Bolivia with Bird Bolivia - June 24 to July 14, 2011

Published by Paul Jones (pauljodi AT

Participants: Paul Jones, Jodie van Dieen


Photos with this report (click to enlarge)

Red-fronted Macaw
Red-fronted Macaw
Toco Toucan
Toco Toucan
Blue-throated Macaw
Blue-throated Macaw
Andean Condor
Andean Condor
Bird Bolivia Team
Bird Bolivia Team

Paul Jones - Ottawa, Canada

My wife Jodie and I spent three weeks in Bolivia, staying at lodges in a variety of habitats. The trip was organized by Bird Bolivia and we had a wonderful time. Highlights included close encounters with cliff-edge Andean Condors, mist-shrouded Mountain Toucans and the endemic and critically endangered Blue-throated and Red-fronted Macaws.

Trip Photographs

Bolivia covers 1.1 million square kilometres and borders Peru, Brazil, Paraguay, Argentina and Chile. It has a human population of about 8.25 million, 70% of whom are indigenous peoples. The Andes dominate the country’s western third and feature alpine grasslands, montane forest and high altitude wetlands. To the east of the mountains, and running roughly north to south, are vast areas of tropical forest, palm-dotted savannah, and dry thorn tree country. This diversity produces the largest bird list (1414) of any land-locked nation.

Bird Bolivia - On a whim I typed “Bolivia” and “birding” into the Internet and immediately found Bird Bolivia’s great website. The company is Bolivian-owned and its goal is to encourage birders to visit community-based eco-tourism projects. Their chief guide is Sandro Valdez from the Amazon forest village of San José de Uchupiamonas. He is great company, with very good English and excellent birding skills. Carlos Lijeron from the small town of Bermejo near Amboro National Park was our friendly and professional camp chef, general fixer and very safe driver.

Itinerary - After poring over the Bird Bolivia website we contacted the agency by email and indicated interest in a three week private trip, with a focus on visiting a few lodges at a measured pace rather than running up a huge bird list. They responded immediately and suggested five locations, with a three to four night stay at each.

From Bolivia’s capital La Paz we would travel by minibus east over the mountains and down to the Apa Apa Reserve, a protected area of humid montane forest on the eastern slope of the Andes. From there we would return to La Paz and fly, again east over the Andes, to Rurrenabeque in the Amazon. Four nights would follow in moist foothill and lowland forest at the new Sadiri Lodge. Next a Cessna would take us to the Barba Azul (Blue-throated Macaw) Nature Reserve in Beni savannah country and then on to Santa Cruz in south central Bolivia. From Santa Cruz we would continue by minibus to the mixed forest at the Los Volcanes Refuge and then on to the dry Andean valleys of the Red-fronted Macaw Reserve.

Bolivia offers more habitat diversity that can be explored in one trip, making it difficult to decide which amazing areas to visit and which ones to forego. The country’s standard birding trail (to the extent there is one) begins in Santa Cruz and moves gradually up into the Andes, allowing participants to acclimatize to higher altitudes and study a succession of eco-systems. It is an excellent and cost efficient route but we were extremely happy with our more expensive plane and lodge-based itinerary.

Health and Safety - Bolivia has a reputation as a safe travel destination. We encountered no problems. People were friendly and polite, with many small courtesies often extended. Road travel is a concern in every country and Bolivia, where mountain highways often traverse near vertical slopes, is no exception. In hilly areas we avoided looking sideways and down from the vehicle, but Carlos’s careful driving meant things were never particularly worrisome.

Before departing Canada our travel doctor gave us the required Yellow Fever vaccine (directed at keeping the country free of the disease) and anti-malarials (which hardly seemed necessary). We carried the anti-biotic Norfloxacin to combat stomach trouble and popped Diamox tablets before entering high altitude zones. The upper reaches of La Paz city are at 4000 metres. The pass east through the Andes near La Cumbre tops out at 5000. Apparently the real impact of altitude does not set in immediately and given that we were scheduled to spend less than half a day at this height we were not especially concerned. As it turned out Jodie felt no ill effects, not even shortness of breath. My fingertips did get painfully numb as I worked with cameras in the cold, thin mountain air, something that does not happen in frostier conditions at lower altitudes in Canada. The problem passed after I was able to warm my hands.

Weather - Bolivia has a varied climate. Our June-July visit coincided with the cooler dry season, which runs from May through November. We brought fleeces, light wool layers, watch caps, rain shells and light leather hiking boots. In the high lands we needed all the clothing we had to keep warm. When a cold front from the south - a surazo - hit we had to bundle up even at low altitudes, especially at night. Work commitments prevented us from visiting in November, which is apparently the best time for birding - being just before the onset of the rains and with warmer weather prevailing.

Equipment - We supplied our own binoculars. Bird Bolivia provided a scope and an MP3 player to call in birds. Small headlamps were useful in the remoter camps and we carried compact but powerful LED lights to spot wildlife at night (LED Lenser’s P-7 and P-14 models).

Photography - We brought a Canon Eos 1DM4 with an 800mmf5.6 lens, an Eos 7D/400mmDOf4 combo, an Eos 5DM2/24-105mm and a Canon G-12 point and shoot. We put the 1D/800 and 7D/400 in carry-on and had no problems bringing them on planes. The 400 on the 7D is handholdable and easy to carry long distances over the shoulder. It worked well, especially for flying birds, but on future trips I will bring along a monopod to provide additional stability. The 800 on the 1D is an exquisite combination, but very heavy. I mounted it on a Gitzo carbon tripod fitted with a Wimberley II head and used it close to lodges and near the vehicle.

The Barba Azul Reserve and the Red-fronted Macaw Reserve offer world-class photographic opportunities, with lots of approachable and seldom documented species. The montane and foothill forests we visited were trickier locations to obtain images - often cloud shrouded and populated by fast moving bird flocks. To charge batteries we had a Type C adapter (two round prongs) but never used it as the standard North American plug (two flat prongs) fit at all locations.

Literature - Although one will be ready in 2012, Bolivia does not yet have its own field guide. To study for the trip I used “Birds of South America: Non-Passerines: Rheas to Woodpeckers” by Erize, Mata and Rumboll and the “Field Guide to the Songbirds of South America, The Passerines” by Ridgely and Tudor. In Bolivia we were able to access Sandro’s extensive portable library (including Schulenberg’s brilliant Birds of Peru). For mammals, Emmons’s “Neotropical Rainforest Mammals” is helpful except in high and dry country. Outside the low, humid forest you have to rely on a variety of on-line and print sources to cobble together a picture of what species to expect and how to identify them. General birding information is available on the Bird Bolivia site, including an extensive discussion on independent travel. Pioneering birder Sjoerd Mayer has prepared a CD-ROM on Bolivian birds and maintains a useful website:

Money - Almost all our costs were prepaid through Bird Bolivia; we didn’t have much need for cash. We never found souvenirs to purchase so most of our money (U.S. dollars) went to tips. We dropped $5 at small restaurants, $20 a day for local guiding services and a big amount for Sandro and Carlos at the end of the tour.

Locations Visited

One - High Andes (3000 to 5000 metres) between La Paz and the Eastern Slope - In transit on June 24 and again on June 27

Our six-hour American Airlines overnight flight from Miami landed in La Paz (“La Pa”) at 5:30 in the morning without our luggage. More happily, Sandro and Carlos were there to greet us after we belatedly emerged from customs after registering our missing bags with the airline. Attired in smart Bird Bolivia vests and ball caps and holding a sign with our names, they lead us to a six-seater 4X4, high ground clearance, diesel Mitsubishi Delica Minibus. We immediately set off for the Apa Apa Reserve some 115 kilometres away over the Andes. In the predawn darkness we followed a series of narrow streets through the awakening city. La Paz has a certain dignity about it, with close-packed and identically-coloured brick dwellings layering the hillsides. Heading steadily upwards we proceeded past the last houses and shops into the treeless mountain landscape. In the growing light Carlos pointed to a dark brown bird perching by the roadside. “Chee-wonk-oh” he explained and Chiguanco Thrush became our first bird in Bolivia.

We continued past a checkpoint marking the gateway across the Andes and at 8am reached La Cumbre (“coom-bray”), near the height of the land at 5000 metres. Pulling over beside an alpine lake at a large crucifix we exited the vehicle and began birding, the excitement of being in a new habitat compensating for the deep chill in the air. White-winged Diuca-Finch and Bar-winged Cinclodes hopped around at our feet. Under blue skies and windless conditions Sandro scoped in quick succession Silvery Grebe, Yellow-billed Pintail, Crested Duck and Mountain Caracara as well as Andean Duck, Andean Gull, Andean Coot and Andean Flicker. At the same location on our return from Apa Apa we saw a pair of Rufous-bellied Seed-Snipe by a pond behind the interpretation centre (16°20'8.61"S 68° 2'33.32"W).

East from the lake the land begins to drop. While still above the tree line we saw an Andean Goose but, needing to make progress on our long journey, drove past many small, unidentified birds. Not far from La Cumbre the highway splits. The main paved branch, the North Yungas Road, continues on straight. The smaller, gravel South Yungas Road drops off to the right. We followed the lesser route to maybe 3500 metres and parked at the first switchback. While Carlos cooked up some eggs for breakfast we followed a brief trail through the beginning traces of sparse cloud forest. Small groups of Band-tailed Pigeons whirled about in the bright sun and almost immediately we encountered our first mixed flock – a loose and slow moving collection of Hooded Mountain-Tanager, Scarlet-bellied Mountain-Tanager, Citrine Warbler, Bolivian Brush Finch and Mountain Cacique. A little further down we saw a Rufous-breasted Chat-Tyrant in roadside shrubbery and taped in a Bolivian Tapaculo, an extreme skulker.

