Brazil and Argentina, Atlantic forest region: 01-18 July 2015

Published by Catherine McFadden (mcfadden AT

Participants: Cathy McFadden, Paul Clarke


In 2008 we made our first birding trip to Brazil, visiting sites in Mato Grosso State including the Pantanal, Chapada dos Guimaraes, and the Cristalino Jungle Lodge. At that time we had decided that we would return someday to bird the Atlantic forest region of eastern Brazil, a rapidly disappearing habitat that is home to an astounding 180 or so endemic species. Cathy’s plans to attend an international conference near São Paulo in June 2015 now provided us with the perfect opportunity to tack on a two week birding trip plus a visit to Iguazú Falls, a site we’d long wanted to see. Early July (mid-winter in the southern hemisphere) is not, however, the optimal time to bird the Atlantic forest. Many species are not calling prior to the start of the breeding season, some endemics (Swallow-tailed Cotinga, Black-legged Dacnis, Frilled Coquette) are absent, and others (White-bearded Antshrike, Slaty Bristlefront) simply don’t seem to respond to tape at this time of year. On the plus side, the temperatures are very pleasant (especially along the coast where it can be beastly hot in summer), and the weather is supposed to be dry. Or so we were told…

Rather than join a set tour (not our style) or book a custom tour with a single operator, we opted to cobble together a series of short stays at lodges and localities where we could take advantage of the availability of local birding guides. Two well-known birding lodges whose names surfaced repeatedly in all of our advance reading were Serra dos Tucanos and Guapiaçu (REGUA), located at different elevations in the Serra do Mar region north of Rio de Janeiro. Both lodges have resident guides and both offer a variety of day-trips to other nearby sites, so we decided to spend the majority of our time at these two locations. Upon contacting Serra dos Tucanos, however, we learned that the lodge was going to be closing for good in March 2015, with English owner Andy Foster transferring his guiding services ( to a new location, Itororó Lodge. Itororó is a small lodge set on a remote property on the outskirts of Nova Friburgo, about 40 km from the old Serra dos Tucanos Lodge. Situated at an elevation of 1100 m, Itororó has a small network of trails through a mix of primary forest and former eucalyptus plantation that is slowly being restored back to native vegetation. As at the old lodge, there is a veranda with hummingbird and fruit feeders that are visited by a wide range of colorful species, albeit a different selection due to the higher elevation. The diversity of birds on the property is still being inventoried, and we added several new species to the lists for both the feeders and lodge grounds during our visit. It’s a wonderful, secluded place that offers easy access to other birding sites within the surrounding Tres Picos State Park, and Andy is a fantastic guide who knows the birds of the area better than anyone.

After spending a week at Itororó Lodge birding at elevations above 1000 m, we descended to the lowlands and spent three days at the Guapiaçu Bird Lodge located within Reserva Ecológica de Guapiaçu (REGUA) ( REGUA is a non-profit NGO that was founded to preserve and restore 9000+ hectares of Atlantic rainforest in Rio de Janeiro state. In addition to protecting primary forest, REGUA has restored a functioning wetland in an area that had been drained for cattle ranching, and they are working on acquiring and reforesting other patches of grazed land in the area. REGUA has an extensive system of trails in a variety of different habitats, and normally they employ two resident bird guides to lead guests on excursions both on and off the property. Unfortunately, during our visit things were a bit chaotic because one of the two guides had been sidelined with a serious injury, and, with the peak birding season approaching, the lodge had not yet hired a substitute. Instead, all guests (as many as 10 while we were there) were being sent out together as a group each day with the remaining guide, Adilei. This was definitely not a situation we had anticipated or were particularly happy about: we travel independently specifically to avoid birding in large groups! But Adilei was terrific, and really went all out to help us find the species we most wanted to see despite the unexpected challenges.

After 10 days in Rio de Janeiro state we flew to Iguazú Falls, on the Brazil-Argentina border. In addition to waterfalls there are Atlantic forest endemics to be seen here, too, so we booked a 3-day tour that combined visiting the Falls from both the Argentine and Brazilian sides with birding at some nearby sites in Argentina. We made those arrangements through Andy Foster, who hooked us up with Miguel Castelino of Trogon Tours (, a birding tour company based in Puerto Iguazú, Argentina. From Iguazú we had to return to São Paulo, and decided we could afford to add on another 3 days of birding there. São Paulo state is home to several well-known birding locations, most notably Itatiaia NP, Intervales State Park, and the coastal town of Ubatuba. After considerable research and debate we decided that a visit to Ubatuba would offer us the best chance of finding species we would be unlikely to see elsewhere. We contacted Boute Expeditions (, a Brazilian tour company that routinely offers short birding trips to Itatiaia and Ubatuba, and they arranged our accommodations, transportation, and the services of a local guide named Beto. Beto turned out to be an all-purpose guide who more often takes people trekking, surfing and SCUBA diving than birding, but he knows the birds quite well and was able to find us most of the endemics we were particularly interested in seeing. He’s also very knowledgeable about plants, and had us tasting all sorts of edible and medicinal plants we encountered in the forest!

When we had visited Brazil in 2008 the only field guide available for the country was Souza’s “All the Birds of Brazil” (2006) which suffers from extremely poor plates. Since then van Perlo’s “Field Guide to the Birds of Brazil” (2009) has come out, which is the guide most of the other birders we met seemed to be using. But we’re not overly fond of van Perlo’s plates, either, and remain addicted to the exquisite illustrations of Guy Tudor, which are now available in paperback form in Ridgley & Tudor’s “Field Guide to the Songbirds of South America: The Passerines” (2009). This is still a hefty volume for a field guide, so we cut the plates out and bound them separately to carry with us, along with Erize’s compact “Birds of South America: Non-Passerines, Rheas to Woodpeckers” (2006). Together these two volumes are similar in size and weight to van Perlo.

As we’d discovered during our previous trip, Brazil is an easy place visit, with good infrastructure, friendly people (although relatively few speak English), and excellent food, especially if you like a basic meat-potatoes-and-veg type fare. And despite the sub-optimal time of year and weather that was not as pleasant as it could have been (torrential rain at Iguazú and unseasonably cold, cloudy weather at Itororó), we nonetheless managed to see about 315 species, over a hundred of them Atlantic forest endemics.

Day-by-day account:

Wednesday 01 July:

Conference over, Cathy flew from São Paulo to the international airport in Rio de Janeiro, and was met there by Paul, who had arrived several hours earlier after an overnight flight from Los Angeles via Miami. A driver was there to pick us up along with another couple who had arrived in on the same flight from São Paulo. A two-hour drive got us to Itororó Lodge by about 3 pm, where we were met by Andy Foster and spent the rest of the afternoon settling in and watching the birds coming to the lodge’s feeders. Nectar feeders were being visited by Brazilian Rubys, White-throated Hummingbirds, Violet-capped Woodnymphs and a Scale-throated Hermit, along with the occasional Bananaquit and Blue Dacnis. Bananas at the fruit feeding stations were popular with Azure-shouldered, Golden-chevroned, Burnished-buff, Black-goggled, Ruby-crowned and Magpie Tanagers, along with Rufous-bellied and Pale-breasted Thrushes, Maroon-bellied Parakeets, and a Great Kiskadee. Other species we observed around the lodge buildings included Creamy-bellied Thrush, Pallid Spinetail, Picazuro Pigeons, Scaly-headed Parrots and a Gray-headed Kite. A pair of Dusky-legged Guans visited reliably each day at dawn and dusk, and during the week we also recorded Blue-naped Chlorophonias, a Cinnamon Tanager and a pair of Plain Parakeets at the feeders.

Thursday 02 July:
Our first morning at Itororó was spent exploring the lodge grounds with Andy, slowly working our way around a loop trail of several kilometers that passes through a mix of secondary and primary forest including several dense stands of bamboo. Birds that were common here and whose calls we soon learned to recognize included Swallow-tailed Manakin, Rufous Gnateater, Rufous-capped Spinetail, Variable Antshrike, Olivaceous Woodcreeper, Planalto and Mottle-cheeked Tyrannulets, Rufous-browed Peppershrike, flocks of Brassy-breasted Tanagers, and both Golden-crowned and White-browed Warblers. Other birds we picked up in the course of the morning included Pin-tailed Manakin, Buff-fronted Foliage-gleaner, Sharp-billed Treehunter, White-browed Woodpecker, Surucua Trogon, Green-winged Saltator, Gray-capped Tyrannulet, White-throated and Scaled Woodcreepers, Bertoni’s and Ochre-rumped Antbirds, Olivaceous Elaenia, Blue-billed Black-Tyrant, Chestnut-crowned Becard, Rufous-crowned Greenlet and Rufous-headed Tanager. All three species of Chamaeza antthrushes could be heard calling, and we spent about an hour painstakingly trying to lure a Rufous-tailed Antthrush into view, only to have it repeatedly hop across the trail too quickly for us to get our bins on it. A Mouse-colored Tapaculo was much more cooperative, coming right out onto the trail at our feet.

