagle (Aquila gurneyi) Near threatened - singles in flight on two dates on Halmahera

Sulawesi Hawk-eagle (Spizaetus lanceolatus) Sulawesi sub-region & Sula Is - 1 heard at Lore Lindu NP, a single on two dates at Tangkoko and 1-2 daily at Dumoga Bone NP

Spotted Kestrel (Falco moluccensis) - 2-3 on two dates on Halmahera and singles at Dumoga Bone NP and over paddies at Tumpaan restaurant

Wandering Whistling-duck (Dendrocygna arcuata) - 5 on small roadside lake between Kotamobagu and Dumoga Bone NP and 3 over river at Dumoga Bone NP

Sunda Teal (Anas gibberifrons) - 1-6 on two dates on paddies at Tumpaan restuarant; at least 20 at Dumoga Bone NP

Philippine Scrubfowl (Megapodicus cumingii) - 1 Tangkoko

Dusky Scrubfowl (Megapodicus freycinet) - heard on three dates at Halmahera

Maleo (Macrocephalon maleo) Threatened - vulnerable. Sulawesi sub-region - at least 19 from tower hide at Taima village reserve observed digging holes in sand from 07.30 until 08.30

Red-backed Buttonquail (Turnix maculosa) - 1 on roadside between Taima village and Luwuk

Barred Buttonquail (Turnix suscitator) - 1-2 on two dates at Tangkoko and at least 4 on roadside at Dumoga Bone NP

Barred Rail (Gallirallus torquatus) - heard and small numbers seen on nine dates at Lore Lindu NP, Luwuk-Taima, Tangkoko, Gunang Ambang and Dumoga Bone NP

Buff-banded Rail (Gallirallus philippensis) - 1-4 on three dates at Gunang Ambang and Dumoga Bone NP

Blue-faced Rail (Gymnocrex rosenbergii) Sulawesi sub-region - 1 heard at Lore Lindu NP

Isabelline Waterhen (Amaurornis isabellinus) Sulawesi - singles on two dates at Tangkoko

White-breasted Waterhen (Amaurornis phoenicurus) - 1-3 on three dates at Lore Lindu NP and Dumoga Bone NP

White-browed Crake (Porzana cinerea) - 4 on small lake between Kotamobagu and Dumoga Bone NP and 2 on two dates on lake at Dumoga Bone NP

Purple Swamphen (Porphyrio porphyrio) - 10 on small lake between Kotamobagu and Dumoga Bone NP

Common Moorhen (Gallinula chloropus) - 3 Lore Lindu NP and 12 on paddies at Tumpaan restaurant

Greater Painted-snipe (Rostratula benghalensis) - 1 at Tumpaan paddies

White-headed Stilt (Himantopus (himantopus) leucocephalus) - 2 on lagoon between Taima village and Luwuk

Pintail/Swinhoe's Snipe (Gallinago stenura/megala) - 1 unidentified snipe in flight near Tumpaan restaurant

Whimbrel (Numenius phaeopus) - 2 on beach at Halmahera

Marsh Sandpiper (Tringa stagnatilis) - flocks of up to 30 birds flying over Savannah Nightjar roost site on outskirts of Palu

Wood Sandpiper (Tringa glareola) - 3 on paddies between Lore Lindu NP and Palu and 20-30 on two dates on paddies at Tumpaan restaurant

Common Sandpiper (Actitis (hypoleucos) Hypoleucos) - 2-5 on six dates at wetland sites and paddies on Sulawesi

Grey-tailed Tattler (Heteroscelus brevipes) - 1 on a roadside lagoon near Taima and 1 at Tangkoko

Feral Pigeon (Columba livia) - common in built up areas

White-throated/Metallic Pigeon (Columba vitiensis) - a flock of 10 briefly overhead at Lame Forest

Spotted Dove (Streptopelia chinensis) - 2-15 on thirteen dates throughout

Red Collared-dove (Streptopelia tranquebarica)- 1-3 on four dates at Lore Lindu NP, Palu and near Kotamobagu

Brown/Slender-billed Cuckoo-dove (Macropygia amboinensis) - small numbers seen almost daily throughout with flocks of up to 30 at Lore Lindu NP