We followed the road lower to a long straight stretch at perhaps 3000 metres with a deep river gorge on our right and high mountain walls rising above us. It was here, four days later on our return to La Paz that we connected with a great group of birds. Scanning the river for Torrent Ducks I noticed a small white dot of flotsam moving upstream. We quickly got the scope on it and had studying views of White-capped Dipper. While watching the Dipper it slowly registered that the air was filling with bird calls – another mixed flock was moving through. Hooded Mountain-Tanagers again predominated, with Bolivian Brush Finches and Spectacled Redstarts flitting through the undergrowth. A Plushcap and Crimson-mantled Woodpecker provided more excitement and three beautiful White-collared Jays moved by at eye level. From a little way up the road Sandro, usually very calm, suddenly hissed “Paul! Jodie! Hooded Mountain Toucan!” We hastened uphill and looked in the direction he was carefully pointing – to see a family group of this rare and beautiful bird feeding low in a fruiting tree some ten metres away. Other sightings here included Plain-breasted Hawk, Andean Parakeet and Andean Swallow. We did not stay overnight in this mountain country; during our relatively brief passage back and forth over the high Andes we probably spent less than three hours outside the vehicle. Still, it was a fascinating landscape and one that we want to return to and explore more thoroughly.

Two - Apa Apa Forest Reserve - June 24 to June 27 (three nights) in montane forest (2000 to 2500 metres)

Getting there - The Apa Apa Reserve is located on the eastern slope of the Andes and protects one of the few remaining accessible patches of mid-level Yungas (“yune-gus”) montane forest. To reach it we crossed the high lands as described above and continued for several hours on a confusing array of twisting roads to the Chulumani area. From there it was a short distance to the Apa Apa Hotel. Much of the drive was through coca country; the leaf grows well on cleared mountain slopes and is widely available in local markets. I tried chewing some and at first all I noticed was my mouth becoming slightly numb. Then a focused calmness set in - a mist-formed droplet of water at the tip of an orchid took on an intense poignancy. At that point I decided to spit out the leaves and concentrate on birding.

Accommodations - The Apa Apa Hotel is set beside hillside coca farms and below the actual reserve. It is a charming place with clean, well lit rooms and an elegant, open dining area. The menu features basic but very well prepared dishes such as lasagna, beef stew, roast chicken, fresh salads and a delicious array of home made ice cream. We have very good memories of this friendly place and are grateful to the land owners, the Portugal family, for their hospitality and their commitment to protect the forest.

Birding - The reserve is accessible on two sides. One road leads up directly from the hotel; an hour plus steep hike to the better habitat. Another road cuts up from the edge of Chulumani deeper and higher through the bird zone. On our first evening we drove the near road and explored into the lower edge of forest, picking up Yungas Manakin, White-throated Tyrannulet and Blue-winged Mountain-Tanager. The next morning we circled back through town and entered the good habitat from the far side. We birded this almost traffic free route by stopping, walking and then hopping back in the vehicle to try a little further along. Over-hanging trees provided protection from alternating strong sun and light rain.

Some birds, including Andean Guan, White-fronted Quail Dove, Masked Trogon, Blue-banded Toucanet, Band-tailed Fruit-eater and Inca Jay, were encountered as they fed alone or in small family groups by the roadside. Others appeared in mixed flocks. At Apa Apa, as elsewhere in the tropics, different species assemble in the morning and begin to travel together through the forest as the day progresses. The Apa Apa flocks were fast moving and unpredictable, veering sharply off at odd angles and sometimes folding back on themselves. I had little success at placing myself in their line of travel but it was fun to try. In our first morning we saw Rufous-rumped Foliage-Gleaner, Rust-and-yellow Tanager, Saffron-crowned Tanager, Blue-and-black Tanager, Common Bush-Tanager, Brown-capped Redstart, Three-banded Warbler and a variety of other species. We later added the range-restricted Slaty Tanager. Green-cheeked Parakeet was the common psittacidae, small flocks were in constant motion throughout our visit. Sounds from the forest included Green Violet-Ear (chip chip), Azara Spinetail (chap chap) and Ochre-faced Tody-Tyrant (frrrrrt).

Towards noon on our first full day Carlos received an important phone call from his brother German (Bird Bolivia’s other driver) who was waiting nearby in Chulamani. Very early that morning he had picked up our delayed bags in La Paz and accompanied them over the Andes by bus. We hurried back to town to gratefully reclaim our luggage. In the afternoon we did not return to the forest but walked down the road from the hotel through mixed farming and village country. Sightings here included Red-billed Parrot, Scaley-naped Parrot, Purplish Jay, Blue-and-white Swallow and Hooded Siskin. Not having changed into our late arriving insecticide-treated clothing, we also received five to ten chigger bites each. We should have been more careful – in South America the combination of roadside grass and strolling livestock usually means these mites are lurking nearby.

Aside from the minor chigger annoyance we had a great time at Apa Apa. The best sighting was the reserve’s key but difficult target - Scimitar-winged Piha, a species confined to a narrow band of forest in Bolivia and a few locations in Peru. Sandro knows the stretch of road where most sightings occur and on our first visit we heard its call. The next day at the same place one flew low across the road and then sat briefly in the mist for studying views - a great moment.

Three - Sadiri (“Sad-ear-eee”) Lodge - June 27 to June 30 (four nights) in lowland and foothill tropical forest (300 to 950 metres)

Getting there - On June 27 we left Apa Apa very early as Carlos had learned that the road back to La Paz would be closed at 7am to allow for major construction. After making it safely past the choke point we birded briefly at the Mountain Toucan spot and at La Cumbre before arriving in La Paz around noon. We continued to the airport, waving at President Evo Morales as his motorcade passed by. From the airport a twin engine turboprop took us on a one hour flight over the Andes and down to Rurrenabeque (“rurr-en-bek-way”) in the Amazon lowlands. At Rurre (as it is known) we set off for the lodge in a Toyota Landcruiser.

To reach our destination we travelled north approximately two and a half hours on gravel Highway 2, fording a number of small rivers and passing by fields, farmhouses, small villages and Amazonian forest in various states of intactness. Wetter areas gave us Hoatzin and Whistling Heron. The sky held Black, Turkey, King and Greater Yellow-headed Vultures. In wooded patches we saw Red and Green Macaw, Chestnut-fronted Macaw, Chestnut-eared Aracari and a host of other species. At dusk we reached the town of Tumupasa, turned off the main road and followed a narrow track for perhaps 20 minutes up into the foothill forest.

Accommodations - Sadiri Lodge is set at 950 metres atop a long, thin ridge stretching far out from the Andes into the Amazonian forest. The name means “resting place” in the local Tacana language and reflects its natural location as a stopping point for people travelling up from San José de Uchupiamonas over the height of land and down again to Tumupasa and beyond. Our expectation was that the lodge would be a nice but modest affair – perhaps a collection of small, rough hewn chalets. Things turned out differently. Parking by the gate to Madidi National Park we followed a softly lit trail through the forest to the main hall, a beautiful raised and open construction of carefully cut and selected local hardwood. Ruth Alipaz, President of Pueblo Nuevo (the NGO responsible for Sadiri), was there to greet us along with the lodge’s staff and the trades building the place. We were Sadiri’s first guests so a special dinner had been organized to mark the occasion. After toasts and brief speeches we sat down to a wonderful meal of dunucuabi, locally caught fish wrapped in leaves and grilled. The food throughout our stay was excellent – a perfect fusion of traditional and western cuisine. After dinner, and exhausted by a long day, we retired to our chalet, a luxury unit built in traditional style with local materials and fitted with a large bathroom. I wondered about the cost of the beautiful Scandinavian furniture until I was shown the place where it was made – a dirt-floored carpentry shop set up nearby under a tarp in the forest.

Birding - Sadiri’s moist tropical forest is accessible from a series of paths that wind up and along the ridge. Their quality is very good but being hill country a steady approach is required at the steeper points. The access road from Tumupasa offers a more gradually inclined birding walk. The “Ancestor’s Trail”, the pre-road route over the highpoint, was also a comfortable hike.

To explore the area we would awake early and amidst a loud dawn chorus set out through the forest. We found lone birds by the trailside (Gray Tinamou and Spix’s Guan, for example) but the real action began with the discovery of a bird flock. The Sadiri flocks were larger and more diverse than at Apa Apa and held a different set of birds. When the weather turned cold and rainy on our second morning we simply left the trails and drove down to Highway 2. Sightings in the dryer conditions here included Pavonine Cuckoo, Guira Cuckoo, Magpie Tanager, Yellow-browed Sparrow, Amazonian Oropendola, Solitary Cacique and Giant Cowbird.

Other birding options at Sadiri included relaxing on the main hall’s veranda and enjoying its beautiful view of the forest and distant mountains. On a couple of occasions large mixed flocks moved by in front of us. The lodge’s hummingbird feeders were busy, with Grey-breasted Sabre-wing, Blue-tailed Emerald, Fork-tailed Woodnymph and Gould’s Jewelfront paying regular visits. We also tried some brief night work. While we only saw Crested Owl, on the first night Rufescent Screech-Owl, Band-bellied Owl and Black-banded Owl were calling simultaneously for hours nearby in the dark. Unfortunately our long journey from Apa Apa had knocked us out and we could not rouse ourselves to search for them.

Best birds at Sadiri ranged from the rare - a Shrike-like Cotinga at eye-level along the road - to the common - our first encounter with the famous Screaming Piha. The entire area is Sandro’s home forest, so he was able to put a name to pretty much every sound. “Poco a poco” (little by little) he would say as we steadily built our list from mixed flocks and stray sightings. Sandra and Ricardo from the village of San José, who will be the lodge’s main guides, also helped out. Sandra has keen eyes (for example, spotting from the backseat of a moving vehicle a Double-toothed Kite hidden in the canopy) and a solicitous manner, fashioning Jodie a walking stick to use on the trails. Ricardo is extremely foresty – soft spoken and stealthy, pausing to peer motionless into the understory and then calmly pointing out or whistling in a bird. Our best mammal sighting of the trip began with his barely audible version of a shout: “Golden Palace! Golden Palace!” I was uncomprehending until he pointed at a group of small monkeys in a tree and Sandro reminded me that Golden (an on-line casino hosted in Kahnawake Mohawk Territory near Montreal, Canada) had paid $650,000 for the naming rights to this newly discovered species, the money going to preserve its habitat.

The beautiful forest at Sadiri was scheduled to be cut, but with the generous assistance of Douglas Wilson and the Thomas Henry Wilson Foundation the village of San José de Uchupiamonas was able to plan and build the lodge. This has saved the habitat and will provide an economic boost to the community. Eco-tourists are the critical component of this new circle of life so it felt good to be making a contribution to the environment simply by showing up. As the first occupants of our chalet we were given the opportunity to name it. We picked “Paradise Tanager”, a lead member of the local bird flocks and a suitably beautiful species.