After lunch we spent some time photographing birds at the feeders, and then walked the loop trail again on our own. It was much quieter than it had been in the morning, and the only new species we encountered was a Lesser Woodcreeper. At dusk we stood quietly alongside the track, trying (with eventual success) to tape a calling pair of White-shouldered Fire-eyes into view. Suddenly there was a rustle in the bushes, and a Solitary Tinamou jumped out and went running up the track and out of view over a rise! Spot-backed Wood-Quail who were calling close by were not nearly as obliging, and went unseen.

Friday 03 July:
The plan for today had been to go to Pico da Caledonia, a high elevation site that requires good weather in order to see both the birds and a spectacular view of the Serra do Mar range. Unfortunately, it was a damp morning with low cloud so Andy made a quick decision to change up the schedule: instead, we would spend today driving to Sumidouro, the site for the endemic Three-toed Jacamar. This turned out to be an excellent decision as the cloud sat low on the mountains throughout the morning, but the cool overcast weather was perfect for birding by car in open country. Our first stop of the morning was a wet pasture that held a large number of new species, including pairs of Blue-winged Macaws and displaying Streamer-tailed Tyrants, raucous gangs of Rufous and Wing-banded Horneros, Rufous-fronted Thornbird, Smooth-billed Anis, both Double-collared and White-bellied Seedeaters, a Black-capped Donacobius, and three Blackish Rails that ventured out into the open in response to tape. Further on an expansive area of grassy hills yielded a distant pair of Red-legged Seriemas, a Crested Black-Tyrant, White-tailed Hawk, Aplomado Falcon and some Brown-chested Martins. Next we stopped in a wooded area to try for the very localized, endemic Serra Antwren. Although we could hear one calling it took an anxious hour before we finally coaxed a pair into view, but while waiting we picked up Ochre-faced and Gray-headed Tody-Flycatchers. We stopped for lunch where a pasture held Guira Cuckoos and a Firewood-gatherer, as well as Long-tailed and Masked Water Tyrants. After making several quick stops along the road to pick up Rufous-capped Antshrike and Hangnest Tody-Tyrant, we hit a productive farmyard where White-eared Puffbirds were the primary target. While waiting for them to come close enough for photos, we ticked Chestnut-capped and Chopi Blackbirds, Shiny Cowbird, Yellow-chinned Spinetail, Yellow-browed Tyrant, Green-barred Woodpecker, Swallow Tanager and a pair of Tawny-headed Swallows.

Our last (but not least!) stop of the day was the site where Three-toed Jacamars can be found, and we had three of them in our bins at close range within just a few minutes of leaving the van. Without walking more than about 100 meters we also added to the day’s list Chestnut-backed Antshrike, Chestnut-vented Conebill, Yellow Tyrannulet, Red-rumped Cacique, a charismatic little White-barred Piculet, White Woodpecker, Blue-winged Parrotlets, and distant but satisfactory scope views of a Black-necked Araçari. By the time we returned to the lodge for dinner we’d racked up the highest single-day species list of the entire trip.

Saturday 04 July:
It was another damp, misty dawn at Itororó, but we decided to go ahead with our postponed trip up Pico da Caledonia. As we arrived there and began to walk up the steep, cobbled track the rain began falling, and we feared that this decision had been a poor one. But after 15 minutes the rain stopped, the skies cleared, and we ended up with a lovely cool day with spectacular views of the surrounding countryside – it would turn out to be the only clear day of the week! Even before the rain stopped the birding was fast and frenetic, and within just a few minutes we had hit flocks of Bay-chested Warbling Finches, Diademed and Brassy-breasted Tanagers, several Plovercrests, and a surprisingly cooperative Large-tailed Antshrike. Next Andy heard the call of a Grey-winged Cotinga on the hillside above us, and we were soon enjoying good scope views of that rare, range-restricted endemic – Pico da Caledonia is one of only two known populations. As we tracked the cotinga across the hillside, we also picked up the congeneric Black-and-gold Cotinga, Velvety Black-Tyrant, Shear-tailed Gray Tyrant, Fawn-breasted Tanager, and some Plumbeous Pigeons. Further up the track we found Serra do Mar Tyrannulet and Rufous-tailed Antbird, and by 10:20 am we had completed the day’s target list with an Itatiaia Spinetail near the start of the long stairway to the summit. All pressure off, we continued on up to enjoy spectacular views of Tres Picos and the Serra dos Orgãos, and stopped for a leisurely picnic lunch on the way back down.

Before heading back to the lodge we called in briefly at a private property located along the lower reaches of the road to Pico da Caledonia. A check of the area around the entrance gate turned up only one new species, a Rusty-margined Flycatcher, but resulted in one of the most entertaining shows of the trip. Andy told us he’d try to get us a closer view of Red-legged Seriemas than we’d had the previous day, and played a tape of a pair that is resident on this property. With no warning, three irate, bellowing birds suddenly materialized in our midst, stalking angrily to within a few feet of us in search of the intruders! It was difficult to believe these were wild birds behaving like territorial barnyard geese, but the show they put on made for some great photos!

Sunday 05 July:
The other couple who had been staying at the lodge and had accompanied us to both Sumidouro and Pico da Caledonia were leaving today, so just the two of us went with Andy to the Bamboo Trail, a little-visited area within Tres Picos State Park. This trail through dense forest is narrow and requires a tricky stream crossing, so is not suitable for large groups. Overnight a cold front had blown in, and it was a wet, cold, foggy morning with little bird activity. We started the morning well with Spix’s Spinetail, Orange-eyed Thornbird and Star-throated Antwren, but then endured several bone-chilling hours during which we heard and saw few birds. Eventually we encountered a mixed flock that included Black-throated Trogon, Planalto Woodcreeper, Whiskered Flycatcher, Uniform Finch, and two of our top target species, Black-hooded Berryeater and Spot-billed Toucanet. It took a few tries before we managed to get satisfactory views of either of the latter species, and we had to settle for a silhouette of the underside of a Sharpbill that appeared at around the same time. The weather started to brighten up a bit, and by the time we stopped for lunch we’d added Yellow-eared Woodpecker, Rufous-breasted Leaftosser, Drab-breasted Pygmy-Tyrant, Gray-hooded Flycatcher, Rufous-backed Antwren, a male Black-and-gold Cotinga, and a small troop of Brown Capuchins. The break in the weather was short-lived, however, and as we hiked back out the fog, rain and silence resumed. We retreated to the lodge and warmed up in front of the wood-burning fireplace in our room for the rest of the afternoon!

Monday 06 July:
We spent today—another gloomy, chilly one—exploring the lodge grounds more thoroughly. We were joined by a new guest, Keith, a guide for the South African birding company Rockjumper who was making his first trip to South America. New birds we pulled in during the course of the day included White-browed, Buff-browed and White-collared Foliage-gleaners, Sharp-tailed Streamcreeper, Black-billed Scythebill and Dusky-tailed Antbird. But almost every bird was a lifer for Keith, so we also worked to find a number of species for him, which resulted in us getting second (and often better) looks at Spot-billed Toucanet, Mouse-colored Tapaculo, Drab-breasted Pygmy-Tyrant, Orange-eyed Thornbird, Rufous-breasted Leaftosser and Green-winged Saltator.