Sulawesi Black Pigeon/White-faced Cuckoo-dove (Turacoena manadensis) Sulawesi sub-region & Sula Is - 1-2 daily at Tangkoko and Gunang Ambang

Emerald Dove (Chalcophaps indica) - singles near Palu and Sidangoli and 3 at Tangkoko

Stephan's Dove (Chalcophaps stephani) - brief views in flight of 2 on two dates at Tangkoko

Pink-necked Green-pigeon (Treron vernans) - 2-8 on six dates near Luwuk, Sidangoli and at Tangkoko

Grey-cheeked Green-pigeon (Treron (curvirostra) griseicauda) - 1-3 on two dates in Luwuk-Taima area and common at Tangkoko and Dumoga Bone NP

Red-eared Fruit-dove (Ptilinopus fischeri) Sulawesi - 3 on the Anaso track at Lore Lindu NP

Maroon-chinned Fruit-dove (Ptilinopus subgularis) Near threatened. Sulawesi sub-region & Sula Is - 4 on two dates at Dumoga Bone NP

Scarlet-breasted Fruit-dove (Ptilinopus bernsteinii) North Moluccas - 2 on two dates on Halmahera

Superb Fruit-dove (Ptilinopus superbus) - 1-2 on two dates at Lore Lindu NP

Blue-capped Fruit-dove (Ptilinopus monacha) Near threatened. North Moluccas - 6 on Anu’s track to the Standard-wing lek

Grey-headed Fruit-dove (Ptilinopus hyogastra) North Moluccas - 2-8 daily on Halmahera

Black-naped Fruit-dove (Ptilinopus melanospila) - heard at Lore Lindu NP and 2-10 on three dates at Tangkoko and Dumoga Bone NP

White-bellied Imperial-pigeon (Ducula forsteni) Sulawesi and Sula Islands – at least 10 from the main road viewpoint at Tangkoko and 6 at Dumoga Bone NP

Grey-headed Imperial-pigeon (Ducula radiata) Sulawesi - 4 from the main road viewpoint at Tangkoko and many seen in riverside tree-tops at Dumoga Bone NP

Green Imperial-pigeon (Ducula aenea) - 2-5 on two dates in the Luwuk-Taima area; common at Tangkoko and Dumoga Bone NP

Cinnamon-bellied Imperial Pigeon (Ducula basilica) North Moluccas - 1-2 on four dates on Halmahera

Pied Imperial-pigeon (Ducula bicolor) - 2-15 on five dates on Halmahera and at Tangkoko

Silver-tipped Imperial-pigeon (Ducula luctuosa) Sulawesi sub-region & Sula Is - common at Tangkoko and 4 Dumoga Bone NP

Sombre Pigeon (Cyptophaps poecilorrhoa) Sulawesi - singles on two dates at roosting trees at Lore Lindu NP

Yellow-breasted Racquet-tail (Prioniturus flavicans) Near threatened. Sulawesi sub-region - the less common of the two racquet-tails, with 1-4 on four dates at Tangkoko and Dumoga Bone NP

Golden-mantled Racquet-tail (Prioniturus platurus) Sulawesi sub-region & Sula Is - at least 15 flying over the Anaso track, Lore Lindu NP and common at the Tangkoko viewpoint

Great-billed Parrot (Tanygnathus megalorhynchos) - 1 seen poorly in flight over the road at Sidangoli and 4 seen well over Lake Tolire, Ternate

Blue-backed Parrot (Tanygnathus sumatranus) - 1-4 daily at Tangkoko and Dumoga Bone NP

Ornate Lorikeet (Trichoglossus ornatus) Sulawesi sub-region - 2-30 on seven dates at Lore Lindu NP, Tangkoko and Dumoga Bone NP

Yellow-and-green Lorikeet (Trichoglossus flavoviridis) Sulawesi and Sula Islands - at least 20 on two dates by the lake at Lore Lindu NP, including a pair at a tree hole

Chattering Lory (Lorius garralus) Threatened - endangered. North Moluccas - 1-2 on three dates on Halmahera; after frustratingly brief and distant views two were finally seen well at Sidangoli

Red-flanked Lorikeet (Charmosyna placentis) - 8-10 on two dates on Halmahera but unfortunately only seen poorly in flight

White Cockatoo (Cacatua alba) Threatened - vulnerable. North Moluccas - 2-8 individuals of this superb parrot seen almost daily on Halmahera

Sulphur-crested Cockatoo (Cacatua galerita) - 2 at Tangkoko. This Australian species is apparently introduced on the South Moluccas and BoW makes no mention of it occurring on Sulawesi.