Four - Barba Azul (Blue-fronted Macaw) Nature Reserve - July 1 to July 4 (four nights) in savannah, wetlands and palm forest

Getting there - Early on the morning of July 1st we said good-bye to our Sadiri friends and drove back to Rurrenabeque, birding along the way. After a hearty lunch of steak, eggs and rice at a roadside cantina we assembled at the town’s second airport for our flight out of the forest and into the grasslands. Pilot Henry Vaca and his six-seater Cessna were waiting for us. Disconcertingly, the cargo limit was announced as ten kilograms per passenger, which did not even cover our carry on bags. After a brief interlude the plan changed – bring it all! It was explained that Barba Azul’s grass airstrip was just 500 metres and could only handle lightly loaded planes (note - this airstrip has now been extended - September 2011). Instead we would set down at a much longer but slightly more distant runway. Assured that safety was not being compromised, we loaded up and lifted off.

The forest fell away as we proceeded east-northeast over drying grasslands, pockets of trees, isolated cattle farms and small herds of cows. At the 45 minute mark we dropped down and buzzed low over a ranch to inspect its dirt airstrip. Banking sharply right and then straightening out for the final descent, we bounced down for a safe landing. The surprised locals greeted us with interest and arranged for a vehicle to take us to the research station. We drove for 15 minutes across the savannah and when the track became too moist for the truck we hopped out and covered the final 500 metres on foot. Later in the dry season the reserve is fully accessible by ground transportation.

Accommodations - There is no lodge (yet) at Barba Azul so we stayed in the research station, a pleasant brick building set between two pockets of palm-dominated forest along the richly vegetated Omi River. The rooms are sparsely equipped but clean and dry, giving the place a functional but homey feel. Carlos prepared our meals in the open kitchen; we ate them under the covered porch along side the building. The food was basic but delicious; dry goods supplemented by pork and chicken from a neighbouring ranch and some Piranhas caught from the river. We had been warned that the weather here would be very hot, even after sun set. This was not a problem. A surazo (cold front) hit on our first night and we awoke shivering in the 8 degree Celsius dawn. During the day temperatures rose to a comfortable but still cool 15-20 degrees. The front was not a problem except it did bring intermittent wind and grey skies that were not the best for photography.

Birding - The Barba Azul reserve protects 46 km2 of grassland, river edge and palm forest set amongst a much larger expanse of similar but heavily grazed habitat. The location’s key attraction is the critically endangered Paraba Barba Azul – the Blue-fronted Macaw. A recently discovered group at the reserve represents a sizable chunk of the 350 remaining wild individuals. In addition to the macaw the area is also home to Greater Rhea, Cock-tailed Tyrant, Strange-tailed Tyrant, Sharp-tailed Grass-Tyrant, Pampas Deer, Giant Anteater and a host of other open country and wetland birds. On our first little exploratory hike we saw Buff-necked Ibis, Golden-collared Macaw, Nacunda Nighthawk, Campo Flicker, Rufous Hornero, Chalk-browed Mockingbird and Sayaca Tanager. Blue-and-yellow Macaws are abundant in the area and as sun set on our first evening several hundred streamed overhead to a roosting area on the far side of the river.

The Barba Azul station maintains a small aluminum boat with an outboard motor and the first morning we took a brief tour up the meandering river with the reserve’s rangers Nancho and Cecil. The habitat is filled with birds; vast numbers of herons, storks, ibis, ducks and raptors. Capybara families fed along the banks and Black and Spectacled Caimans lurked in the water. Pulling up on the far shore we exchanged our hikers for rubber boots (supplied by the reserve) and waded across the drying flood plain to solid ground. The plan was to explore a large patch of Motacu palm forest across from the station that often holds good numbers of Blue-throated Macaw. Just as we reached dry land Nancho called out “Barba Azul! Barba Azul!” and pointed at a group of distant macaws heading quickly in our direction. These were slimmer and more graceful birds than the Blue-and-yellows, and with a less raucous call. Seeing the blue throat was not a problem as the birds were extremely curious; they closed in and circled overhead for extraordinarily close views.

We continued to hike along the edge of the palm forest, picking up 27 more Barba Azul and, out on the grasslands, three Pampas Deer, three Greater Rheas and an approachable pair of Aplomado Falcon. Inside the forest we found a roosting Barn Owl, a troop of Black Howler Monkeys and most interestingly, a sleeping Giant Anteater. It was curled up beneath a palm and, because it was sleeping under its tail, presented simply as a large pile of coarse brown hair. We approached quietly and watched as the fur rose and fell with the animal’s slow breathing. Nancho softly tapped his foot on the ground – there was no response from the anteater. Then he cut a thin palm frond and gently tapped the tail – again, no response. Finally he used the palm frond to carefully lift the tail, revealing the animal’s eyes, ears and elongated snout as well as its distinct angular black flank patch. The anteater blearily lifted its head and sleepily gazed at us before returning to its slumber. Nancho carefully folded the tail back into place and we continued on our way, an amazing encounter with an animal I had dreamed of seeing since childhood. During our stay we had three additional sightings of this species – two along the river and one in the forest beside the research station.

At night we explored the area on foot, scanning with our lights, looking for eyeshine. On our first walk we encountered a confiding Tropical Screech Owl at the edge of a stand of trees, two approachable Zorros (Crab-eating Fox) by the boat landing, five Greater Bulldog Bats catching fish on the river, four Paraques, six Nacunda Nighthawks and three Scissor-tailed Nightjars. The next evening was cold and windy and we didn’t see much. The final night we visited the forest to the right of the station. Things were quiet until nine o’clock when a loud rustling lead us to a Giant Anteater lumbering through the forest. A ripping sound from above was its smaller arboreal cousin - a Southern Tamandua opening a termite nest in a palm. Across the river a Jaguar roared and soon we found a second Tamandua, a roosting Gray-necked Woodrail as well as Caimans, Capybara, Paraques and Scissor-tailed Nightjars on the flood plain. At ten o’clock and facing an early start the next morning we reluctantly headed back to the station.

Barba Azul is a fantastic place in a very hospitable environment, providing long hiking trails on level ground and cooperative photographic subjects. We are especially grateful to Asociación Armonía, a Bolivian non-profit organization that works closely with local communities and scientists to conserve the country’s birds and bird habitat. By establishing and maintaining the reserve, Armonía has protected a critically endangered species and given visitors a unique opportunity to explore a special ecosystem.

Five - Los Volcanes Refuge - July 6 to 8 (three nights) in mixed forest types

Getting there - On the morning of July 5 we awoke early, loaded our gear onto the boat and headed down river. Disembarking at a grassy plain, we walked a short distance to a different, closer airstrip than the one we had landed on. Henry’s Cessna appeared in the distance, zoomed by to inspect the runway, and then circled back and set down. After fond good-byes to Nancho and Cecil we lifted off. Our destination was Santa Cruz (“Santa Crew”) in south central Bolivia, a two hour flight not including a brief stop in Trinidad to refuel and eat breakfast. As we headed south the grasslands turned to untouched forest and then to forest incised with roads. At first there was only a patchwork of small farm plots branching off from the cuts. This gave way to areas cleared completely for industrial agriculture.

We arrived in Santa Cruz late morning and were greeted at the airport by Bird Bolivia’s President Ruth Alipaz. After a quick brunch of Salteñes tamano – Bolivia’s superior version of the empanada pastries found across Latin America – we set off downtown for the upscale Hotel Cortez. We checked in, cleaned up, arranged for laundry, rested and then set out mid-afternoon for the Santa Cruz Botanical Gardens. The gardens are on the edge of town and protect a large area of forest accessible by a series of excellent trails. Sightings on our relatively brief foray included Undulated Tinamou, Picazuro Pigeon, Black-faced Nunbird, Bolivian Slaty Antshrike, Pearly-vented Tody-Tyrant and Thrush-like Wren as well as Brown Capuchin Monkey, Dusky Titi Monkey and Brown-throated Three-toed Sloth. In the evening we enjoyed a great meal at the Los Lomitos restaurant and next morning boarded our familiar Mitsubishi minibus and headed southwest on Highway 4. Santa Cruz is a friendly, bustling place but it does spread out in a hectic sprawl for many kilometres. Far from the city core we were still passing through a dense mixture of suburbs and satellite towns. Eventually the development thinned out and the route began to climb and wind along a river valley. A couple hours from Santa Cruz we reached Bermejo, our driver Carlos’s home community. We said a brief hello to his family, left the main highway and set out on a rough track up into the hills. At the height of land we transferred to a Los Volcanes vehicle and bounced down and around into a deep valley surrounded by colossal massifs of rounded red stone rising to the sky.

Accommodations - Los Volcanes’s lodge is situated in the middle of a large grassy clearing edged by forest and surrounding sheltering mountains. The setting creates an unusual stillness and grandeur, inducing an introspective mood. The rooms are clean, dry, beautifully appointed and equipped with full bathrooms including hot showers. Off to the side of the clearing and by a small mountain river is a separate kitchen and dining area. The staff at Los Volcanes (who mostly seemed to be Carlos’s relatives) were friendly and efficient. The food, like Sadiri’s, was a superb fusion of local and European dishes – including steak and chips, chicken stew and roast duck.

Birding - After briefly letting up on our day in Santa Cruz the surazo returned at Los Volcanes, bringing grey skies and cold temperatures. This slowed bird action but we were still able to see many additional species. Around the lodge Chestnut-tipped Aracari, Cliff Flycatcher, Streak-throated Bush-Tyrant, Purplish Jay and the beautiful Plush-capped Jay were conspicuous. We scanned overhead for one of our most-wanted birds – Andean Condor. After the obligatory King Vulture false alarm we saw the real thing on the second day, scoped as it circled in the sky above. We ended up with four sightings of this legendary species, all in the mid-distance. From the high Mirador Trail we saw eight Military Macaws (our sixth macaw) as well as a Bat Falcon hunting White-tipped Swifts in a spectacular fashion. Along the river we had Sunbittern, Large-tailed Dove and River Warbler. A hike out the entrance road to a bamboo patch resulted in a near-successful encounter with the site’s key but skulking endemic – Bolivian Recurvebill. One tentatively approached, calling in response to playback, but we only saw the trembling bamboo shoot it was perched on, not the actual bird.