Tuesday 07 July:
The weather altered our agenda again today. We’d planned to spend our last full day birding with Andy at Macae da Cima, a mid-elevation site (~1000 m) that’s a reliable spot for Serra do Mar Tyrant-Manakin and some of the other endemics we had yet to see. But once again the mountains were socked in with cloud, so Andy suggested we drive to lower elevations in search of better weather. Thus, we spent the morning birding in bright sunshine along the Cedae Trail at an elevation of 600 m. Here we encountered many low-elevation species we had not yet seen, accumulating quite a list by lunchtime: Black-capped and White-eyed Foliage-gleaners, the attractive Black-cheeked Gnateater, Pale-browed Treehunter, Spot-backed Antshrike, Plain and Spot-breasted Antvireos, Streak-capped Antwren, a Rufous-capped Antthrush seen well, Gray-hooded Attila, Red-crowned Ant-Tanager, Chestnut-bellied Euphonia, Olive-green, Green-headed and Red-necked Tanagers, and very poor scope views of a Black-throated Grosbeak.

After lunch we drove up to Macae da Cima, expecting the clouds to have lifted by now, but arrived to find it still overcast with an occasional rainshower. Birding along the road got us a Lineated Woodpecker, a superb, eye-level view of a male Pin-tailed Manakin, and finally a Chestnut-headed Tanager, a species we’d been searching for all week. But no Serra do Mar Tyrant-Manakin.

Wednesday 08 July:
We spent the morning making one final circuit of the trails at Itororó, trying to see a few last species we’d only heard so far. Gray-bellied Spinetail proved to be a particularly difficult one, and in the end we had to settle for brief silhouettes of a bird moving rapidly through dense understory vegetation. Calling antthrushes, wood-quail and antshrikes also remained hidden, and we were unable to get a response from the Half-collared Sparrows that reside on the property. Nice looks at a male Glittering-bellied Emerald and a confiding pair of Chestnut-headed Tanagers ended up being the highlights of the morning.

After lunch a driver picked us up to take us to REGUA, a drive of about 1-1/2 hours. We arrived there in time to walk down to the wetland to witness the arrival of several thousand Cattle Egrets that fly in to roost every evening. The wetland also held a number of Neotropic Cormorants, Muscovy Ducks and Brazilian Teal, Common and Purple Gallinules, Wattled Jacanas, Ringed Kingfisher and a few Capped Herons. Around the edges we found Greater Anis, Yellow-backed Tanager, Rufous-tailed Jacamar, Masked Water Tyrant and White-headed Marsh Tyrant. Although this used to be a reliable site for Masked Ducks none have been seen here in over a year, and it’s feared the population has been eradicated by caimans.

Thursday 09 July:
Counting us, there were 10 guests staying at REGUA and only one guide, Adilei, to accommodate everyone’s wishes. We were informed that the entire group would be spending the morning on the Waldenoor Trail, which was not one of the excursions we had booked and paid for in advance. We also hadn’t anticipated birding with a group of 10 people that included several photographers hauling along massive lenses and tripods as well as a guy who was only interested in photographing flies. We had presented Adilei with a list of the species we were most interested in seeing, but after looking it over with interest he ruefully stated that it was going to be difficult with such a large group. As it happened, it was a very windy morning and few birds were moving, so group size really wasn’t an issue. Although the winds died down a bit over the course of the morning, the only new species we saw were Yellow-fronted Woodpecker, Saw-billed Hermit, Flame-crested Tanager and Orange-bellied Euphonia. But a second chance at Sharpbill was very welcome, and this one posed nicely for photographs in good light.

During lunch we explored the garden immediately surrounding the lodge. The feeders here are not as productive as at Itororó, and during our visit the only species we regularly saw at them were Glittering-throated Emeralds, Violet-capped Woodnymphs, a Swallow-tailed Hummingbird, and Purple-throated Euphonias. But in the surrounding trees we picked up White-winged Becard, Red-eyed Vireo and Hooded Tanager. The feeders were also occasionally visited by Buffy-tufted-eared Marmosets, little squirrel-like monkeys whose white faces make them look like they’re wearing Day-of-the-Dead costumes.

For the afternoon it was decided that the group would first spend some time around the wetlands (Brown and Yellow Trails) to look for Shrike-like Cotinga, and then drive to another part of the property in search of crakes and Giant Snipe at dusk. This was one of the excursions we had specifically requested, so we were pleased with this plan. An hour or so on the Brown Trail netted us a pair of Crescent-chested Puffbirds, excellent views of a Shrike-like Cotinga, and a few other new species such as Eye-ringed Tody-Tyrant and White-bearded Manakin. Next we all piled into an open-backed truck and drove to an area of wet pastureland. First up were a number of open-country species such as Guira Cuckoos and Chalk-browed Mockingbirds, Brazilian Tanager, a pair of Burrowing Owls (to remind us of home!), Streamer-tailed and Yellow-browed Tyrants, and a Wedge-tailed Grassfinch. With the light fading Adilei managed to coax an Ash-throated Crake into view at the edge of a marshy area, and we then settled in to wait for complete darkness before trying for Giant Snipe. A calling bird was soon located, and Adilei carefully approached and got it in the beam of his spotlight for the rest of us to see. On the way back to the lodge we tried for Tawny-browed Owl, but a bird that responded and came close didn’t stick around long enough for us to get a light on it.

Friday 10 July:
It turned out that most of the other guests were departing today, leaving just us and a couple of French photographers to go out with Adilei. The photographers just wanted to see colorful birds and insects, and were happy to tag along wherever we went. After looking over our target list again, Adilei decided that the 4 X 4 Trail would be the most productive destination so we spent the day there. The morning started excellently with a Rufous-capped Motmot, followed by Buff-bellied Puffbird, Channel-billed Toucan, Yellow-throated and Blond-crested Woodpeckers, a circling pair of Black Hawk-Eagles, a small flock of Pileated Parrots in flight, Unicolored and Rufous-winged Antwrens, Scaled Antbird, Plain-winged Woodcreeper, Eared Pygmy-Tyrant, Euler’s Flycatcher, White-necked and Yellow-legged Thrushes, and White-bellied (Turquoise) Tanager. A particular highlight was a Least Pygmy-Owl that responded well to tape and then attracted a number of other upset species to the vicinity. Bare-throated Bellbirds were bonging away in the canopy, but try as we might we couldn’t see any of them, and we also struck out with Slaty Bristlefront at a spot where they are normally reliable. Near the bottom of the track we stopped for Sooretama Slaty-Antshrike and White-flanked Antwren, and as a bonus got on a nice mixed flock of tanagers.

Upon returning to the lodge in the late afternoon we first stopped to photograph a trio of Tropical Screech-Owls that were roosting near the education center, and then dragged Adilei down to the wetland to look for crakes. He led us to a spot where almost immediately we had three Rufous-sided Crakes running around in the vegetation at our feet. While there we also picked up Long-billed Wren, Lemon-chested Greenlet, Violaceous Euphonia, several Reddish Hermits and a pair of Amazon Kingfishers. As we returned to the lodge at sunset a Giant Antshrike began calling from an inaccessible area of the wetland below the observation tower, but we were unable to entice it to come any closer.

Saturday 11 July:
Late last night a new group consisting of 7 or 8 British birders had arrived at the lodge. They weren’t yet ready to go out first thing in the morning, however, so once again we set off with Adilei and the French couple. We’d ticked quite a number of our target species yesterday, and were hoping to find some of the remaining ones on the Waterfall Trail (and we also just wanted to see the waterfall, which is indeed worth a visit). Although it was a nice clear morning with just a slight breeze the forest was very quiet. We made it to the waterfall without seeing much new other than a Southern Antpipit, although we did get yet another good view of a Sharpbill. White-thighed Swallows and Grey-rumped Swifts were flying around the waterfall. As we started back down the bird activity picked up a bit, and we managed to see (with considerable difficulty) Salvadori’s Antwren and Black-capped Becard, and improved on our previous views of Spot-billed Toucanets, Star-throated and Unicolored Antwrens, Gray-hooded Attila, and Black-throated Grosbeak.

The Brits were waiting for a decision to be made about where they would be going for the afternoon, and it wasn’t clear if we were going to be expected to go with them. We found Adilei and asked him if he knew what the plan was, whereupon he said “Let’s go” and led the two of us off to the wetland in search of a few more of our target species. Unfortunately, it was even quieter than it had been in the morning, and we covered a large amount of ground without seeing or hearing much of anything, including the White-bibbed Antbird that was the afternoon’s primary quarry. We did, however, happen upon a calling Tufted Antshrike, and eventually managed to get good views of that skulker. At sunset we positioned ourselves near the area where we had heard the Giant Antshrike the previous evening, and soon two different birds began to call. We managed to track down one of them to a dense shrub close to the trail, but the bird simply wouldn’t show itself and stopped calling as the light faded. Despite not having had a day off in several weeks because of the absence of the other guide, Adilei really went all out for us and we ended our time at REGUA having seen the majority of the species we had hoped to see there.