Eclectus Parrot (Eclectus roratus) - 2-6 daily on Halmahera

Red-cheeked Parrot (Geoffroyus geoffroyi) - 2-6 daily on Halmahera

Large Sulawesi Hanging-parrot (Loriculus stigmatus) Sulawesi sub-region - 1 Lore Lindu NP, 3 on outskirts of Manado, common from the Tangkoko viewpoint and small numbers seen at Gunang Ambang and Dumoga Bone NP, with many others heard in flight

Small Sulawesi/Red-billed Hanging-parrot (Loriculus exilis) Near threatened. Sulawesi sub-region - only two confirmed at the Tangkoko viewpoint but possibly overlooked elsewhere

Moluccan Hanging-parrot (Loriculus amabilis) Bangaii, Sula Island and North Moluccas - 1-3 on four dates on Halmahera

Rusty-breasted Cuckoo (Cacomantis sepulcralis) - 1-2 of the virescens race on two dates at Lore Lindu NP and heard at Gunang Ambang. HBW considers sepulcralis to be a race of Brush Cuckoo Cacomantis variolosus.

Brush Cuckoo (Cacomantis variolosus) - 2 on two dates and several others heard on Halmahera

Little Bronze-cuckoo (Chrysococcyx minutillus) – 1 near Palu and heard daily at Lore Lindu NP.
The jungei race on Sulawesi, along with others, is considered by BoW to be a separate species 'Gould's Bronze Cuckoo' Chrysococcyx russatus.

Black-billed Koel (Eudynamys melanorhyncha) Sulawesi sub-region & Sula Is – 1-4 on six dates near Palu and at Tangkoko, Gunang Ambang and Dumoga Bone NP, with many others heard at these locations and elsewhere

Channel-billed Cuckoo (Scythrops novaehollandiae) - 1 flew high over the road at the Tangkoko viewpoint

Yellow-billed Malkoha (Phaenicophaeus calyorhynchus) Sulawesi sub-region - 1-4 on eight dates at Lore Lindu NP, Tangkoko, Gunang Ambang and Dumoga Bone NP

Goliath Coucal (Centropus goliath) North Moluccas - 2-7 on three dates on Halmahera, including a juvenile bird (with pale buff plumage); the deep, reverberating call was heard frequently, especially at dusk.

Lesser Coucal (Centropus bengalensis) - 1-2 on twelve dates at wetland locations throughout

Bay Coucal (Centropus celebensis) Sulawesi sub-region - 2 Tangkoko and 9 Dumoga Bone NP; heard daily at both locations

Sulawesi Masked Owl (Tyto rosenbergii) Sulawesi sub-region - 1 heard at close proximity outside the accommodation at Dumoga Bone NP could not be observed

Sulawesi Scops-owl (Otus manadensis) Sulawesi sub-region - after much effort a single bird was seen at Tangkoko; heard frequently at Lore Lindu NP, Tangkoko and Dumoga Bone NP

Moluccan Scops-owl (Otus magicus) - 2 seen on Halmahera and heard almost every night

Ochre-bellied Hawk-owl (Ninox ochracea) Near threatened. Sulawesi sub-region - 2 seen at a daytime roost at Tangkoko

Cinnabar Hawk-owl (Ninox ochracea ios) Threatened - vulnerable. Sulawesi - several individuals heard at both Lore Lindu NP and Gunang Ambang, often in close proximity, but despite much effort could not be observed

Speckled Hawk-owl (Ninox punctulata) Sulawesi - 1 Lore Lindu NP and 3 Dumoga Bone NP, including two at a roost in abandoned buildings at the national park HQ

Moluccan Owlet-nightjar (Aegotheles crinifrons) North Moluccas - 1 seen well and several others heard on Halmahera