Night work at Los Volcanes was moderately productive with Paca, Red Brocket Deer and, perched low on a branch above the river, an approachable Black-banded Owl. In the evening a Brown Agouti visited the lodge’s garden and hundreds of Mitred and Green-cheeked Parakeets streamed overhead. Late afternoon on our final day we set out up the entrance road to try one last time for the Recurvebill. The track is steep, the light was fading and I felt like turning back. Jodie said, “let’s keep going” so we continued to the spot. Sandro played the tape and the bird appeared for a brief, unobstructed view.

Six - Red-fronted Macaw Nature Reserve - July 9 to 12 (four nights) in the cactus and thorn tree country of the dry Andean valleys (2500 metres)

Getting there - On July 9 we departed early from Los Volcanes with a long day’s drive ahead of us. The first quick detour was to nearby Laguna Volcanes where we immediately saw Masked Duck, a species that had eluded us in the Caribbean and Central America. Continuing on the 4, an excellent paved road, we drove gradually upwards until our lunch stop in the touristy but charming community of Samaipata. On both sides of town we saw Andean Condors soaring above the surrounding hills.

The 4 took us through Mairana to Mataral where our efforts to refuel were foiled by a power outage that shut the pumps at the gas station. Later we were able to obtain a half tank of diesel from a roadside shop and a full fill up in Saipina. As we continued, the trees grew sparser and thornier and the number and size of the cactus increased. At Palisada Sandro said “now the dust road begins” and the route became layered in a thick coating of fine powder. Passing vehicles would send up a cloud, but the particles seemed to settle quickly so it was not all that bad. Along an early stretch of the road we stopped to inspect a small reservoir above an irrigation dam, an oasis in this arid country. It was packed with birds including many Common Moorhens and Least Grebes, a stray Pied-billed Grebe, additional Masked Ducks and Black-necked Stilts. We also saw one Puna Ibis and eight Puna Teal here, perhaps driven down from the highlands by the fading suraso. A little further along in an area of Tucuman forest we taped in the endemic Bolivian Earthcreeper. We drove on for many hours, passing through countless kilometres of dry but subtly beautiful hill country. Picui Ground-Dove was abundant by the roadside and eventually we stopped counting, and then looking for, the many Andean Condors soaring high overhead. Just as the sun went down we forded a wide but shallow river in the minibus and pulled into our destination.

Accommodations - The Red-fronted Macaw Reserve is beautifully set at edge of the small Andean communities of Perereta, Amaya and San Carlos. The reserve’s lodge is an elegant brick hall with high-ceilinged guest chambers and shared bathrooms; the kitchen is in a smaller out-building. We ate our great meals under a covered porch overlooking a gravel-banked river and a large cliff face – the roosting and nesting site of a variety of birds including the location’s endangered namesake. The surazo that had dogged us from Barba Azul finally dissipated so we had blue skies and nice temperatures the duration of our visit, making our time in the dry Andean valley particularly enjoyable.

Birding - A small fenced area in front of the lodge encloses a handful of shrubs, low trees and cactus that, together with a series of fruit trays, bring in good numbers of the valley’s common birds. Within a few paces of the lodge’s door as dawn broke on our first morning we encountered Glittering-bellied Emerald, White-fronted Woodpecker, Blue-and-Yellow Tanager, Sayaca Tanager, Gray Crested-Finch, Golden-billed Saltator and the endemic Bolivian Blackbird. The sun had barely risen above the surrounding hills when a raucous call sounded from the cliff face. Sandro pointed out a pair of the endemic and critically endangered Red-fronted Macaw (world population 1000) flying out to feed in the surrounding area. Asociación Armonía and the reserve play an important role in the conservation of this beautiful species, integrating nearby villages into the protection efforts. After seeing our first Macaw we took a short walk down to the river and along the ancient, raised, metre-wide irrigation canals. In the sparse vegetation we found Narrow-billed Woodcreeper, Greater Wagtail-Tyrant, Chaco Suiriri and White-tipped Plantcutter. The blue sky above held Turkey Vulture, Black Vulture and the occasional but still distant Andean Condor. A Black-chested Buzzard Eagle soared past and the rock wall erupted in a cacophony of alarm calls from hundreds of roosting Cliff Parakeets.

All available arable land in the valley is under tillage but as long as visitors are respectful and keep to the paths there is no problem exploring the area. At the edge of a field just below our accommodations we saw Masked Gnatcatcher, Tropical Parula and Ultramarine Grosbeak. We also encountered a pair of Lesser Grison - an elongated, small badger-like animal - hunting stealthily along a hedgerow. A quick squeak on the back of my hand brought them racing in to within a couple metres, searching for the source of the sound. The duo re-appeared several times during our stay, repeatedly falling for the squeaking trick. On one occasion they flushed a Yellow-toothed Cavy – a wild version of the guinea pig – out of a thicket onto the lane in front of us. Other sightings on the field-edges included Black-and-chestnut Warbling-Finch, Andean Great Pampa-Finch and the localized Brown-backed Mockingbird. Along the river, and assisted by young community bird guide-in-training Adilson, we encountered Snowy Egret, an off-course Comb Duck, Collared Plover, Cliff Flycatcher and a Cinereous Ground-Tyrant.

The valley has many fascinating aspects but our attention kept returning to the cliff. The Red-fronted Macaws leave the rock wall in the morning and return to roost before sunset. On our first afternoon we waited on the valley floor by the river and at 4:30 they began to appear, racing above us and perching in the cliff top brush. The light was beautiful but the birds were just out of camera range. The next afternoon we drove to the cliff top and waited. At 5:30 the Macaws had not shown up and I was worried that our presence was keeping them away. Sandro indicated they were simply late and at 6pm they began to stream in from all directions just as the sun dipped below the western mountain range. I was able to approach a pair in the fading light but in contrast to the day before most of the birds arrived too late for effective photography.

We returned to the cliff top next afternoon. At 5pm there was no sign of the macaws but suddenly an Andean Condor swept by low overhead and I was able to fire off a round of shots with the tripod mounted 800mm lens. Excitement turned to disappointment when I realized I had blown a once in a lifetime opportunity. The shutter speed was low and the images were a blurry mess. Sandro looked at me with genuine concern as I loudly cursed photography in general and my stupidity in particular. Then he calmly said “the Condor is coming back”. Composing myself, I fixed the settings and prepared for action. The bird circled around into the sun, dropped lower into the valley and then swung back up along the cliff face, floating past a jaw-dropping 10 metres away at eye level. Another Condor followed behind and another one trailed closely on it. Twelve birds in all circled around like aircraft in a holding pattern. As they brushed by the 800mm was too big so I just stared in awe, finally realizing how huge these previously semi-distant dots against the sky actually were. Jodie grabbed the 7D/400 combo and began reeling off pictures, securing some of the better images of the event.

Then, with the sun just above the ridgeline, Sandro called out “Macaws coming in” and we switched our attention to the new challenge. Carlos and Adilson excitedly pointed out the approach angles of additional birds as we desperately tried to acquire targets and lock focus, cameras clattering as a surge of returning pairs raced by. It was a huge amount of fun and if our skill had matched our equipment we would have had National Geographic covers. Two of the Macaws settled on a nearby cactus and consistent with Sandro’s information I was able to closely approach them. With the sun dipping behind the mountain, I cranked the ISO and, choking on the dust of a transport truck rumbling by, secured a few final images.

The Red-fronted Macaw reserve is a fantastic place for photography. We did a fair bit of birding but if I was to concentrate more heavily on camera work I would stay at the main lodge from sunrise until 10am, documenting the local songbirds. At four I would head to the cliff top and wait until the light was gone, hoping to secure images. I am sure there are many amazing pictures waiting up there.

On July 13 we left the valley for the long drive back to Santa Cruz. Carlos’s local contacts had again informed him about expected road closures for construction so we awoke early and, with Rosa Strem and Elibeth Peredo from Armonía accompanying us, raced past the work site before 7am and safely made it back to the Hotel Cortez by late afternoon. We enjoyed a final meal with Sandro and Carlos at the excellent Casa del Camba restaurant and next morning caught our flight back to Canada.

Closing Thoughts - The friendly people we met, charming communities we visited, and new and unique ecosystems we explored made our first expedition to South America something very special. Thanks go to our indefatigable guide, driver and friends Sandro Valdez and Carlos Lijeron, to Bird Bolivia’s Ruth Alipaz, to German Lijeron, to the Portugal family at Apa Apa, to Mileniusz Spanowicz for his advice and encouragement on photography, to the village of San José de Uchupiamonas and Sandra, Ricardo and all the staff and builders at Sadiri Lodge (including the Douglas Wilson and the Thomas Henry Wilson Foundation), to pilot Henry Vaca and his Cessna, to Nancho and Cecil at Barba Azul and the area’s hospitable ranchers, to everyone at the Los Volcanes Refuge and to the villages of Perereta, Amaya and San Carlos and to Adilson, Rosa Strem, Elibeth Peredo and the staff at the Red-fronted Macaw Reserve. Special thanks to Bennett Hennessey and the extraordinary work of Asociación Armonía.

Paul Jones - Ottawa, Canada -

Trip Photographs

Species Lists

Annotated Bird List - Bolivia - June 24 to July 15, 2011

We requested that the emphasis for the tour be on exploring habitats rather than running up a huge list and for once I was able to stick to this goal. In the end we recorded 428 species, including 17 that were heard only (I am a keen proponent of playback but wasn’t so interested in using it this trip). If we had devoted less time to photography and general exploring, a total much closer to 500 would have been achievable. Bird Bolivia can suggest different itineraries, so if running up a big list and/or seeing endemics is your goal they can work out a plan.