Sunday 12 July:
REGUA’s driver picked us up at 5:30 am to take us to the airport in Rio, an easy 2-hour drive on a weekend morning with no traffic. We arrived into Foz do Iguaçu shortly after noon, and were met there by Miguel Castelino, our guide for the next three days. We crossed the border into Argentina, stopped for lunch, and then paid a visit to the Hummingbird Garden in Puerto Iguazú. The owners of this private residence have opened their feeder-festooned garden to the public, and for a modest fee one can sit and watch dozens of hummingbirds and other species jockeying for position within what’s really a rather small amount of airspace. Versicolored Emeralds were numerically dominant here, but among them were a few White-throated and Gilded Hummingbirds, Violet-capped Woodnymphs, Black Jacobins and at least one Planalto Hermit. Fruit feeders were being visited by Violaceous and Chestnut-bellied Euphonias, Blue Dacnis, and Green-headed, Sayaca and Ruby-crowned Tanagers. From there we proceeded to our hotel, La Cantera Jungle Lodge, which is located within a 600-ha preserved area. After we’d checked in we explored some of the (very muddy) trails immediately surrounding the lodge, getting our first looks at local specialties such as Plush-crested Jay, Ochre-collared Piculet, Guira Tanager, Variable Oriole, and Ochre-breasted Foliage-gleaner. A small wetland down the road from the hotel held both Least and Pied-billed Grebes, and Great Dusky and Sick’s Swifts were passing overhead on their way home for the evening.

Monday 13 July:
We headed straight to Iguazú NP bright and early, but spent the morning on trails in the forest away from the falls and the hordes of tourists. New species we picked up here were Rusty-margined Guan, Toco Toucan, Robust Woodpecker, Gray Elaenia, Wing-barred Piprites and the surrucura sub-species of Surucua Trogon, whose belly is red rather than the decidedly yellowish-orange of the aurantius sub-species of coastal Brazil. A quick search along the park entrance road for Saffron-billed Sparrow was successful, and we also found a handsome Creamy-bellied Gnatcatcher among a nice little flock of Fawn-breasted Tanagers. In the late morning we finally made our way towards the station for the narrow-gauge railway that transports visitors to The Devil’s Throat, the spectacular, semi-circular cascade that handles about half the total volume of the falls. When we saw the length of the queue for the train, however, we decided that it would be faster to walk the 3 km, and as a result scored a Riverbank Warbler along the way. We spent the rest of the day taking in the massive falls, a slow process due to the very large numbers of other visitors who were doing the same thing (unfortunately our visit coincided with winter school holidays in Argentina!). We did spy several Chestnut-eared Araçaris feeding quietly above one of the crowded walkways, and watched Plush-crested Jays shamelessly plucking chips out of the hands of tourists. But we dipped on finding any of the Black-fronted Piping-Guans that apparently can often be seen in trees along the river’s edge.

Tuesday 14 July:
It poured throughout the night, and rain was still coming down torrentially as we made the 100 km drive to Uruguaí State Park. At one point our driver had to pull off the road for a few minutes to wait for visibility to improve, and when we finally arrived at Uruguaí we sat in the car for 20 minutes before attempting the 5 m dash to the ranger station! We finally made it to a covered carport where we ate a picnic breakfast while hoping the rain would subside enough to let us venture out onto the trails. Eventually it did, although we soon reached a point where the trail along the river was too flooded for us to proceed, so with rain starting to come down heavily again we returned to the carport for an early and long lunch. During the morning we had managed to find a Sirystes, Bertoni’s Antbird, pairs of Greenish Tyrannulets and Golden-winged Caciques, and had nearly coaxed a calling Speckle-breasted Antpitta into view. Plush-crested Jays were hanging around (where else?) the picnic area, and from our shelter under the carport we observed a Red-crested Finch among the various thrushes and tanagers that were active in the adjacent garden. Unfortunately, what we hadn’t found were any Black-fronted Piping-Guans, which can normally be found alongside the presently-flooded river.

The afternoon cleared a little, and we headed back out to the trail we’d been on in the morning only to find that parts of it that had been dry earlier were now under 3-4 inches of water. So instead we walked a short distance into dense bamboo forest on the other side of the main road, where we found a White-spotted Woodpecker, along with another Ochre-collared Piculet and a Yellow Tyrannulet. We also walked along the road itself in a continued search for Black-fronted Piping-Guans and for the Red-breasted Toucans we could hear in the distance, but came up empty on both fronts. We did, however, run across an elaenia with no crest and prominent wingbars. It looked very much like the Olivaceous Elaenias we’d seen in Brazil, but Miguel thought this one was more likely to be a Small-billed Elaenia.

We left the park in the late afternoon to drive slowly back along the main road looking for toucans. After two or three false alarms in the form of Toco Toucans, we finally spied a pair of Red-breasted Toucans perched along the roadside. Before reaching Puerto Iguazú we also stopped at an Araucaria plantation to look for Araucaria Tit-Spinetails. By this time the light was fading badly and it was starting to rain again, so the views we managed to get of two pairs of these little birds flitting about high in the crowns of very dark Araucaria trees were somewhat less than ideal.

Wednesday 15 July:
It was another wet morning, and we spent the first couple of hours birding a very muddy track somewhere on the outskirts of Puerto Iguazú. Our primary target here was Bay-ringed Tyrannulet, a tiny and inconspicuous species that is apparently often overlooked. We hit on a nice mixed flock that included a variety of tanagers, antwrens, flycatchers and woodcreepers, and although we could hear a Bay-ringed Tyrannulet calling among them, we were ultimately unable to find it. We were a few minutes late returning to the hotel to check out, and then found ourselves stuck in a large traffic jam of cars trying to cross the border into Brazil. Our driver somehow managed to bypass most of the queue, but by the time we had gotten through we were running short on time to visit the Brazilian side of Iguassu Falls before our 2:30 pm flight to São Paulo. Miguel whisked us through the ticket line and onto one of the open-topped buses that transport visitors 13 km to the start of the walkway that provides panoramic views of the falls. It was as crowded and wet (from rain and spray alike) as the Argentine side had been, and at several points we were pinned in among the selfie-snapping throngs, unable to move in any direction. But the views of the falls are even more impressive from this side, and it was worth enduring the crush of humanity to see it. After finally making it to the end of the walkway (it’s a one-way route and there’s no turning back!) we sprinted to the first bus we could get out of the park, and made it to the airport in time to check in and say farewell to Miguel over a quick lunch in the terminal.

We arrived in São Paulo at about 4:30 pm, and our guide, Beto, was waiting there to drive us the three hours to Ubatuba. It was dark by the time we arrived, and we checked into the Ubatuba Palace Hotel, had dinner in the hotel’s restaurant, and retired to bed.

Thursday 16 July:
Breakfast at the hotel wasn’t scheduled to start until 7 am, but Beto had arranged for us to be let in at 6:30 am, an arrangement that worked well throughout our stay. He picked us up promptly at 7, and we drove to one of the northern beaches where a trail runs alongside a small river. By now our list of target species was quite short and included some we knew we would be unlikely to get, so we were pleased to knock one off with the first bird of the morning, a Ferruginous Antbird. We also picked up another pair of Riverbank Warblers, along with more Scaled Antbirds, Black-cheeked Gnateaters and Spot-breasted Antvireos.

In the late morning we moved to Fazenda Angelim, and in less than an hour had managed to secure good views of a pair of Buff-throated Purpletufts and a Spotted Bamboo-Wren. We drove into town to celebrate over lunch then returned to Fazenda Angelim for the afternoon, which started with even better views of both of those species! Greenish Schiffornis was a species we had dipped on at both Itororó and REGUA, but Beto knew a site for it here. Two birds responded to tape by repeatedly flying past us, but it took ages before we were finally able to convince one to stop and perch where we could see it. A lot of effort to see a bird that really isn’t much to look at! Another Buff-throated Purpletuft popped up right in front of us while we were pursuing the Schiffornis. In general there was a lot of activity throughout the afternoon, and other species we saw well included White-barred Piculet, Rufous-tailed Jacamar, Blue-winged Parrotlet, Spot-backed Antshrike and a pair of Long-tailed Tyrants. Two Crested Oropendolas along the road back to Ubatuba were new for the tour.