Heinrich's/Diabolical Nightjar (Eurostopodus diabolicus) Threatened - vulnerable. Sulawesi - 1 seen roosting on the Anaso track, Lore Lindu NP

Great Eared-nightjar (Eurostopodus macrotis) – 2 Lore Lindu NP, at least 10 from Mama Roo’s guesthouse, Tangkoko and 3 Dumoga Bone NP

Large-tailed Nightjar (Caprimulgus macrurus) – heard daily and up to 3 seen on Halmahera including one road casualty

Sulawesi Nightjar (Caprimulgus celebensis) Sulawesi sub-region & Sula Is – 2 on two dates at Tangkoko

Savannah Nightjar (Caprimulgus affinis) – over 20 at a roost on the outskirts of Palu on route to Lore Lindu NP

Grey-rumped Treeswift (Hemiprocne longipennis) – 1-10 on three dates at Lore Lindu NP; frequent to common at Tangkoko and Dumoga Bone NP

Moustached Treeswift (Hemiprocne mystacea) – 1-5 on two dates on Halmahera

Glossy Swiftlet (Collocalia esculenta) - generally common at all locations

Moluccan Swiftlet (Collocalia infuscata) Sulawesi sub-region, Sula Is and Moluccas - up to 10 on twelve dates at Lore Lindu NP, Macassar airport and Tangkoko, and common at Gunang Ambang and Dumoga Bone NP . The sororum race on Sulawesi, with a distinctly paler rump than infuscatus of the North Moluccas, is considered by some authorities to be a separate species: 'Sulawesi Swiftlet'.

Uniform Swiftlet (Collocalia vanikorensis) - generally common at most locations though only a single bird noted on Halmahera

Purple Needletail (Hirundapus celebensis) – 10-12 on two dates over the river at Dumoga Bone NP

Fork-tailed Swift (Apus pacificus) – 2 Dumoga Bone NP

Asian Palm-swift (Cypsiurus (parvus) balasiensis) – 5 near Palu and 3 Dumoga Bone NP

House Swift (Apus (affinis) nipalensis) - 1 Macassar

Common Kingfisher (Alcedo atthis) – 1-4 on six dates at the Luwuk-Taima lagoon, Kotamobagu and Dumoga Bone NP

Sulawesi Dwarf Kingfisher (Ceyx fallax) Near threatened. Sulawesi sub-region – 2 Tangkoko

Lilac-cheeked Kingfisher (Cittura cyanotis) Near threatened. Sulawesi sub-region – 2 on two dates at Tangkoko and heard at Dumoga Bone NP

Great-/Black-billed Kingfisher (Pelargopsis melanorhyncha) Sulawesi sub-region & Sula Is – 5 in the mangroves at Tangkoko

Ruddy Kingfisher (Halcyon coromanda) – 2 Tangkoko

Collared Kingfisher (Todirhamphus chloris) – 1-8 almost daily on Sulawesi and particularly numerous at Gunang Ambang

Talaud Kingfisher (Todirhamphus enigma) Near threatened. Talaud, Northeast Sulawesi – 1 perched with a Collared Kingfisher at the Tangkoko viewpoint allowed a useful comparison of the two species. Talaud Kingfisher appears to have recently colonised northeast Sulawesi from the Talaud Islands.

Blue and White Kingfisher (Halcyon diops) North Moluccas – 1-6 on two dates on Halmahera

Sombre Kingfisher (Halcyon funebris) Threatened - vulnerable. Halmahera - 1 seen and several others heard on Halmahera

Beach Kingfisher (Halcyon saurophaga) - 2 in mangroves at Sidangoli

Sacred Kingfisher (Todirhamphus sanctus) – singles on four dates near Luwuk and on Halmahera

Green-backed Kingfisher (Actenoides monachus) Near threatened. Sulawesi sub-region – 1-3 on two dates at Tangkoko and heard at Dumoga Bone NP

Scaly Kingfisher (Actenoides princeps) Sulawesi – 1 seen from roadside at dawn below Gunang Ambang

Common Paradise-kingfisher (Tanysiptera galatea) – 1-3 on three dates on Halmahera