Greater Rhea - Rhea americana - 3 at Barba Azul in the grasslands across the river

Gray Tinamou - Tinamus tao - Heard and seen at Sadiri

Great Tinamou - Tinamus major - Heard at Sadiri

Brown Tinamou - Crypturellus obsoletus - Heard at Apa Apa, Sadiri and Los Volcanes

Undulated Tinamou - Crypturellus undulates – Heard at Sadiri, 1 seen at the Santa Cruz Botanical Gardens

Small-billed Tinamou - Crypturellus parvirostris - Heard at Sadiri

Red-winged Tinamou - Rhynchotus rufescens - Heard at Barba Azul

Huayco Tinamou - Rhynchotus maculicollis - Roadside sighting past Samaipata

Least Grebe - Tachybaptus dominicus - 2 at the Santa Cruz Botanical Garden, also seen at the reservoir on the road to Red-fronted Macaw

Pied-billed Grebe - Podilymbus podiceps - 1 at the reservoir on the road to Red-fronted Macaw

Silvery Grebe - Podiceps occipitalis - 2 at La Cumbre lake

Neotropic Cormorant - Phalacrocorax brasilianus - Common at Barba Azul

Anhinga - Anhinga anhinga - Common at Barba Azul

Whistling Heron - Syrigma sibilatrix - Sightings along Highway 2 to Sadiri and at Barba Azul - neat sound!

Cocoi Heron - Ardea cocoi - Common at Barba Azul

Great Egret - Ardea alba - Common at Barba Azul

Little Blue Heron - Egretta caerulea - Common at Barba Azul

Snowy Egret - Egretta thula - A few at Barba Azul and Red-fronted Macaw Lodge

Cattle Egret - Bubulcus ibis - Common in cattle country, especially Barba Azul

Striated Heron - Butorides striata - Common at Barba Azul

Black-crowned Night-Heron - Nycticorax nycticorax - Common at Barba Azul

Fasciated Tiger-Heron - Tigrisoma fasciatum - 1 at Los Volcanes

Rufescent Tiger-Heron - Tigrisoma lineatum - 4 at Barba Azul

Wood Stork - Mycteria americana - Common at Barba Azul

Maguari Stork - Ciconia maguari - 5 at Barba Azul

Jabiru - Jabiru mycteria - 2 to 4 daily at Barba Azul

Plumbeous Ibis - Theristicus caerulescens - Common at Barba Azul along the river

Buff-necked Ibis - Theristicus caudatus - Common at Barba Azul in the savannah

Green Ibis - Mesembrinibis cayennensis - 1 at Barba Azul

Bare-faced Ibis - Phimosus infuscatus - Common at Barba Azul along the river

Puna Ibis - Plegadis ridgwayi - 1 at the reservoir on the road to Red-fronted Macaw

Roseate Spoonbill - Platalea ajaja - Common at Barba Azul

Southern Screamer - Chauna torquata - Common at Barba Azul

Fulvous Whistling-Duck - Dendrocygna bicolor - 2 at Barba Azul

White-faced Whistling-Duck - Dendrocygna viduata - Common at Barba Azul

Black-bellied Whistling-Duck - Dendrocygna autumnalis - Common at Barba Azul

Andean Goose - Chloephaga melanoptera - 1 near La Cumbre

Orinoco Goose - Neochen jubata - Common at Barba Azul

Muscovy Duck - Cairina moschata - Common at Barba Azul

Comb Duck - Sarkidiornis melanotos - 1 at Red-fronted Macaw Reserve

Brazilian Teal - Amazonetta brasiliensis - Common at Barba Azul

Crested Duck - Anas specularioides - 2 at La Cumbre lake

Yellow-billed Pintail - Anas georgica - 12 at La Cumbre lake

Puna Teal - Anas puna - 6 at the reservoir on the road to Red-fronted Macaw

Masked Duck - Nomonyx dominica - 2 at Laguna Volcanes, 4 on the road to Red-fronted Macaw, at the reservoir

Andean Duck - Oxyura ferruginea - 15 at La Cumbre lake

Black Vulture - Coragyps atratus - Common throughout

Turkey Vulture - Cathartes aura - Common throughout

Lesser Yellow-headed Vulture - Cathartes burrovianus - Common at Barba Azul

Greater Yellow-headed Vulture - Cathartes melambrotus - 2 on road to Sadiri

Andean Condor - Vultur gryphus - 38 from Los Volcanes to Red-fronted Macaw

King Vulture - Sarcoramphus papa - 2 at Sadiri, Los Volcanes and Red-fronted Macaw

Gray-headed Kite - Leptodon cayanensis - 2 on road to Sadiri

Swallow-tailed Kite - Elanoides forficatus - 1 on road to Sadiri

Pearl Kite - Gampsonyx swainsonii - 1 on road to Sadiri

Snail Kite - Rostrhamus sociabilis - Common at Barba Azul

Double-toothed Kite - Harpagus bidentatus - 1 at Sadiri

Plain-breasted Hawk - Accipiter ventralis - 1 on upper South Yungus Road

Long-winged Harrier - Circus buffoni - Common at Barba Azul

White Hawk - Leucopternis albicollis - 1 each at Apa Apa and Sadiri

Great Black-Hawk - Buteogallus urubitinga - 1 at Barba Azul

Savanna Hawk - Buteogallus meridionalis - 1 at Barba Azul

Black-collared Hawk - Busarellus nigricollis - 3 at Barba Azul

Black-chested Buzzard-Eagle - Geranoaetus melanoleucus - 3 at Red-fronted Macaw

Gray Hawk - Asturina nitida - 1 on road to Red-fronted Macaw

Roadside Hawk - Buteo magnirostris - Common throughout

White-tailed Hawk - Buteo albicaudatus - 2 on road to Sadiri

Red-backed/Puna/Variable/Gurney’s Hawk - Buteo sp. - Sightings of this thing at La Cumbre, Los Volcanes and Red-fronted Macaw

Mountain Caracara - Phalcoboenus megalopterus - 7 in the La Cumbre area

Southern Caracara - Caracara plancus - Common at Barba Azul

Yellow-headed Caracara - Milvago chimachima - Common at Barba Azul

Laughing Falcon - Herpetotheres cachinnans - 1 along road to Sadiri

Barred Forest-Falcon - Micrastur ruficollis - 1 heard Sadiri

American Kestrel - Falco sparverius - Daily at Barba Azul and Red-fronted

Aplomado Falcon - Falco femoralis - 2 at Barba Azul

Bat Falcon - Falco rufigularis - Singles at Sadiri and Los Volcanes

Peregrine Falcon - Falco peregrinus - Red-fronted Macaw Lodge, 1

Speckled Chachalaca - Ortalis guttata - 18 at Apa Apa, 12 at Sadiri

Andean Guan - Penelope montagnii - 16 at Apa Apa

Spix's Guan - Penelope jacquacu - Heard and 3 seen at Sadiri

Rufous-breasted Wood-Quail - Odontophorus speciosus - Heard at Apa Apa

Starred Wood-Quail - Odontophorus stellatus - Heard at Sadiri

Hoatzin - Opisthocomus hoazin - 12 at edge of Rurrenbeque, 6 at Barba Azul, huge!

Gray-necked Wood-Rail - Aramides cajanea - Sightings at Barba Azul and Los Volcanes

Common Moorhen - Gallinula chloropus - Laguna Volcanes and dust road

Andean Coot - Fulica ardesiaca - 2 at La Cumbre lake

Sunbittern - Eurypyga helias - 1, Los Volcanes on the river bank near the lodge

Wattled Jacana - Jacana jacana - Common at Barba Azul

White-backed Stilt - Himantopus melanurus - Common at Barba Azul, seen also on the road to Red-fronted Macaw, at the reservoir

Southern Lapwing - Vanellus chilensis - Common at Barba Azul

Collared Plover - Charadrius collaris - 2 at Red-fronted Macaw

South American Snipe - Gallinago paraguaiae - 1 at Barba Azul

Greater Yellowlegs - Tringa melanoleuca - 2 at Barba Azul

Rufous-bellied Seed-snipe - Attagis gayi - 2 at La Cumbre, ptarmigan-sized!

Andean Gull - Larus serranus - Common along the road above and below La Cumbre

Large-billed Tern - Phaetusa simplex - 1 at Rurrenabeque

Rock Pigeon - Columba livia - Often around habitation

Scaled Pigeon - Patagioenas speciosa - 2 along road to Sadiri

Picazuro Pigeon - Patagioenas picazuro - 1 at Santa Cruz, 2 at Red-fronted Macaw

Band-tailed Pigeon - Patagioenas fasciata - Common on upper South Yungus Road

Pale-vented Pigeon - Patagioenas cayennensis - Common along road to Sadiri

Plumbeous Pigeon - Patagioenas plumbea - Common at Apa Apa and Sadiri

Eared Dove - Zenaida auriculata - 1 at Barba Azul

Plain-breasted Ground Dove - Columbina minuta - Daily at Barba Azul

Ruddy Ground Dove - Columbina talpacoti - Sightings along Highway 2 to Sadiri and Barba Azul

Picui Ground Dove - Columbina picui - Apa Apa, Barba Azul, Red-fronted Macaw

Long-tailed Ground Dove - Uropelia campestris - 2 at Barba Azul

White-tipped Dove - Leptotila verreauxi - Apa Apa, Red-fronted Macaw

Large-tailed Dove - Leptotila megalura - 2 sightings of this range-restricted bird at Los Volcanes, encountered along the trails near the river

Gray-fronted Dove - Leptotila rufaxilla - Daily at Los Volcanes

White-throated Quail Dove - Geotrygon frenata - One at Apa Apa on the upper road

Blue-and-yellow Macaw - Ara ararauna - Common at Barba Azul

Blue-throated Macaw - Ara glaucogularis (E) - Common at Barba Azul Reserve, our daily high count was 30, we had 76 sightings in total (including probable overlap)

Military Macaw - Ara militaris - 8 at Los Volcanes

Red-and-green Macaw - Ara chloroptera - Sadiri, high count 12

Red-fronted Macaw - Ara rubrogenys (E) - Common at Red-fronted Macaw Reserve, our daily high count was 54, we had 98 sightings in total (including probable overlap)

Chestnut-fronted Macaw - Ara severa - Along highway 2 near Sadiri, high count 6

Golden-collared Macaw - Primolius auricollis - Common at Barba Azul, high count 30

Blue-crowned Parakeet - Aratinga acuticaudata - Common at Red-fronted Macaw

Mitred Parakeet - Aratinga mitrata - Common at Los Volcanes, Red-fronted Macaw

White-eyed Parakeet - Aratinga leucophthalmus - Common at Barba Azul

Dusky-headed Parakeet - Aratinga weddellii - 3 at Sadiri

Peach-fronted Parakeet - Aratinga aurea - Common at Barba Azul

Green-cheeked Parakeet - Pyrrhura molinae - Common at Apa Apa, Los Volcanes and Red-fronted Macaw