Friday 17 July:
As we left the hotel this morning and drove past a small park in the center of town, Beto stopped at a taxi stand and asked a cab driver a question. Much gesticulating at trees followed, and soon we were looking at a roosting Lesser Nighthawk. From there we drove to Folha Seca and the house of Jonas, a retiree who maintains a garden full of hummingbird feeders, landscaped to provide many additional food sources for birds and other wildlife. Festive Coquettes and Violet-capped Woodnymphs dominated the feeders here, along with Brazilian Rubys, the aptly named Sombre Hummingbirds, Versicolored and Glittering-throated Emeralds and Saw-billed Hermits. Several White-chinned Sapphires were a nice addition to the mix, and a Swallow-tailed Hummingbird put in a brief appearance. Reddish Hermits were visiting some of the flowering plants around the edges of the garden. Bananas attracted the usual mix of tanagers (Green-headed, Red-necked, Azure-shouldered, Golden-chevroned, Ruby-crowned, Brazilian and Olive-green Tanagers) along with Violaceous and Chestnut-bellied Euphonias and the first Green Honeycreepers we’d seen on this trip. A Blond-crested Woodpecker who had been hanging around the garden edge finally came down to the bananas, too, for what Jonas said was the first time this year.

Eventually we tore ourselves away from all of this colorful activity to walk the forest track beyond Jonas’s house. A Brown Tinamou calling very close by got our hopes up, but ultimately sneaked away unseen. A Slaty Bristlefront that called in the distance also didn’t respond. We hit some nice mixed flocks—mostly dominated by Flame-crested Tanagers—but the only new species we encountered among them was a pair of São Paulo Tyrannulets. We adjourned for lunch at the nearby Restaurante Tropical, which features bird feeders adjacent to the dining area as well as all manner of domestic fowl (chickens, guineafowl, peacocks…) wandering the premises. Over a lunch of fresh seafood we watched Green-headed, Sayaca and Palm Tanagers, Plain Parakeets, Rufous-bellied and Pale-breasted Thrushes, a stunning pair of Yellow-fronted Woodpeckers and more Bananaquits than we’ve ever seen in one place coming in to eat papaya only a few feet from where we sat.

After lunch we returned to the forest track past Jonas’s house to resume the search for Slaty Bristlefront, which had now risen to the top of our greatly diminished target list. But a trek to the end of the track and back didn’t turn up this species or much else of note, so with an hour of daylight left we moved on to check some other sites. We finished the day sprinting up a hill to a normally reliable site for Slaty Bristlefronts, but there was little light left by the time we got there, and the birds remained silent and invisible. Beto made arrangements for us to resume our search here in the morning, and also learned from the landowner that a pair of Bare-throated Bellbirds had been feeding in his garden earlier in the day.

Saturday 18 July:
We trekked back up the hill to the Slaty Bristlefront territory in slightly better light, but there were still no birds to be seen or heard in the area. Other trails on the property were no more productive, and today the bellbirds were not feeding in the owner’s garden but could be heard calling far in the distance. While following up a lead on a recent Slaty Bristlefront sighting further down the road we ran across a pair of Green-backed Trogons, which would prove to be the last new species of the trip. Beto was absolutely determined to find us a Slaty Bristlefront, but when we came up empty at yet one more normally reliable spot we finally pulled the plug on the effort, and returned to the hotel to take quick showers before checking out. Before leaving for the airport we had time for a leisurely lunch, and Beto took us on a brief tour of the Ubatuba waterfront. As we drove up a headland at the south end of the town a bellbird suddenly “bonged” directly above us, and we hastily unpacked our bins and scrambled out of the car to look for it. But there was to be no last-minute save—as we searched the canopy the bird fell silent. Reluctantly, we left for São Paulo, arriving at the airport in plenty of time to check in and have dinner before our overnight flight back to the U.S.

We ended the trip having seen about 315 species, 105 of them Atlantic forest or Brazilian endemics. We knew in advance there were some species we would inevitably miss at this time of year but in retrospect we did remarkably well, thanks to the efforts of all four of our excellent guides. The most painful dips were Giant Antshrike and Slaty Bristlefront, both of which we heard tantalizingly nearby, and the Black-fronted Piping-Guans we had hoped to find at Iguazú. As always, multiple reasons to return to Brazil in the future!

Species Lists

List of all species seen and heard (bold = Atlantic forest or Brazilian endemics)
ITO: Itororó Lodge
SUM: Sumidouro excursion
PdC: Pico da Caledonia
BAM: Bamboo Trail
CED: Cedae Trail
MdC: Macae da Cima
IGU: Iguazu Falls
URU: Uruguaí State Park
UBA: Ubatuba