Purple-bearded Bee-eater (Meropogon forsteni) Sulawesi – 1-6 on three dates at Lore Lindu NP, especially on the Anaso track, and 1 at Gunang Ambang

Blue-tailed Bee-eater (Merops (superciliosus) philippinus) – common at location on outskirts of Palu

Purple-winged Roller (Coracias temminckii) Sulawesi sub-region – 1-4 on four dates at Lore Lindu NP, between Lore Lindu NP and Palu, and at Tangkoko

Purple Dollarbird (Eurystomus azureus) Threatened - vulnerable. North Moluccas - 1 distantly perched in treetop and in flight on Halmahera

Sulawesi Dwarf Hornbill (Penelopides exarhatus) Sulawesi sub-region – 1 seen and others heard at the Tangkoko viewpoint and 6 on two dates at Dumoga Bone NP

Knobbed Hornbill (Aceros cassidix) Sulawesi sub-region – 6 Lore Lindu NP, 2 between Luwuk and Taima, 2-3 on two dates at Tangkoko and a flock of at least 24 at Dumoga Bone NP

Blyth's Hornbill (Rhyticeros plicatus) – 3-20 daily on Halmahera

Sulawesi Pygmy Woodpecker (Dendrocopos temminckii) Sulawesi sub-region – 1-3 on four dates at Lore Lindu NP and Dumoga Bone NP

Ashy Woodpecker (Mulleripicus fulvus) Sulawesi sub-region - 1-5 on four dates at Tangkoko, Gunang Ambang and Dumoga Bone NP

Blue-breasted/Red-bellied Pitta (Pitta erythrogaster) – a single bird gave close and prolonged views at Tangkoko; also heard at Dumoga Bone NP

Ivory-breasted Pitta (Pitta maxima) North Moluccas – 1 roosting high in a tree on the way to the standard-wing lek and 2 others briefly in flight when disturbed from the track; heard daily throughout Halmahera

Golden-bellied Gerygone (Gerygone sulphurea) - 1-2 on six dates at Lore Lindu NP and Kotemobagu

Scarlet Honeyeater (Myzomela sanguinolenta) - 1-5 on four dates at Lore Lindu NP and Gunang Ambang

Dusky Honeyeater (Myzomela obscura) - 1 Sidangoli

Lesser Sulawesi/Dark-eared Honeyeater (Myza celebensis) Sulawesi - 1-4 on four dates at Lore Lindu NP

Greater Sulawesi/Streaked Honeyeater (Myza sarasinorum) Sulawesi - 2 Lore Lindu NP

White-streaked Friarbird (Melitograis gilolensis) North Moluccas - 1-5 on four dates on Halmahera

Dusky Friarbird (Philemon fuscicapillus) Threatened - vulnerable. North Moluccas - 1 Sidangoli

Yellow-flanked Whistler (Hylocitrea bonensis) Sulawesi - 2 Anaso Track, Lore Lindu NP

Sulphur-bellied/Yellow-vented Whistler (Pachycephala sulfuriventer) Sulawesi - 2-10 daily at Lore Lindu NP and 4 Gunang Ambang

Common Golden Whistler (Pachycephala pectoralis) - 2-4 on two dates on Halmahera

Drab Whistler (Pachycephala griseonata) Sula Is & Moluccas - 1 seen and at least 2 others heard on Halmahera

Eurasian Swallow (Hirundo rustica) - seen daily throughout and generally common

Pacific Swallow (Hirundo tahitica) – seen daily throughout and generally common

Yellow Wagtail (Motacilla flava) – 1-20 on eleven dates at most locations, particularly at wetlands and paddies

Grey Wagtail (Motacilla cinerea) – 1-15 on 12 dates at most locations

Caerulean Cuckooshrike (Coracina temminckii) Sulawesi – 2-3 on two dates at Lore Lindu NP

Pied Cuckooshrike (Coracina bicolor) Near threatened. Sulawesi sub-region – 1-10 on four dates at Tangkoko and Dumoga Bone NP

White-rumped Cuckooshrike (Coracina leucopygia) Sulawesi sub-region – 1-6 on four dates in the Luwuk-Taima area and at Tangkoko