Cliff Parakeet - Myiopsitta luchsi (E) - Common at Red-fronted Macaw

Andean Parakeet - Bolborhynchus orbygnesius - 20 along upper South Yungas Road

Yellow-chevroned Parakeet - Brotogeris chiriri - Sightings at Los Volcanes and Red-fronted Macaw

Blue-headed Parrot - Pionus menstruus - 4 along highway 2 near Sadiri

Red-billed Parrot - Pionus sordidus - Common at Apa Apa

Scaly-headed Parrot - Pionus maximiliani - Sightings on South Yungus Road and Los Volcanes

Blue-fronted Parrot - Amazona aestiva - Common at Los Volcanes and Red-fronted Macaw

Scaly-naped Parrot - Amazona mercenaria - Sightings at Apa Apa and Los Volcanes

Mealy Parrot - Amazona farinose - 17 along Highway 2 to Sadiri

Dark-billed Cuckoo - Coccyzus melacoryphus - 1 at Barba Azul

Squirrel Cuckoo - Piaya cayana - Daily at Apa Apa, Sadiri, Barba Azul and Los Volcanes

Smooth-billed Ani - Crotophaga ani - Common on Highway 2 to Sadiri and Barba Azul

Guira Cuckoo - Guira guira - Sightings along Highway 2 to Sadiri and Barba Azul

Pavonine Cuckoo - Dromococcyx pavoninus - 1 on track between Sadiri and Tumupasa

Barn Owl - Tyto alba - 1 at Barba Azul

Tropical Screech-Owl - Megascops choliba - 1 at Barba Azul

Rufescent Screech-Owl - Otus ingens - Heard at Sadiri

Crested Owl - Lophostrix cristata - 1 spotlighted at night along the access road to Sadiri

Black-banded Owl - Ciccaba huhula - Heard at Sadiri, seen at Los Volcanes

Rufous-banded Owl - Ciccaba albitarsus - Heard at Sadiri

Band-bellied Owl - Pulsatrix melanota - Heard at Sadiri

Ferruginous Pygmy-Owl - Glaucidium brasilianum - 1 each at Santa Cruz Botanical Garden and Red-fronted Macaw

Burrowing Owl - Athene cunicularia - 2 along Highway 2 to Sadiri

Nacunda Nighthawk - Podager nacunda - Common at Barba Azul

Pauraque - Nyctidromus albicollis - Common at Barba Azul

Scissor-tailed Nightjar - Hydropsalis torquata - Common at Barba Azul

White-collared Swift - Streptoprocne zonaris - Sightings along Highway 2 to Sadiri and at Los Volcanes

Gray-rumped Swift - Chaetura cinereiventris - 7 at Santa Cruz Botanical Garden

White-tipped Swift - Aeronautes montivagus - Sightings at Apa Apa, Sadiri, Los Volcanes and Red-fronted Macaw

White-bearded Hermit - Phaethornis hispidus - 1 at Apa Apa

Planalto Hermit - Phaethornis pretrei - 1 along Highway 4 near Semaipata

White-browed Hermit - Phaethornis stuarti - 1 at Sadiri

Gray-breasted Sabrewing - Campylopterus largipennis - Regular at Sadiri’s feeders

Green Violet-ear - Colibri thalassinus - Common at Apa Apa

Sparkling Violet-ear - Colibri coruscans - 1 at Apa Apa

Festive Coquette - Lophornis chalybeus - 1 at Apa Apa

Blue-tailed Emerald - Chlorostilbon mellisugus - Regular at Sadiri’s feeders

Glittering-bellied Emerald - Chlorostilbon aureoventris - Common at Red-fronted Macaw

Fork-tailed Woodnymph - Thalurania furcata - Occasional at Sadiri’s feeders

White-bellied Hummingbird - Leucippus chionogaster - Sightings at Los Volcanes and Red-fronted Macaw

Glittering-throated Emerald - Polyerata fimbriata - Sightings at Barba Azul

Gould's Jewelfront - Heliodoxa aurescens - Regular at Sadiri’s feeders

Violet-Throated Starfrontlet - Coeligena violifer - 1 at upper South Yungus Road

Bronzy Inca - Coeligena coeligena - Sightings at Apa Apa

Booted Racket-tail - Ocreatus underwoodii - 1 at Apa Apa

Long-tailed Sylph - Aglaiocercus kingi - 1 at Apa Apa

Blue-tufted Starthroat - Heliomaster furcifer - 1 at Red-fronted Macaw, cliff top

Collared Trogon - Trogon collaris - Sightings at Sadiri and Los Volcanes

Masked Trogon - Trogon personatus - Apa Apa and Los Volcanes

Blue-crowned Trogon - Trogon curucui - Sightings at Apa Apa, Sadiri and Los Volcanes

Black-tailed Trogon - Trogon melanurus - 1 at Sadiri

Ringed Kingfisher - Ceryle torquatus - Common at Barba Azul

Amazon Kingfisher - Chloroceryle amazona - Common at Barba Azul

Blue-crowned Motmot - Momotus momota - 1 at the Santa Cruz Botanical Garden

Striolated Puffbird - Nystalus striolatus - 1 at Sadiri

Spot-backed Puffbird - Nystalus maculates - 1 at Los Volcanes, 2 at Red-fronted Macaw

Black-fronted Nunbird - Monasa nigrifrons - 3 at the Santa Cruz Botanical Garden

Gilded Barbet - Capito auratus - 6 at Sadiri

Chestnut-tipped Toucanet - Aulacorhynchus derbianus - 3 at Los Volcanes

Blue-banded Toucanet - Aulacorhynchus coeruleicinctis - 10 at Apa Apa

Ivory-billed Aracari - Pteroglossus azara - Heard at Sadiri

Chestnut-eared Aracari - Pteroglossus castanotis - 14 on Highway 2 to Sadiri

Hooded Mountain-Toucan - Andigena cucullata - 4 on the upper South Yungus Road

Channel-billed Toucan - Ramphastos vitellinus - 1 on Highway 2 to Sadiri

Toco Toucan - Ramphastos toco - 1 to 2 daily at Barba Azul

Yellow-tufted Woodpecker - Melanerpes cruentatus - 6 on Highway 2 to Sadiri

White-fronted Woodpecker - Melanerpes cactorum - Common at Red-fronted Macaw

Striped Woodpecker - Picoides lignarius - 1 at Red-fronted Macaw

Smoky-brown Woodpecker - Veniliornis fumigatus - 1 at Apa Apa

Little Woodpecker - Veniliornis passerinus - 5 at Barba Azul

Red-stained Woodpecker - Veniliornis affinis - Heard at Sadiri

White-throated Woodpecker - Piculus leucolaemus - 2 at Sadiri

Crimson-mantled Woodpecker - Piculus rivolii - Common at Apa Apa, 2 on the upper South Yungus Road

Andean Flicker - Colaptes rupicola - 1 at La Cumbre

Campo Flicker - Colaptes campestris - Common at Barba Azul

Lineated Woodpecker - Dryocopus lineatus - Sightings at Apa Apa, Barba Azul and Los Volcanes

Red-necked Woodpecker - Campephilus rubricollis - 1 at Barba Azul

Crimson-crested Woodpecker - Campephilus melanoleucos - 2 along Highway 2 to Sadiri, daily at Barba Azul

Bolivian Earthcreeper - Ochetorhynchus harterti (E) - 1 along dry road to Red-fronted Macaw

Bar-winged Cinclodes - Cinclodes fuscus - 1 at La Cumbre

Rufous Hornero - Furnarius rufus - Common at Barba Azul, sightings at Red-fronted Macaw

Azara's Spinetail - Synallaxis azarae - Daily at Apa Apa

Yellow-chinned Spinetail - Certhiaxis cinnamomea - 1 at Barba Azul

Stripe-crowned Spinetail - Cranioleuca pyrrhophia - 2 along dry road to Red-fronted Macaw

Rufous Cacholote - Pseudoseisura cristata - 1 at Barba Azul

Pearled Treerunner - Margarornis squamiger - 2 at Apa Apa

Plain Xenops - Xenops minutus - 1 at Sadiri

Streaked Xenops - Xenops rutilans - 2 at Los Volcanes

Striped Treehunter - Thripadectes holostictus - 2 at Apa Apa

Bolivian Recurvebill - Simoxenops striatus (E) - 1 on the final lower stretch of the entrance road to Los Volcanes, a skulking bamboo specialist

Striped Woodhaunter - Hyloctistes subulatus - 2 at Apa Apa

Chestnut-winged Hookbill - Ancistrops strigilatus - 1 at Sadiri

Rufous-rumped Foliage-gleaner - Philydor erythrocercus - 4 at Apa Apa

Rufous-tailed Foliage-gleaner - Philydor ruficaudatus -2 at Apa Apa

Buff-throated Foliage-gleaner - Automolus ochrolaemus - 2 at Sadiri

Gray-throated Leaftosser - Sclerurus albigularis - 1 at Sadiri

White-chinned Woodcreeper - Dendrocincla merula - 2 at Sadiri

Long-tailed Woodcreeper - Deconychura longicauda - 1 at Sadiri

Olivaceous Woodcreeper - Sittasomus griseicapillus - 1 at Apa Apa, 6 at Los Volcanes

Strong-billed Woodcreeper - Xiphocolaptes promeropirhynchus - 1 at Sadiri

Black-banded Woodcreeper - Dendrocolaptes picumnus - 2 at Los Volcanes

Ocellated Woodcreeper - Xiphorhynchus ocellatus - 2 at Los Volcanes

Elegant Woodcreeper - Xiphorhynchus elegans - 2 at Sadiri

Narrow-billed Woodcreeper - Lepidocolaptes angustirostris - 2 at Barba Azul, 6 at Red-fronted Macaw

Montane Woodcreeper - Lepidocolaptes lacrymiger - 1 at Apa Apa

Fasciated Antshrike - Cymbilaimus lineatus - 1 at Sadiri

Great Antshrike - Taraba major - 2 along Highway 2 to Sadiri

Barred Antshrike - Thamnophilus doliatus - 1 along Highway 2 to Sadiri

Bolivian Slaty-Antshrike - Thamnophilus sticturus - 4 at Santa Cruz Botanical Garden