Solitary Tinamou (Tinamus solitarius): ITO (1)
Brown Tinamou (Crypturellus obsoletus): ITO, UBA, heard only
White-faced Whistling-Duck (Dendrocygna viduata): REG (5)
Muscovy Duck (Cairina moschata): REG (8)
Brazilian Teal (Amazonetta brasiliensis): REG (10)
Rusty-margined Guan (Penelope superciliaris): IGU (2)
Dusky-legged Guan (Penelope obscura): ITO (2), MdC(1)
Spot-winged Wood-Quail (Odontophorus capueira): ITO, heard only
Least Grebe (Tachybaptus dominicus): REG (1), IGU (4)
Pied-billed Grebe (Podilymbus podiceps): IGU (1)
Magnificent Frigatebird (Fregata magnificens): UBA (5)
Neotropic Cormorant (Phalacrocorax brasilianus): REG (10), UBA (10)
Anhinga (Anhinga anhinga): REG (2)
Great Egret (Ardea alba): SUM (1), REG (1), UBA (1)
Snowy Egret (Egretta thula): IGU (2), UBA (1)
Cattle Egret (Bubulcus ibis): REG, roost of thousands
Striated Heron (Butorides striata): REG (1)
Capped Heron (Pilherodius pileatus): REG (3)
Black-crowned Night-Heron (Nycticorax nycticorax): REG (1)
Black Vulture (Coragyps atratus): seen daily
Turkey Vulture (Cathartes aura): seen daily in lowlands
Gray-headed Kite (Leptodon cayanensis): ITO (1)
Black Hawk-Eagle (Spizaetus tyrannus): REG (2)
Great Black-Hawk (Buteogallus urubitinga): REG (1)
Roadside Hawk (Rupornis magnirostris): ITO (2), REG (2), IGU (2), UBA (1)
White-tailed Hawk (Geranoaetus albicaudatus): SUM (3)
Rufous-sided Crake (Laterallus melanophaius): REG (3)
Slaty-breasted Wood-Rail (Aramides saracura): ITO (2), URU (1), UBA (1)
Uniform Crake (Amaurolimnas concolor): UBA, heard only
Ash-throated Crake (Porzana albicollis): REG (1)
Blackish Rail (Pardirallus nigricans): SUM (3)
Purple Gallinule (Porphyrio martinicus): REG (3)
Common Gallinule (Gallinula galeata): REG (15)
Limpkin (Aramus guarauna): REG (1)
Southern Lapwing (Vanellus chilensis): SUM (2), REG (3), IGU (4), UBA (2)
Wattled Jacana (Jacana jacana): REG (5)
Giant Snipe (Gallinago undulata): REG (1)
Rock Pigeon (Columba livia): common in urban areas
Picazuro Pigeon (Patagioenas picazuro): ITO (8), SUM (5), BAM (8), REG (25), IGU (1), UBA (1)
Plumbeous Pigeon (Patagioenas plumbea): PdC (3), heard often in highlands
Eared Dove (Zenaida auriculata): IGU (13)
Ruddy Ground-Dove (Columbina talpacoti): common in open and urban areas
White-tipped Dove (Leptotila verreauxi): ITO (1), SUM (2), URU (3)
Gray-fronted Dove (Leptotila rufaxilla): REG (1)
Squirrel Cuckoo (Piaya cayana): ITO (1), REG (2)
Guira Cuckoo (Guira guira): SUM (4), REG (20)
Greater Ani (Crotophaga major): REG (5)
Smooth-billed Ani (Crotophaga ani): SUM (15), REG (20), IGU (5), UBA (5)
Tropical Screech-Owl (Megascops choliba): REG (3)
Least Pygmy-Owl (Glaucidium minutissimum): REG (1)
Burrowing Owl (Athene cunicularia): REG (2)
Lesser Nighthawk (Chordeiles acutipennis): UBA (1)
Great Dusky Swift (Cypseloides senex): IGU (10)
White-collared Swift (Streptoprocne zonaris): REG (3), UBA (25)
Sick's Swift (Chaetura meridionalis): IGU (5)
Gray-rumped Swift (Chaetura cinereiventris): REG (5)
Black Jacobin (Florisuga fusca): IGU (2)
Saw-billed Hermit (Ramphodon naevius): REG (2), UBA (10)
Reddish Hermit (Phaethornis ruber): REG (3), UBA (3)
Planalto Hermit (Phaethornis pretrei): IGU (1)
Scale-throated Hermit (Phaethornis eurynome): ITO (1)
Festive Coquette (Lophornis chalybeus): UBA (10)
Brazilian Ruby (Clytolaema rubricauda): ITO (5), PdC (2), MdC (1), UBA (5)
Glittering-bellied Emerald (Chlorostilbon lucidus): ITO (1), SUM (1), REG (1)
Plovercrest (Stephanoxis lalandi): ITO (3), PdC (6)
Swallow-tailed Hummingbird (Eupetomena macroura): SUM (1), REG (1), UBA (2)
Violet-capped Woodnymph (Thalurania glaucopis): ITO (2), MdC (1), REG (5), IGU (2), UBA (10)
Sombre Hummingbird (Aphantochroa cirrochloris): UBA (5)
White-throated Hummingbird (Leucochloris albicollis): ITO (2), PdC (2), IGU (2)
Versicolored Emerald (Amazilia versicolor): ITO (2), IGU (20), UBA (5)
Glittering-throated Emerald (Amazilia fimbriata): REG (2), UBA (4)
White-chinned Sapphire (Hylocharis cyanus): REG (1), UBA (3)
Gilded Hummingbird (Hylocharis chrysura): IGU (5)
Green-backed Trogon (Trogon viridis): UBA (2)
Surucua Trogon (Trogon surrucura): ITO (2), CED (1), REG (1), IGU (4)
Black-throated Trogon (Trogon rufus): ITO (1), BAM (2), CED (1), REG (3), IGU (1)
Rufous-capped Motmot (Baryphthengus ruficapillus): REG (1)
Ringed Kingfisher (Megaceryle torquata): REG (1), UBA (1)
Amazon Kingfisher (Chloroceryle amazona): REG (2)
Buff-bellied Puffbird (Notharchus swainsoni): REG (1)
White-eared Puffbird (Nystalus chacuru): SUM (2)
Crescent-chested Puffbird (Malacoptila striata): REG (2)
Three-toed Jacamar (Jacamaralcyon tridactyla): SUM (3)
Rufous-tailed Jacamar (Galbula ruficauda): REG (1), UBA (1)
Black-necked Aracari (Pteroglossus aracari): SUM (2)
Chestnut-eared Aracari (Pteroglossus castanotis): IGU (6)
Spot-billed Toucanet (Selenidera maculirostris): ITO (1), BAM (2), CED (1), REG (2)
Toco Toucan (Ramphastos toco): IGU (5), URU (2)
Channel-billed Toucan (Ramphastos vitellinus): REG (9), UBA (2)
Red-breasted Toucan (Ramphastos dicolorus): URU (2)
White-barred Piculet (Picumnus cirratus): ITO (4), REG (5), UBA (4)
Ochre-collared Piculet (Picumnus temminckii): IGU (1), URU (1)
White Woodpecker (Melanerpes candidus): SUM (1)
Yellow-fronted Woodpecker (Melanerpes flavifrons): REG (4), IGU (3), UBA (4)
White-spotted Woodpecker (Veniliornis spilogaster): URU (1)
Yellow-eared Woodpecker (Veniliornis maculifrons): ITO (1), BAM (1), REG (6)
Yellow-throated Woodpecker (Piculus flavigula): REG (2), UBA (1)
White-browed Woodpecker (Piculus aurulentus): ITO (1), BAM (1)
Green-barred Woodpecker (Colaptes melanochloros): SUM (1)
Campo Flicker (Colaptes campestris): ITO (3), PdC (2), REG (1), UBA (1)
Blond-crested Woodpecker (Celeus flavescens): REG (1), IGU (1), UBA (2)
Lineated Woodpecker (Dryocopus lineatus): MdC (1)
Robust Woodpecker (Campephilus robustus): IGU (1)
Red-legged Seriema (Cariama cristata): SUM (2), PdC (3)
Collared Forest-Falcon (Micrastur semitorquatus): REG (1)
Southern Caracara (Caracara plancus): ITO (1), SUM (5), PdC (2), REG (4), IGU (3), URU (1)
Yellow-headed Caracara (Milvago chimachima): ITO (2), SUM (3), BAM (2), REG (7), IGU (1)
Laughing Falcon (Herpetotheres cachinnans): REG (1)
Aplomado Falcon (Falco femoralis): SUM (1)
Maroon-bellied Parakeet (Pyrrhura frontalis): ITO (
White-eyed Parakeet (Aratinga leucophthalma): SUM (10), IGU (6)
Blue-winged Macaw (Primolius maracana): SUM (2)
Blue-winged Parrotlet (Forpus xanthopterygius): SUM (3), IGU (3), UBA (8)
Plain Parakeet (Brotogeris tirica): ITO (2),
Pileated Parrot (Pionopsitta pileata): REG (5), UBA (2)
Scaly-headed Parrot (Pionus maximiliani): pairs seen most days
Spot-backed Antshrike (Hypoedaleus guttatus): CED (1), REG (1), IGU (3), UBA (2)
Giant Antshrike (Batara cinerea): REG, 2 heard only
Large-tailed Antshrike (Mackenziaena leachii): PdC (1)