Halmahera Cuckooshrike (Coracina parvula) Halmahera – singles at Sidangoli on two dates

Moluccan Cuckooshrike (Coracina atriceps) Moluccas – 2 Halmahera

White-bellied Cuckooshrike (Coracina papuensis) – 4 on Halmahera including a nesting pair

Common Cicadabird (Coracina tenuirostris) – 2-6 on two dates on Halmahera

Sulawesi Cuckooshrike (Coracina morio) Sulawesi sub-region – 1-4 three dates at Lore Lindu NP and at Tangkoko

Sulawesi Triller (Lalage leucopygialis) Sulawesi sub-region & Sula Is – 2-4 on five dates between Lore Lindu NP and Palu, Tangkoko and Dumoga Bone NP

White-shouldered Triller (Lalage sueurii) Sulawesi sub-region and Lesser Sundas – 1-5 on four dates at Lore Lindu NP and near Palu

Rufous-bellied Triller (Lalage aurea) North Moluccas – 3-10 daily on Halmahera

Sooty-headed Bulbul (Pycnonotus (cafer) aurigaster) 2-6 on nine dates at Palu, Mandano, Tangkoko, Gunang Ambang and Dumoga Bone NP

Golden Bulbul (Alophoixus affinis) Sulawesi sub-region, Sula Is & Moluccas – 4-10 daily on Halmahera

Malia (Malia grata) Sulawesi – 2-4 on two dates with others heard at Lore Lindu NP

Sulawesi Babbler (Trichastoma celebense) Sulawesi sub-region – 1-6 on nine dates throughout Sulawesi

Great Shortwing (Heinrichia calligyna) Sulawesi – after much effort two birds seen well and at close range at Lore Lindu NP

Pied Stonechat (Saxicola caprata) – 1-4 on four dates at Lore Lindu NP and Macassar airport

Blue Rock-thrush (Monticola solitarius) - 3 on the rocky coastline at Tangkoko

Red-backed Thrush (Zoothera erythronota) Near threatened. Sulawesi sub-region & Sula Is – 1-2 on two dates from the lower trail at Tangkoko

Sulawesi Thrush (Cataponera turdoides) Sulawesi – 1 adult accompanied by a juvenile bird on the Anaso track, Lore Lindu NP

Chestnut-backed Bush-warbler (Bradypterus castaneus) Sulawesi sub-region & South Moluccas – 1-5 on two dates at Lore Lindu NP and heard at Dumoga Bone NP

Middenhorff’s Warbler (Locustella ochotensis) – 1 heard at Lore Lindu NP

Zitting Cisticola (Cisticola juncidis) – singles at Lore Lindu NP and paddies at Tumpaan restaurant

Golden-headed Cisticola (Cisticola exilis) – 1 Lore Lindu NP and 2 Gunang Ambang

Clamorous Reed-warbler (Acrocephalus stentoreus) – singles near Palu at Kotamobagu

Mountain Tailorbird (Orthotomus cuculatus) – 2-10 on four dates at Lore Lindu NP

Arctic Warbler (Phylloscopus borealis) – singles on two dates on Halmahera

Sulawesi Leaf-warbler (Phylloscopus (trivirgatus) sarasinorum) Sulawesi – 1-11 on six dates at Lore Lindu NP, Gunang Ambang and Dumoga Bone NP

Grey-streaked Flycatcher (Muscicapa griseisticta) – 1-3 on eight dates at Lore Lindu NP, Tangkoko, Gunang Ambang and on Halmahera

Snowy-browed Flycatcher (Ficedula hyperythra) – 1-4 on four dates at Lore Lindu NP and Gunang Ambang

Rufous-throated Flycatcher (Ficedula rufigula) Near threatened. Sulawesi – a pair at Lore Lindu NP

Little Pied Flycatcher (Ficedula westermanni) – singles on two dates at Lore Lindu NP

Island Verditer Flycatcher (Eumyias panayensis) – 2-8 daily at Lore Lindu NP

Matinan Flycatcher (Cyornis sanfordi) Threatened - endangered. North Sulawesi – 1 heard singing and eventually seen at Gunang Ambang