Variable Antshrike - Thamnophilus caerulescens - 3 at Apa Apa, 1 at Red-fronted Macaw

Plain Antvireo - Dysithamnus mentalis - 1 at Sadiri, 4 at Los Volcanes

Pygmy Antwren - Myrmotherula brachyura - 1 at Sadiri

White-flanked Antwren - Myrmotherula axillaris - 2 at Sadiri

Black-capped Antwren - Herpsilochmus atricapillus - 8 at Los Volcanes

Rufous-winged Antwren - Herpsilochmus rufimarginatus - 5 at Sadiri

Southern Chestnut-tailed Antbird - Myrmeciza hemimelaena - 4 at Sadiri

Black-throated Antbird - Myrmeciza atrothorax - 2 along Highway 2 to Sadiri

Black-faced Antthrush - Formicarius analis - 1 at Sadiri

Short-tailed Antthrush - Chamaeza campanisona - Heard at Apa Apa and Sadiri

White-throated Antpitta - Grallaria albigula - Heard at Apa Apa

Trilling Tapaculo - Scytalopus parvirostris - Heard at Apa Apa

Bolivian Tapaculo - Scytalopus bolivianus - 1 seen on upper South Yungus Road, heard at Apa Apa and Los Volcanes - incredibly skulky

Sharpbill - Oxyruncus cristatus - 1 at Sadiri

White-tipped Plantcutter - Phytotoma rutila - 3 at Red-fronted Macaw

Shrike-like Cotinga - Laniisoma elegans - 1 at Sadiri, AKA Andean Laniisoma

Band-tailed Fruiteater - Pipreola intermedia - 3 at Apa Apa

Scaled Fruiteater - Ampelioides tschudii - 1 seen at Sadiri, also heard

Scimitar-winged Piha - Lipaugus uropygialis (E) - 1 at Apa Apa, a really big Piha

Screaming Piha - Lipaugus vociferans - Common at Sadiri, awesome tropical soundtrack voice, hard to see when calling

Yungas Manakin - Chiroxiphia boliviana - 6 at Sadiri

Blue-crowned Manakin - Lepidothrix coronata - 1 at Sadiri

Round-tailed Manakin - Pipra chloromeros - 3 at Sadiri

Wing-barred Piprites - Piprites chloris - 1 at Sadiri, heard also, very difficult to see in branches above

Thrush-like Schiffornis - Schiffornis turdinus - Heard at Sadiri

Yellow-crowned Tyrannulet - Tyrannulus elatus - 1 at Apa Apa

Forest Elaenia - Myiopagis gaimardii - 1 at Sadiri, 2 at los Volcanes

Yellow-bellied Elaenia - Elaenia flavogaster - 1 at Barba Azul

Small-billed Elaenia - Elaenia parvirostris - 1 at Barba Azul, 5 at Red-fronted Macaw

White-bellied Tyrannulet - Serpophaga munda - 4 at Barba Azul, 2 at Red-fronted Macaw

Ochre-bellied Flycatcher - Mionectes oleaginous - 2 at Sadiri, 2 at Barba Azul

Streak-necked Flycatcher - Mionectes striaticollis - 4 at Apa Apa

Sepia-capped Flycatcher - Leptopogon amaurocephalus - 1 at Sadiri

Slaty-capped Flycatcher - Leptopogon superciliaris - 2 at Apa Apa, 2 at barba Azul

Cinnamon-faced Tyrannulet - Phylloscartes parkeri - 1 at Sadiri

Suiriri Flycatcher - Suiriri suiriri - 5 at Red-fronted Macaw

Greater Wagtail-Tyrant - Stigmatura budytoides - 4 at Red-fronted Macaw

White-bellied Pygmy-Tyrant - Myiornis albiventris - Heard at Sadiri, 2 seen at Los Volcanes

Short-tailed Pygmy-Tyrant - Myiornis ecaudatus - 1 at Sadiri

Ochre-faced Tody-Flycatcher - Poecilotriccus plumbeiceps - Often heard (frrrt), seen once at Apa Apa

Yellow-olive Flycatcher - Tolmomyias sulphurescens - 1 at each Sadiri and Los Volcanes

Bran-colored Flycatcher - Myiophobus fasciatus - 3 at Apa Apa

Cinnamon Flycatcher - Pyrrhomyias cinnamomea - 2 at Apa Apa

Cliff Flycatcher - Hirundinea ferruginea - 2 at Apa Apa, common at Los Volcanes and Red-fronted Macaw

Euler's Flycatcher - Lathrotriccus euleri - 1 at Sadiri

Tropical Pewee - Contopus cinereus - 3 at Apa Apa

Black Phoebe - Sayornis nigricans - 3 at Los Volcanes

Vermilion Flycatcher - Pyrocephalus rubinus - Common at Barba Azul, 2 at Red-fronted Macaw

D'Orbigny's Chat-Tyrant - Ochthoeca oenanthoides - 1 on upper South Yungus Road

Rufous-breasted Chat-Tyrant - Ochthoeca rufipectoralis - 2 on upper South Yungus Road

Streak-throated Bush-Tyrant - Myiotheretes striaticollis - 3 at Los Volcanes at the Lodge

White-rumped Monjita - Xolmis velata - 1 at Barba Azul

White Monjita - Xolmis irupero - 2 at Barba Azul

Cinereous Ground-Tyrant - Muscisaxicola cinereus - 1 at Red-fronted Macaw, a refugee from cold in the highlands

White-winged Black-Tyrant - Knipolegus aterrimus - 2 at Barba Azul

Black-backed Water-Tyrant - Fluvicola albiventer - 2 at Barba Azul

White-headed Marsh-Tyrant - Arundinicola leucocephala - 1 at Barba Azul

Cattle Tyrant - Machetornis rixosus - Common at Barba Azul

Bright-rumped Attila - Attila spadiceus - Heard at Sadiri

Cinereous Mourner - Laniocera hypopyrra - Heard at Sadiri

Grayish Mourner - Rhytipterna simplex - Heard at Sadiri

Dusky-capped Flycatcher - Myiarchus tuberculifer - Sightings at Apa Apa, Barba Azul and Los Volcanes

Short-crested Flycatcher - Myiarchus ferox - 1 at Sadiri, 1 at Barba Azul

Great Kiskadee - Pitangus sulphuratus - 2 along Highway 2 to Sadiri, common at Barba Azul and Red-fronted Macaw

Rusty-margined Flycatcher - Myiozetetes cayanensis - 2 each at Apa Apa and Barba Azul

Social Flycatcher - Myiozetetes similis - 2 each at Sadiri and Barba Azul

Streaked Flycatcher - Myiodynastes maculates - 3 at Sadiri

Tropical Kingbird - Tyrannus melancholicus - Common at Apa Apa, along Highway 2 to Sadiri and Barba Azul

Masked Tityra - Tityra semifasciata - 3 at Sadiri

Black-crowned Tityra - Tityra inquisitor - 2 at Barba Azul

Brown-chested Martin - Progne tapera - 2 at Barba Azul

White-rumped Swallow - Tachycineta leucorrhoa - 200 at Barba Azul, hawking insects over the savannah

Blue-and-white Swallow - Notiochelidon cyanoleuca - 24 at Apa Apa, 6 at Red-fronted Macaw

Andean Swallow - Haplochelidon andecola - Common on the upper South Yungus Road

Southern Rough-winged Swallow - Stelgidopteryx ruficollis - 2 along Highway 2 to Sadiri

White-capped Dipper - Cinclus leucocephalus - 3 on the upper South Yungus Road

Black-capped Donacobius - Donacobius atricapilla - 2 at Barba Azul

Thrush-like Wren - Campylorhynchus turdinus - 1 at Santa Cruz Botanical Gardens

Moustached Wren - Thryothorus genibarbis - 1 at each Apa Apa, Sadiri and Los Volcanes, a frequent forest sound

House Wren - Troglodytes aedon - 1 along Highway 2 to Sadiri, 2 at Red-fronted Macaw

Gray-breasted Wood-Wren - Henicorhina leucophrys - Heard at Apa Apa

Scaly-breasted Wren - Microcerculus marginatus - 1 at Sadiri, expertly whistled in by Ricardo

Chalk-browed Mockingbird - Mimus saturninus - Common at Barba Azul

Brown-backed Mockingbird - Mimus dorsalis - 1 at Red-fronted Macaw, range-restricted

White-eared Solitaire - Entomodestes leucotis - 1 seen at Apa Apa, also heard

Chiguanco Thrush - Turdus chiguanco - Common above La Paz and the upper South Yungus Road

Rufous-bellied Thrush - Turdus rufiventris - Common at Los Volcanes

Creamy-bellied Thrush - Turdus amaurochalinus - 2 at Santa Cruz Botanical Gardens

Black-billed Thrush - Turdus ignobilis - Sightings at Sadiri and Barba Azul

Masked Gnatcatcher - Polioptila dumicola - Common at Red-fronted Macaw

Inca Jay - Cyanocorax yncas - 4 at Apa Apa

Purplish Jay - Cyanocorax cyanomelas - Common at Apa Apa, Los Volcanes

Violaceous Jay - Cyanocorax violaceus - Heard along Highway 2 to Sadiri

Plush-crested Jay - Cyanocorax chrysops - Common at Los Volcanes

White-collared Jay - Cyanolyca viridicyana - 4 along upper South Yungus Road, range-restricted

Red-eyed Vireo - Vireo olivaceus - 6 at Sadiri

Rufous-browed Peppershrike - Cyclarhis gujanensis - 1 each at Barba Azul and Santa Cruz Botanical Gardens

Tropical Parula - Parula pitiayumi - Common at Apa Apa, Sadiri, Los Volcanes and Red-fronted Macaw

Brown-capped Redstart - Myioborus brunniceps - 7 at Apa Apa, 1 at Red-fronted Macaw

Spectacled Redstart - Myioborus melanocephalus - Common at Apa Apa and upper South Yungus Road

Two-banded Warbler - Basileuterus bivittatus - Common at Sadiri and Los Volcanes

Golden-bellied Warbler - Basileuterus chrysogaster - Common at Sadiri

Citrine Warbler - Basileuterus luteoviridis - 3 on upper South Yungus Road, 1 at Apa Apa

Three-striped Warbler - Basileuterus tristriatus - Common at Apa Apa

Buff-rumped Warbler - Basileuterus fulvicauda - Heard at Sadiri

Neotropical River Warbler - Basileuterus rivularis - 2 at Los Volcanes, neat bird

Bananaquit - Coereba flaveola - 1 at Apa Apa

Black-faced Tanager - Schistochlamys melanopis - 1 at Sadiri

White-rumped Tanager - Cypsnagra hirundinacea - 6 at Barba Azul

Magpie Tanager - Cissopis leveriana - 1 along Highway 2 to Sadiri

Common Bush-Tanager - Chlorospingus ophthalmicus - Common at Apa Apa

Superciliaried Hemispingus - Hemispingus superciliaris - 2 at Apa Apa

Black-eared Hemispingus - Hemispingus melanotis - 4 at Apa Apa

Orange-headed Tanager - Thlypopsis sordida - 2 at Los Volcanes

Rust-and-yellow Tanager - Thlypopsis ruficeps - Common at Apa Apa

Guira Tanager - Hemithraupis guira - 1 at Sadiri, 8 at Los Volcanes

Yellow-backed Tanager - Hemithraupis flavicollis - 1 at Sadiri

White-winged Shrike-Tanager - Lanio versicolor - 4 at Sadiri

Slaty Tanager - Creurgops dentate - 1 at Apa Apa, range-restricted

Yellow-crested Tanager - Tachyphonus rufiventer - 1 at Sadiri

Black-goggled Tanager - Trichothraupis melanops - 6 at Los Volcanes

Red-crowned Ant-Tanager - Habia rubica - Common at Sadiri

Hepatic Tanager - Piranga flava - Common at Sadiri and Red-fronted Macaw

White-winged Tanager - Piranga leucoptera - 1 at Los Volcanes

Silver-beaked Tanager - Ramphocelus carbo - Common at Sadiri

Sayaca Tanager - Thraupis sayaca - Common at Barba Azul and Red-fronted Macaw

Blue-capped Tanager - Thraupis cyanocephala - Common at Apa Apa

Blue-and-yellow Tanager - Thraupis bonariensis - Common at Red-fronted Macaw

Palm Tanager - Thraupis palmarum - Several at Apa Apa and Barba Azul

Hooded Mountain-Tanager - Buthraupis montana - Common on upper South Yungus Road

Scarlet-bellied Mountain-Tanager - Anisognathus igniventris - 4 on upper South Yungus Road

Blue-winged Mountain-Tanager - Anisognathus somptuosus - Common at Apa Apa

Carmiolis Tanager - Chlorothraupis carmioli - Common at Sadiri AKA Olive Tanager

Purple-throated Euphonia - Euphonia chlorotica - 2 at Barba Azul

Bronze-green Euphonia - Euphonia mesochrysa - 1 at Sadiri

White-lored Euphonia - Euphonia chrysopasta - 1 at Sadiri

Rufous-bellied Euphonia - Euphonia rufiventris - 1 at Apa Apa, 2 at Sadiri

Turquoise Tanager - Tangara Mexicana - 1 at Sadiri

Paradise Tanager - Tangara chilensis - Common at Sadiri

Green-and-gold Tanager - Tangara schrankii - 3 at Sadiri

Saffron-crowned Tanager - Tangara xanthocephala - 5 at Apa Apa

Yellow-bellied Tanager - Tangara xanthogastra - 4 at Sadiri

Spotted Tanager - Tangara punctata - 1 at Sadiri

Bay-headed Tanager - Tangara gyrola - 15 at Sadiri

Blue-browed Tanager - Tangara cyanotis - 6 at Los Volcanes

Masked Tanager - Tangara nigrocincta - 8 at Sadiri

Blue-and-black Tanager - Tangara vassorii - Common at Apa Apa

Black-faced Dacnis - Dacnis lineata - Common at Sadri

Blue Dacnis - Dacnis cayana - Common at Sadiri

Green Honeycreeper - Chlorophanes spiza - Common at Sadiri

Plush-capped Finch - Catamblyrhynchus diadema - 1 each at Apa Apa and upper South Yungus Road

Red-crested Finch - Coryphospingus cucullatus - 1 on Highway 4 near Samaipata

Peruvian Sierra-Finch - Phrygilus punensis - 1 near la Cumbre

Black-crested Finch - Lophospingus pusillus - 6 at Red-fronted Macaw

Gray-crested Finch - Lophospingus griseocristatus - Common at Red-fronted Macaw

White-winged Diuca-Finch - Diuca speculifera - Common at La Cumbre

Black-and-rufous Warbling-Finch - Poospiza nigrorufa - 4 at Red-fronted Macaw

Ringed Warbling-Finch - Poospiza torquata - 12 at Red-fronted Macaw

Black-capped Warbling-Finch - Poospiza melanoleuca - 5 at los Volcanes at apex of entrance road

Black-and-rufous Warbling-Finch - Poospiza nigrorufa - 2 at Red-fronted Macaw

Blue-black Grassquit - Volatinia jacarina - 4 on Highway 2 to Sadiri

Rusty-collared Seedeater - Sporophila collaris - 4 at Barba Azul

Tawny-bellied Seedeater - Sporophila hypoxantha - 22 at Barba Azul

Dull-colored Grassquit - Tiaris obscura - 20 at los Volcanes, at apex of entrance road

Saffron Finch - Sicalis flaveola - 3 at Barba Azul, 9 at Red-fronted Macaw

Wedge-tailed Grass-Finch - Emberizoides herbicola - 4 at Barba Azul

Great Pampa-Finch - Embernagra platensis - 1 at Red-fronted Macaw

Red-crested Cardinal - Paroaria coronata - Common at Barba Azul

Red-capped Cardinal - Paroaria gularis - Common at Barba Azul

Bolivian Brush-Finch - Atlapetes rufinucha (E) - Common at Apa Apa and upper South Yungus Road

Pectoral Sparrow - Arremon taciturnus - Heard at Sadiri

Grassland Sparrow - Ammodramus humeralis - Common at Barba Azul

Yellow-browed Sparrow - Ammodramus aurifrons - 4 along Highway 2 to Sadiri

Rufous-collared Sparrow - Zonotrichia capensis - Common at La Cumbre, Apa Apa and Red-fronted Macaw

Grayish Saltator - Saltator coerulescens - 1 along Highway 2 to Sadiri, 4 at Barba Azul

Buff-throated Saltator - Saltator maximus - 1 each at Apa Apa and Sadiri

Golden-billed Saltator - Saltator aurantiirostris - Common at Red-fronted Macaw

Yellow-shouldered Grosbeak - Parkerthraustes humeralis - 2 at Sadiri

Black-backed Grosbeak - Pheucticus aureoventris - 3 at Red-fronted Macaw

Ultramarine Grosbeak - Cyanocompsa brissonii - 2 at Red-fronted Macaw

Unicolored Blackbird - Agelasticus cyanopus - 4 at Barba Azul

White-browed Blackbird - Sturnella superciliaris - 1 along Highway 2 to Sadiri

Bay-winged Cowbird - Molothrus badius - 16 near Red-fronted Macaw

Shiny Cowbird - Molothrus bonariensis - 1 at dust road lake

Giant Cowbird - Molothrus oryzivorus - 4 along Highway 2 to Sadiri

Epaulet Oriole - Icterus cayanensis - Sightings at Sadiri, Barba Azul and Red-fronted Macaw

Venezuelan Troupial - Icterus icterus - 2 along Highway 2 to Sadiri, 4 at Barba Azul

Yellow-rumped Cacique - Cacicus cela - Common at Sadiri and Barba Azul

Mountain Cacique - Cacicus chrysonotus - 2 on upper South Yungus Road in mixed flock

Solitary Cacique - Cacicus solitarius - 1 along Highway 2 to Sadiri

Crested Oropendola - Psarocolius decumanus - Common at Apa Apa, Barba Azul and Los Volcanes

Dusky-green Oropendola - Psarocolius atrovirens - 12 at Los Volcanes

Russet-backed Oropendola - Psarocolius angustifrons - Common at Sadiri

Amazonian Oropendola - Gymnostinops bifasciatus - 5 along Highway 2 to Sadiri

Chopi Blackbird - Gnorimopsar chopi - Common at Barba Azul

Bolivian Blackbird - Agelaioides oreopsar (E) - Common at Red-fronted Macaw

Hooded Siskin - Carduelis magellanica - 3 at Apa Apa

House Sparrow - Passer domesticus - Urban Areas

Annotated Mammal List - Bolivia - June 24 to July 15, 2011

Brown-throated Three-toed Sloth - Bradypus variegatus - Common, Santa Cruz Botanical Gardens

Giant Anteater - Myrmecophaga tridactyla - 4 sightings at Barba Azul

Southern Tamandua - Tamandua tetradactyla - 2 at night, Barba Azul

Greater Bulldog Bat - Noctilio leporinus - Common at night along the Omi River, fishing near the boat landing

Brown Capuchin - Cebus albifrons - A troop, Santa Cruz Botanical Gardens

Dusky Titi - Callicebus brunneus - 2, Santa Cruz Botanical Gardens

Golden Monkey - Callicebus aureipalatii - 3 along Highway 2 just past Tumupasa. The naming rights for this recently discovered species were auctioned off to raise funds for FUNDESNAP (Fundación para el Desarrollo del Sistema Nacional de Áreas Protegidas), the nonprofit organization that maintains Madidi National Park., an on-line casino and one of over a dozen bidders, paid US$650,000 to have the species named after them.

Black Howler Monkey - Alouatta caraya - 3 at Barba Azul

Bolivian Red Howler Monkey - Alouatta sara - 1 at Los Volcanes

Common Yellow-toothed Cavy - Galea musteloides - 2 roadside at Red-fronted Macaw

Bolivian Squirrel - Sciurus ignitus - 1 at Apa Apa

Crab-eating Fox - Cerdocyon thous - At least 4 at night at Barba Azul

Lesser Grison - Galictis cuja - 2 at Red-fronted Macaw, very responsive to squeaking

Red Brocket Deer - Mazama americana - 1 each on Sadiri and Los Volcanes night walks

Pampas Deer - Ozotoceros bezoarticus - 3 at Barba Azul