Tufted Antshrike (Mackenziaena severa): REG (1)
Rufous-capped Antshrike (Thamnophilus ruficapillus): SUM (1)
Chestnut-backed Antshrike (Thamnophilus palliatus): SUM (1), REG (3)
Sooretama Slaty-Antshrike (Thamnophilus ambiguus): REG (2)
Variable Antshrike (Thamnophilus caerulescens): ITO (5), SUM (1), PdC (1), MdC (2), URU (4)
Star-throated Antwren (Rhopias gularis): BAM (1), CED (1), REG (1)
Spot-breasted Antvireo (Dysithamnus stictothorax): CED (3), UBA (1)
Plain Antvireo (Dysithamnus mentalis): ITO (1), BAM (1), CED (8), MdC (1), REG (2), IGU (3), UBA (1)
Rufous-backed Antvireo (Dysithamnus xanthopterus): ITO (1), BAM (1)
White-flanked Antwren (Myrmotherula axillaris): REG (6)
Salvadori's Antwren (Myrmotherula minor): REG (1)
Unicolored Antwren (Myrmotherula unicolor): REG (3)
Rufous-winged Antwren (Herpsilochmus rufimarginatus): REG (2), IGU (5), UBA (4)
Serra Antwren (Formicivora serrana): SUM (1)
Ferruginous Antbird (Drymophila ferruginea): UBA (3)
Bertoni's Antbird (Drymophila rubricollis): ITO (2), URU (1)
Rufous-tailed Antbird (Drymophila genei): PdC (1)
Ochre-rumped Antbird (Drymophila ochropyga): ITO (1)
Dusky-tailed Antbird (Drymophila malura): ITO (1)
Scaled Antbird (Drymophila squamata): REG (5), UBA (3)
Streak-capped Antwren (Terenura maculata): CED (1), REG (1), IGU (2), UBA (2)
White-shouldered Fire-eye (Pyriglena leucoptera): ITO (4), CED (2)
Rufous Gnateater (Conopophaga lineata): ITO (5), IGU (2)
Black-cheeked Gnateater (Conopophaga melanops): CED (1), REG (5), UBA (1)
Speckle-breasted Antpitta (Hylopezus nattereri): URU, 1 heard only
Spotted Bamboowren (Psilorhamphus guttatus): UBA (2)
Mouse-colored Tapaculo (Scytalopus speluncae): ITO (2)
Rufous-capped Antthrush (Formicarius colma): CED (1)
Short-tailed Antthrush (Chamaeza campanisona): ITO, IGU, heard only
Such's Antthrush (Chamaeza meruloides): ITO, CED heard only
Rufous-tailed Antthrush (Chamaeza ruficauda): ITO, BAM, CED, heard only
Rufous-breasted Leaftosser (Sclerurus scansor): ITO (1), BAM (1)
Olivaceous Woodcreeper (Sittasomus griseicapillus): one or more seen most days
Plain-winged Woodcreeper (Dendrocincla turdina): REG (1), UBA (2)
Planalto Woodcreeper (Dendrocolaptes platyrostris): ITO (3), BAM (1), CED (1), IGU (2)
White-throated Woodcreeper (Xiphocolaptes albicollis): ITO (1), BAM (1), MdC (1)
Lesser Woodcreeper (Xiphorhynchus fuscus): ITO (1), REG (1), URU (1), IGU (1), UBA (1)
Black-billed Scythebill (Campylorhamphus falcularius): ITO (1)
Scaled Woodcreeper (Lepidocolaptes squamatus): ITO (5), CED (1), REG (2)
Streaked Xenops (Xenops rutilans): ITO (2), MdC (1), REG (2), UBA (1)
Wing-banded Hornero (Furnarius figulus): SUM (5), REG (3)
Rufous Hornero (Furnarius rufus): SUM (5), REG (3), IGU (2), URU (1)
Sharp-tailed Streamcreeper (Lochmias nematura): ITO (1)
White-collared Foliage-gleaner (Anabazenops fuscus): ITO (2)
Pale-browed Treehunter (Cichlocolaptes leucophrus): CED (1)
Sharp-billed Treehunter (Heliobletus contaminatus): ITO (2), BAM (1)
Black-capped Foliage-gleaner (Philydor atricapillus): CED (1), REG (4), UBA (2)
Buff-fronted Foliage-gleaner (Philydor rufum): ITO (3), BAM (1), CED (2), MdC (1), REG (1)
White-browed Foliage-gleaner (Anabacerthia amaurotis): ITO (1)
Ochre-breasted Foliage-gleaner (Anabacerthia lichtensteini): IGU (5), URU (1)
Buff-browed Foliage-gleaner (Syndactyla rufosuperciliata): ITO (2)
White-eyed Foliage-gleaner (Automolus leucophthalmus): CED (1), REG (1), IGU (1), URU (1)
Araucaria Tit-Spinetail (Leptasthenura setaria): IGU (4)
Rufous-fronted Thornbird (Phacellodomus rufifrons): SUM (3)
Orange-eyed Thornbird (Phacellodomus erythrophthalmus): ITO (1), BAM (1)
Firewood-gatherer (Anumbius annumbi): SUM (3)
Itatiaia Spinetail (Asthenes moreirae): PdC (2)
Pallid Spinetail (Cranioleuca pallida): ITO (5), PdC (1)
Yellow-chinned Spinetail (Certhiaxis cinnamomeus): SUM (3)
Rufous-capped Spinetail (Synallaxis ruficapilla): ITO (3), REG (1)
Gray-bellied Spinetail (Synallaxis cinerascens): ITO, often heard, 1 seen poorly
Spix's Spinetail (Synallaxis spixi): BAM (1)
Southern Beardless-Tyrannulet (Camptostoma obsoletum): SUM (2), REG (1)
Yellow Tyrannulet (Capsiempis flaveola): SUM (1), REG (1)
Gray Elaenia (Myiopagis caniceps): IGU (3)
Yellow-bellied Elaenia (Elaenia flavogaster): SUM (4)
?Small-billed Elaenia (Elaenia parvirostris): URU (1), or could have been Olivaceous
Olivaceous Elaenia (Elaenia mesoleuca): ITO (3)
White-crested Tyrannulet (Serpophaga subcristata): SUM (1), PdC (1)
Gray-hooded Flycatcher (Mionectes rufiventris): ITO(2), BAM(1), CED(1), MdC(1), REG(1), IGU(1)
Sepia-capped Flycatcher (Leptopogon amaurocephalus): 1-2 seen most days
Mottle-cheeked Tyrannulet (Phylloscartes ventralis): ITO (7), BAM (1), MdC (1)
Sao Paulo Tyrannulet (Phylloscartes paulista): UBA (2)
Serra do Mar Tyrannulet (Phylloscartes difficilis): PdC (2)
Greenish Tyrannulet (Phyllomyias virescens): URU (2)
Planalto Tyrannulet (Phyllomyias fasciatus): ITO (3), SUM (3), REG (1)
Gray-capped Tyrannulet (Phyllomyias griseocapilla): ITO (2), UBA (1)
Southern Antpipit (Corythopis delalandi): REG (1)
Eared Pygmy-Tyrant (Myiornis auricularis): REG (1), IGU (2)
Drab-breasted Pygmy-Tyrant (Hemitriccus diops): ITO (1), BAM (1)
Eye-ringed Tody-Tyrant (Hemitriccus orbitatus): REG (3)
Hangnest Tody-Tyrant (Hemitriccus nidipendulus): SUM (1)
Ochre-faced Tody-Flycatcher (Poecilotriccus plumbeiceps): ITO (1), SUM (1)
Gray-headed Tody-Flycatcher (Todirostrum poliocephalum): SUM (3), REG (1), UBA (1)
Yellow-olive Flycatcher (Tolmomyias sulphurescens): ITO(2), SUM(2), BAM(1), CED(1), REG(1),UBA(1)
White-throated Spadebill (Platyrinchus mystaceus): CED (1), REG (1)
Cliff Flycatcher (Hirundinea ferruginea): SUM (2), REG (1)
Whiskered Flycatcher (Myiobius barbatus): ITO (3), BAM (1), UBA (3)
Euler's Flycatcher (Lathrotriccus euleri): REG (2)
Tropical Pewee (Contopus cinereus): REG (2), UBA (2)
Blue-billed Black-Tyrant (Knipolegus cyanirostris): ITO (2), PdC (1)
Crested Black-Tyrant (Knipolegus lophotes): SUM (1)
Velvety Black-Tyrant (Knipolegus nigerrimus): PdC (2)
Yellow-browed Tyrant (Satrapa icterophrys): SUM (1), REG (4)
Streamer-tailed Tyrant (Gubernetes yetapa): SUM (4), REG (2)
Shear-tailed Gray Tyrant (Muscipipra vetula): PdC (3)
Masked Water-Tyrant (Fluvicola nengeta): SUM (4), REG (5), UBA (2)
White-headed Marsh Tyrant (Arundinicola leucocephala): REG (3)
Long-tailed Tyrant (Colonia colonus): SUM (2), URU (2), UBA (3)
Cattle Tyrant (Machetornis rixosa): SUM (4), UBA (1)
Gray-hooded Attila (Attila rufus): CED (1), REG (2)
Sirystes (Sirystes sibilator): URU (2)
Grayish Mourner (Rhytipterna simplex): REG (1)
Dusky-capped Flycatcher (Myiarchus tuberculifer): REG, heard only
Short-crested Flycatcher (Myiarchus ferox): SUM (2), REG (2)
Brown-crested Flycatcher (Myiarchus tyrannulus): SUM (1)