Blue-fronted Flycatcher (Cyornis hoevelli) Sulawesi – 1-5 daily at the lake at Lore Lindu NP

Mangrove Blue-flycatcher (Cyornis rufigastra) Sulawesi – 1-2 on three dates at Lore Lindu NP and Gunang Ambang. Some authors consider the race on Sulawesi to be a separate species 'Sulawesi Blue Flycatcher' Cyornis omissus

Citrine Canary-flycatcher (Culicicapa helianthea) - 1-8 on four dates at Lore Lindu NP and Gunang Ambang

Willie Wagtail (Rhipidura leucophrys) - 2-10 daily on Halmahera

Rusty-bellied Fantail (Rhipidura teysmanni) Sulawesi sub-region & Sula Is - 4-8 daily at Lore Lindu NP and 6 Gunang Ambang

Black-naped Monarch (Hypothymis azurea) - 1-4 on six dates at Lore Lindu NP, Luwuk-Taima, Tangkoko, Gunang Ambang and Dumoga Bone NP. Sulawesi's puella and neighbouring races are considered by some authors to be a separate species 'Pale-headed Monarch' Hypothymis puella.

White-naped Monarch (Monarcha pileatus) Moluccas & Lesser Sundas – a single bird on Anu’s track to the Standard-wing lek

Spectacled Monarch (Monarch tivirgatus) – 1-6 daily on Halmahera

Slaty Flycatcher (Myiagra galeata) Moluccas – 1-4 daily on Halmahera

Shining Monarch (Piezorhynchus alecto) – 1-4 on three dates on Halmahera

Brown-throated Sunbird (Anthreptes malacensis) - 1-10 on eight dates at Palu, Lore Lindu NP, Sidangoli, Tangkoko and Dumoga Bone NP

Black Sunbird (Nectarinia aspasia) - 1-6 on six dates at Palu, Karaenta Forest, Tangkoko and Dumoga Bone NP, and common on Halmahera

Olive-backed Sunbird (Nectarinia jugularis) - 1-10+ daily at most locations

Crimson Sunbird (Aethopyga siparaja) - 4 Lore Lindu NP and singles at Gunang Ambang and Dumoga Bone NP

Yellow-sided Flowerpecker (Dicaeum aureolimbatum) Sulawesi sub-region - 1-6 on eight dates at Palu, Lore Lindu NP, Tangkoko, Gunang Ambang and Dumoga Bone NP

Crimson-crowned Flowerpecker (Dicaeum nehrkorni) Sulawesi - singles on three dates at Lore Lindu NP and Gunang Ambang

Flame-breasted Flowerpecker (Dicaeum erythrothorax) North Moluccas & Buru - singles on two dates on Halmahera

Grey-sided Flowerpecker (Dicaeum celebicum) Sulawesi sub-region & Sula Is 1-10 on nine dates at Palu, Lore Lindu NP, Luwuk-Taima, Tangkoko, Gunang Ambang and Dumoga Bone NP

Mountain White-eye (Zosterops montanus) - common daily at Lore Lindu NP and 3 Gunang Ambang

Lemon-bellied White-eye (Zosterops chloris) - 1-15+ on four dates at Palu and Lore Lindu NP

Black-ringed White-eye (Zosterops anomalus) Sulawesi - 3 Karaenta Forest

Cream-throated White-eye (Zosterops atriceps) North Moluccas - small numbers to common daily on Halmahera

Black-fronted White-eye (Zosterops atrifrons) - small numbers to common on ten dates at Lore Lindu NP, Tangkoko, Gunang Ambang and Dumoga Bone NP

Streaky-headed White-eye (Lophozosterops squamiceps) Sulawesi - 1-10 on three dates at Lore Lindu NP

Dusky-brown Oriole (Oriolus phaecochromus) Halmahera - 1-4 on three dates on Halmahera

Black-naped Oriole (Oriolus chinensis) - 1-6 on ten dates at Lore Lindu NP, Luwuk-Taima, Karaenta Forest, Tangkoko and Dumoga Bone NP

Hair-crested Drongo (Dicrurus hottentottus) - 1-10 on eight dates at Palu, Luwuk-Taima, Karaenta Forest and Tangkoko, and common at Dumoga Bone NP

Sulawesi Drongo (Dicrurus montanus) Sulawesi - 1-4 daily at Lore Lindu NP and heard at Gunang Ambang

Spangled Drongo (Dicrurus bracteatus) - 4-6 daily on Halmahera

Slender-billed Crow (Corvus enca) - 4-10 on eight dates at Luwuk-Taima, Sidangoli and Tangkoko, and common at Dumoga Bone NP

Piping Crow (Corvus typicus) Sulawesi sub-region - 2 by road and 4 at lake plus others heard at Lore Lindu NP

Long-billed Crow (Corvus validus) North Moluccas - 1-10 on four dates on Halmahera

Paradise Crow (Lycocorax pyrrhopterus) North Moluccas - 2-8 on three dates at Sidangoli and others heard elsewhere on Halmahera

Standard-wing Bird of Paradise (Semioptera wallacii) North Moluccas - 2 males and a female at the lek on Anu's track

White-breasted Woodswallow (Artamus leucorynchus) - 1-20+ daily throughout

Ivory-backed Woodswallow (Artamus monachus) Sulawesi sub-region & Sula Is - a flock of 7 at Lore Lindu NP

Moluccan Starling (Aplonis mysolensis) - 3 on two dates on Halmahera

Asian Glossy Starling (Aplonis panayensis) - 2-6 on three dates at Lore Lindu NP and between Dumoga Bone NP and Mandano

Metallic/Shining Starling (Aplonis metallica) - common daily on Halmahera

Sulawesi Crested Myna (Basilornis celebensis) Sulawesi sub-region - 3-6 on two dates at Lore Lindu NP

White-necked Myna (Streptocitta albicollis) Sulawesi sub-region - 2-1 daily at Tangkoko and 1 near Gunang Ambang

Fiery-browed Myna (Enodes erythrophris) Sulawesi - common daily at Lore Lindu NP and 6-20 on two dates at Gunang Ambang

Grosbeak/Finch-billed Myna (Scissirostrum dubium) Sulawesi sub-region - 10-20 on four dates at Lore Lindu NP and Dumoga Bone NP and common at Tangkoko

Eurasian Tree Sparrow (Passer montanus) - commonly seen in all villages and built up areas

Blue-faced Finch (Erythrura trichroa) - 1 Anaso Track, Lore Lindu NP

Black-faced Munia (Lonchura molucca) - 1-5 on six dates at Palu, Sidangoli and Gunang Ambang and at least 20 at Tumpaan paddies

Scaly-breasted Munia (Lonchura punctulata) - 1-20 on five dates at Palu, Lore Lindu NP, Gunang Ambang and Tumpaan paddies

Chestnut Munia (Lonchura malacca) - small numbers to common on thirteen dates at Palu, Lore Lindu NP, Halmahera , Gunang Ambang and Dumoga Bone NP

Pale-headed Munia (Lonchura pallida) Sulawesi sub-region & Lesser Sundas - a flock of 20 in paddies near Palu

Java Sparrow (Padda oryzivora) Threatened - vulnerable - 7 in paddies at Tumpaan restaurant

Mountain Serin (Serinus estherae) - 2 Anaso Track, Lore Lindu NP


Bear Cuscus (Ailurops ursinus) - 1 Tangkoko viewpoint

Pale/Whitish Dwarf Squirrel (Prosciurillus leucomus) - 1 Tangkoko

Pygmy Brown Squirrel (Prosciurillus murinus) - commonly seen at Lore Lindu NP

Spectral Tarsier (Tarsius spectrum) - 2 at separate roost trees, Tangkoko

Celebes Crested Macaque (Macaca nigra) - two groups at Tangkoko, one comprising at least 50 individuals

Tonkean Macaque (Macaca tonkena) - 2 on the lower Anaso Track, Lore Lindu

Halmaheran Naked-backed Fruit-bat (Dobsonia crenulata) - a fruit-bat seen feeding on flowers on Halmahera may have been this species

Other species

Water Monitor (Varanus salvator) - 1 in lake near Dumoga-Bone NP HQ

Australian Saltwater Crocodile Crocodylus porosus - 1 Lake Tolire, Ternate