Great Kiskadee (Pitangus sulphuratus): a few seen most days
Boat-billed Flycatcher (Megarynchus pitangua): ITO (3), REG (1), IGU (2), UBA (1)
Rusty-margined Flycatcher (Myiozetetes cayanensis): PdC (1)
Social Flycatcher (Myiozetetes similis): SUM (2), REG (9), URU (1), UBA (5)
Tropical Kingbird (Tyrannus melancholicus): REG (12)
Sharpbill (Oxyruncus cristatus): BAM (1), REG (2)
Hooded Berryeater (Carpornis cucullata): BAM (2)
Black-and-gold Cotinga (Tijuca atra): PdC (2), BAM (1)
Gray-winged Cotinga (Tijuca condita): PdC (1)
Bare-throated Bellbird (Procnias nudicollis): REG, UBA, heard only
Pin-tailed Manakin (Ilicura militaris): ITO (3), MdC (1), REG (1)
Swallow-tailed Manakin (Chiroxiphia caudata): ITO (8), BAM (2), REG (1), IGU (1), UBA (2)
White-bearded Manakin (Manacus manacus): REG (8), UBA (5)
Band-tailed Manakin (Pipra fasciicauda): IGU (1)
Wing-barred Piprites (Piprites chloris): IGU (1)
Black-crowned Tityra (Tityra inquisitor): IGU (1)
Greenish Schiffornis (Schiffornis virescens): UBA (2)
Buff-throated Purpletuft (Iodopleura pipra): UBA (3)
Shrike-like Cotinga (Laniisoma elegans): REG (1)
Chestnut-crowned Becard (Pachyramphus castaneus): ITO (4), CED (2), REG (5), UBA (1)
White-winged Becard (Pachyramphus polychopterus): REG (1)
Black-capped Becard (Pachyramphus marginatus): REG (1), UBA (2)
Red-eyed Vireo (Vireo olivaceus): REG (1)
Rufous-crowned Greenlet (Hylophilus poicilotis): ITO(4), PdC(2), BAM(2), CED(1), MdC(1), URU(2)
Lemon-chested Greenlet (Hylophilus thoracicus): REG (2)
Rufous-browed Peppershrike (Cyclarhis gujanensis): ITO (6), PdC(1)
Plush-crested Jay (Cyanocorax chrysops): IGU (15), URU (10)
Blue-and-white Swallow (Pygochelidon cyanoleuca): ITO (3), SUM (5), BAM (5), REG (10), UBA (13)
Tawny-headed Swallow (Alopochelidon fucata): SUM (2)
White-thighed Swallow (Atticora tibialis): REG (10), UBA (6)
Southern Rough-winged Swallow (Stelgidopteryx ruficollis): SUM (3), REG (6), UBA (2)
Brown-chested Martin (Progne tapera): SUM (2)
White-winged Swallow (Tachycineta albiventer): IGU (1)
House Wren (Troglodytes aedon): REG (2), URU (1), UBA (2)
Long-billed Wren (Cantorchilus longirostris): REG (1)
Creamy-bellied Gnatcatcher (Polioptila lactea): IGU (1)
Black-capped Donacobius (Donacobius atricapilla): SUM (1)
Yellow-legged Thrush (Turdus flavipes): ITO (1), PdC (3), REG (8)
Pale-breasted Thrush (Turdus leucomelas): ITO (5), REG (3), IGU (9), URU (3), UBA (3)
Rufous-bellied Thrush (Turdus rufiventris): ITO (8), BAM (2), REG (1), IGU (2), URU (4), UBA (4)
Creamy-bellied Thrush (Turdus amaurochalinus): ITO (1), SUM (2), URU (2)
White-necked Thrush (Turdus albicollis): REG (1)
Chalk-browed Mockingbird (Mimus saturninus): SUM (6), PdC (5), REG (1), IGU (1)
Tropical Parula (Setophaga pitiayumi): ITO (2), SUM (1), REG (2), IGU (2), URU (1), UBA (4)
Golden-crowned Warbler (Basileuterus culicivorus): common at higher elevations and IGU
White-browed Warbler (Myiothlypis leucoblephara): ITO (4), URU (2)
Riverbank Warbler (Myiothlypis rivularis): IGU (1), UBA (2)
Cinnamon Tanager (Schistochlamys ruficapillus): ITO (1)
Magpie Tanager (Cissopis leverianus): ITO (3), SUM (2), IGU (4)
Hooded Tanager (Nemosia pileata): REG (3)
Olive-green Tanager (Orthogonys chloricterus): CED (5), UBA (8)
Chestnut-headed Tanager (Pyrrhocoma ruficeps): ITO (2), MdC (1), URU (3)
Black-goggled Tanager (Trichothraupis melanops): ITO(2), SUM(1), CED(4), REG(9), IGU(7), UBA(1)
Flame-crested Tanager (Tachyphonus cristatus): REG (8), UBA (17)
Ruby-crowned Tanager (Tachyphonus coronatus): ITO (4), REG (1), IGU (4), UBA (10)
Brazilian Tanager (Ramphocelus bresilius): REG (7), UBA (7)
Diademed Tanager (Stephanophorus diadematus): PdC (15)
Fawn-breasted Tanager (Pipraeidea melanonota): PdC (1), IGU (6)
Sayaca Tanager (Thraupis sayaca): ITO (1), SUM (1), IGU (2), UBA (5)
Azure-shouldered Tanager (Thraupis cyanoptera): ITO (10), BAM (2), REG (1), UBA (10)
Golden-chevroned Tanager (Thraupis ornata): ITO (8), SUM (2), REG (5), UBA (6)
Palm Tanager (Thraupis palmarum): UBA (4)
Burnished-buff Tanager (Tangara cayana): ITO (2)
Turquoise Tanager (Tangara mexicana): REG (1)
Green-headed Tanager (Tangara seledon): CED (2), REG (10), IGU (3), UBA (20)
Red-necked Tanager (Tangara cyanocephala): CED (2), UBA (11)
Brassy-breasted Tanager (Tangara desmaresti): ITO(20), PdC(6), BAM(2), CED(10), MdC(5), UBA(1)
Swallow Tanager (Tersina viridis): SUM (1), UBA (1)
Blue Dacnis (Dacnis cayana): a few seen daily
Green Honeycreeper (Chlorophanes spiza): UBA (5)
Guira Tanager (Hemithraupis guira): IGU (4), URU (2)
Rufous-headed Tanager (Hemithraupis ruficapilla): ITO (4), REG (6), UBA (2)
Yellow-backed Tanager (Hemithraupis flavicollis): REG (12)
Chestnut-vented Conebill (Conirostrum speciosum): SUM (1), REG (11), IGU (4)
Uniform Finch (Haplospiza unicolor): BAM (1)
Bay-chested Warbling-Finch (Poospiza thoracica): PdC (10)
Saffron Finch (Sicalis flaveola): SUM (15), PdC (10), BAM (20), REG (20), IGU (12), UBA (1)
Wedge-tailed Grass-Finch (Emberizoides herbicola): SUM (1), REG (1)
Double-collared Seedeater (Sporophila caerulescens): SUM (5), URU (1), UBA (2)
White-bellied Seedeater (Sporophila leucoptera): SUM (1)
Red-crested Finch (Coryphospingus cucullatus): URU (1)
Bananaquit (Coereba flaveola): ITO (3), SUM (1), REG (2), IGU (6), UBA (25)
Green-winged Saltator (Saltator similis): ITO (2)
Black-throated Grosbeak (Saltator fuliginosus): CED (1), REG (1)
Saffron-billed Sparrow (Arremon flavirostris): IGU (1)
Rufous-collared Sparrow (Zonotrichia capensis): ITO (5), SUM (5), URU (4)
Red-crowned Ant-Tanager (Habia rubica): CED (3), REG (2), IGU (2), UBA (2)
Chopi Blackbird (Gnorimopsar chopi): SUM (8), IGU (1)
Chestnut-capped Blackbird (Chrysomus ruficapillus): SUM (10)
Shiny Cowbird (Molothrus bonariensis): SUM (5)
Variable Oriole (Icterus pyrrhopterus): IGU (4)
Red-rumped Cacique (Cacicus haemorrhous): SUM (2), REG (3), IGU (28), URU (1), UBA (10)
Golden-winged Cacique (Cacicus chrysopterus): URU (2)
Crested Oropendola (Psarocolius decumanus): UBA (2)
Purple-throated Euphonia (Euphonia chlorotica): REG (4)
Violaceous Euphonia (Euphonia violacea): REG (4), IGU (6), UBA (7)
Orange-bellied Euphonia (Euphonia xanthogaster): REG (1)
Chestnut-bellied Euphonia (Euphonia pectoralis): CED (1), REG (5), IGU (2), UBA (6)
Blue-naped Chlorophonia (Chlorophonia cyanea): ITO (4), REG (1)
Hooded Siskin (Spinus magellanicus): SUM (1)
House Sparrow (Passer domesticus): a few seen in urban areas of Nova Friburgo and Ubatuba

Maned Three-toed Sloth (Bradypus torquatus)
Fruit-eating Bat (Artibeus sp.)
Buffy-tufted-eared Marmoset (Callithrix aurita)
Brown Capuchin (Cebus apella)
South American Coati (Nasua nasua)
Guianan Squirrel (Sciurus aestuans)
Orange-spined Hairy Dwarf Porcupine (Cendou villosus)
Azara’s Agouti (Dasyprocta azarae)
Capybara (Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris)