Venezuela - December 1996

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Rupert Higgins & Dawn Lawrence
28 Egerton Road, Bishopston,
Bristol, BS7 8HL
(0117) 9441034

Introduction

We enjoyed a most successful visit, experiencing no problems of any kind. The people we met were unfailingly friendly, we drank tap water wherever we went with no problems (although we were later advised not to at Morrocoy), the food was excellent (even though we are vegetarians) and even the hire car functioned. We took US dollars and traveller's cheques, which are widely accepted except in the south of the country. The most convenient place to change money is at the airport and the rates there are competitive. Several of the cambios at the airport also accept pound sterling and most other major currencies. Prices are reasonable and petrol is dirt cheap.. In Bolivar petrol stations are few and far between and be sure to fill up where possible. In the north of the country we used cars with drivers as this is a more economic way of getting from locality to locality than hiring a car which then spends some days doing nothing. If you want to use a driver we would particularly recommend Mario Garcia at Av. La Salle Res. Lincoln, Apt 23, Colinas los Caobos, Caracas 1050 - Venezuela, telephone Caracas 782-5693 or Merida 44-7148 or mobile 014 321090. As well as being an excellent driver Mario is a birder. DL speaks Spanish to a reasonable standard and some knowledge of the language is required, especially in the south. The weather was reasonable - it rained most nights, we got one soaking in the afternoon at Canaima and it rained in the morning and at mid-day at Hato Piñero (unheard of here for the time of year). Mosquitoes were ubiquitous and hyper-abundant at Morrocoy. Bolivar and Los Llanos are said to be malarious.. We saw just over 400 species of bird in two weeks, despite the occasional non-birding excursion.

Itinerary

Dec 6th: Arrived at Simon Bolivar Airport at c15-30 and transferred to Hotel Santiago on the coast. Had we not pre-booked the hotel we could have flown down to Puerto Ordaz that evening, since Avensa were offering transfers. The hotel was on the developed coastal strip but nearby hillsides were covered in scrub with scattered columnar cacti and agaves. Spent the last couple of hours of light birding around the hotel, seeing a few common species, obtaining very good views of brown pelican and magnificent frigatebird and also seeing yellow oriole and orange-winged parrot.

Dec 7th: 6-00 flight to Puerto Ordaz in Bolivar state in southern Venezuela. Arrived on time at 7-00 but both baggage reclaim and collecting the car we had booked with Budget from the UK (cheaper than hiring in Venezuela) were painfully slow. On the way out of Puerto Ordaz we stopped at Parque Cachamay. This is next to the road from the airport - you'll see the falls on your right and there is a small carpark. The park has scattered large trees and small areas of scrub, especially along streams.. Although it was busy with people birds were plentiful and easy to watch. Highlights were good numbers of both black-collared and tawny-headed swallows. Large flowering trees attracted hummingbirds and flycatchers and streamside palms had re-crowned woodpecker, buff-throated woodcreeper and piratic and streaked flycatchers. With a few stops the drive to Km 84 took c8hours. At first the road passes through well-wooded low hills but the landscape is more arid with pastureland around Upata. South of there more crops are grown and the landscape becomes progressively more wooded. Birds seen en route included red-throated caracara, crimson-crested woodpecker and black-tailed tityra at a clearing in the forest c10km north of the Rio Cuyuni.. Two fine male red howler monkeys were seen at the Rio Cuyuni and a two exotic orchid spp were 'scoped up at a roadside stop north of Upata. Stayed at Barquilla de Fresa in Las Claritas 4km north of Km88. The accomodation here is basic but it is comfortable with excellent food and is highly recommended. The owner, Henry Cleeve, is interested in birds, the garden is good for birding and they will happily provide packed breakfasts for early starts. It is often full (although we were the only guests) and it is worth booking via Paradise Expiditions, Boulevard Sabana Grande, Edif. Union Piso 7, Chacaito, Caracas, Venezuela; telephone 02-9522467, fax 02-9517741.

Dec 8th: Spent a couple of hours in Henry's garden before heading to La Escalera. As we climbed La Escalera the trees became more epiphyte-rich but there was nothing to rival the abundance of these plants in Costa Rica. The road was lined with dense scrub including many creepers and some spectacular flowering species. The first worthwhile stop we made was at Km100 where we saw Guyanan toucanet, pompadour cotinga and paradise jacamar in a small clearing. C1km further down the road we found a small feeding flock by the roadside with several species including fulvous-crested tanager and white-tailed trogon. At the small quarry at cKm116 we saw bearded bellbird with white bellbird just down the road at Km117. Beyond here the woodland becomes lower and more open. We tried the track at Km123 without much success, but did see rose-collared piha there. At Km130 the woodland starts closing in again but is not as lush as that on the steeper slopes further down the road. Km132 small fruiting bushes by the road were attracting feeding parties and bird activity was constant. We saw several species of tanger and manakin (including scarlet-horned), red-collared fruiteater and tepui brush finch. Returned via red-shouldered tanager at Km130 and an unsuccessful visit to the crimson topaz stakeout.

Dec 9th: First couple of hours again in Henry's garden, seeing black-crowned tityra and purple-breasted cotinga. Then to the capuchinbird stakeout on the Km88 track. At the very start of the track came across a number of birds including turquoise tanager mobbing a ferruginous pygmy owl with a red-fan parrot in nearby trees. The woodland here is tall with few epiphytes and a relatively sparse shrub layer. After about 4km stopped to photograph a passion flower and saw green aracari, black-spotted barbet and opal-rumped tanager feeding in Cecropias. The Cecropia trees at the capuchinbird site weren't in fruit and no capuchinbirds were seen. We walked down the left hand track here for c3hours before being defeated by the heat. Birds seen here included caica parrot, red-necked woodpecker, white-crowned manakin, ornate hawk-eagle and spangled cotinga. One feeding flock passed through the area but through a very dense area of woodland and birds were scattered from ground level to tree-top height and the only birds identified were white-flanked antwren and paradise jacamar. The area was excellent for butterflies and dragonflies. Over mid-day worked back along the track before driving to Km67 for c4-00pm. The first section of the trail passes through very low dense scrubby growth (presumably secondary) but after a while the trees become much larger. We didn't have enough time to do this trail justice but had very good views of a pair of long-tailed tyrant in the first small clearing and saw 3 species of woodcreeper feeding together low down in very dark forest. The butterflies here were very varied but much smaller than those seen earlier in the day.

Dec 10th: First thing at Km111.5 on La Escalera. Almost immediately had flight views of Guyanan cock-of the-rocks and then spent c1½ hours watching a large mixed feeding flock work its way through the trees, mostly from mid-level to the canopy. Species in the flock included Roraiman barbtail, slaty-capped shrike-vireo and yellow-green grosbeak. Two more cock-of-the-rocks flew over the road and whilst I was sneaking up on an immature male perched in a tree above a cave entrance Dawn obtained good views of a full male from the road. I later had brief views of this bird. The forest here was the lushest we saw and some trees were truly epiphyte laden. Tried the flowerpiercer site at Km121 in the heat of the day - there were no bushes in flower at the usual site and eventually saw flowerpiercer where we had parked the car c1km back down the road and fiery-shouldered parakeet a bit further back. The open habitats here had some good flowers including spectacular ground orchids, a lily type and sundews and pipewort spp in boggy areas. Worked our way through the woodland at Km132-134 and drove out onto the Gran Sabana where the open grassland with pockets of forest along rivers and in depressions was most photogenic. Stopped by the river at Km140 - on the south bank of the river west of the road there are several small shelters and despite a sign saying Zona Militar we were assured by 2 national guards that access was open. Driving back we had black-faced tanager on the savanna/woodland edge at about Km136. At c Km134 saw paradise tanager and chestnut-tipped toucanet.. There was some rain further down La Escalera but we saw crimson topaz at Km92 - this species is usually in Henry's garden but its favourite tree wasn't in flower..

Dec 11th: First thing on the Km88 track. Heard capuchinbirds but failed to seen any. Did see a pair of pied puffbird high in tree tops and a superb male pompadour cotinga. Spent c1 hour in Henry's garden before heading north at c10-00. There seemed to be more bird activity in the garden at this time of day and we saw streaked antwren and cinerous antshrike, both foraging at mid-tree level on the woodland edge. With fewer stops the journey took about 6½ hours. Since we arrived at Ciudad Guyana with an hour of daylight left we went to the Orinoco ferry terminus in San Felix. Saw black skimmer and large-billed tern there. Then got hopelessly lost in the Puerto Ordaz traffic before finally reaching the Hotel Rasil.

Dec 12th: Drove to the airport via several wrong turnings and returned the hire car. Caught the 8-00 flight to Canaima, arriving at 9-00am. Canaima has a bad name in the guide books and as far as we could make out is unvisited by birders but it offers the easiest way of seeing Angel Falls. The standard of service is now vastly improved and it is situated amidst unspoilt forest and savanna with various tracks and trails with breathtaking scenery. We didn't have much time here and further exploration would doubtless be rewarded but it is an expensive place to stay. Walked upstream from the camp past the small hydro-electric plant and along a track which dwindled into an overgrown path through damp riverine forest and over several small streams.. Birds seen included silvered antbird and ruddy quail-dove. The trip's only poison arrow frog - a back species with golden-yellow squiggles - was seen here along with some good plants. Later in the day we walked along the track which passes the Indigenous Peoples' Art Gallery and then crosses small fields and savanna edge.. Later we saw from the plane that this track continues for some way through forest and savanna and looks very promising. Birds we saw included red-bellied macaw and plumbeous euphonia.

Dec 13th: Spent the entire day on a boat trip to Angel Falls at a cost of $150 per person. This is a long trip and there are few opportunities for proper birding but we saw white-banded swallow, blue-and yellow macaw and pink-throated becard amongst others en route and golden-headed manakin at the falls. The forest all the way looked excellent and there are a few small trails which would doubtless repay exploration..

Dec 14th: Birded the trail up the river again, seeing Lawrence's thrush, slaty antshrike and little chachalaca. The last species was also seen later in the morning in the tangled scrub along the stream at the back of the camp as were little cuckoo and black nunbird. After the DC3 fly-past of Angel Falls (which comes as part of the package at Canaima Lodge) we left by jet for Caracas. Transferred from Caracas airport to Hato Piñero in Los Llanos, arriving after dark. Saw ferruginous pygmy owl, great-horned owl and double-striped thick-knee on the way. This ranch is fairly pricey at $150 per person per day based on 2 sharing but this is all inclusive (meals, drinks, excursions etc) and Hato Piñero offers excellent opportunities for birding. The guides and drivers all know their birds and will tailor excursions to specific wish-lists.

Dec 15th: Hato Piñero consists largely of open grassland with scattered trees, including palms, as well as areas of marsh (dominated by an aroid plant called Platanillo) and low woodland. The undoubted highlight of the morning was half an hour sheltering from a shower in a hide whilst watching a hoatzin with baby, sunbittern and jabiru.. Following the rain large numbers of limpkins, grey-necked wood rails and yellow-knobbed curassows were on the tracks. The afternoon truck trip produced rufous-vented chachalaca and scarlet macaw. In the evening we stayed out for 1 hour after dark and saw great horned owl and savanna fox. Hunting has been banned here for 50 years and many of these birds were extremely approachable and the birding was excellent.

Dec 16th: Boat trip in morning through forest with additional species such as green- and rufous-kingfisher, rusty-backed spinetail and golden-fronted greenlet along with exceptional views of c100 hoatzin. Over mid-day there was some time for birding in the trees around the lodge where birds seen included chestnut-fronted macaw. In the afternoon travelled a longer distance to a lagoon with a vast roost flock of yellow-hooded blackbird and shiny cowbird and c40 savanna hawks roosting in a tree. Also here were good numbers of herons and roseate spoonbill. The return after dusk produced great potoo, nacunda nighthawk and white-tailed nightjar.

Dec 17th: First thing birding in the trees around the lodge produced chestnut-vented conebill and several hummingbird species. Then a horse-ride, which I had been assured was the best way of getting good views of horned screamer. Saw 5 of these superb birds plus jabiru at nest etc. Left for Morrocoy in early afternoon, arriving after dark with some birding en route.

Dec 18th: Morrocoy is a tidal lagoon with many islands, extensive mangrove woodlands and dense rain forest on a low hill. At first light birded along the road through fields and forest edge, the best bird seen being pale-legged hornero in the garden. We were then taken by boat to a small island where we snorkelled over coral reef in open sea and saw many superb fish. The low mangroves on this island were rather birdless and had immense numbers of biting flies but we did see bicolored conebill.. In the early afternoon we were informed that the lagoon was closed because of a fish kill probably relating to contamination from sewers following very heavy rain. Managed a brief look at a huge colony of magnificent frigatebirds with brown pelicans and brown boobies all giving excellent views but further exploration of the lagoon was impossible. In evening birded part of lagoon from road, seeing a good selection of waders including greater yellowlegs and short-billed dowitcher and herons and ibises including a mixed flock of scarlet and white ibis, tricolored and little blue heron and great egret. Huge numbers of parrots were flying to roost in the mangroves including a vast flock of green-rumped parrotlet.

19th December: From 6-30 to 10-20 walked through the hillside woodland. This is low forest with a dense understorey and creepers but barely any epiphytes. It had more birds than any other we visited in Venezuela but mosquitoes were hyper-abundant and every bird watched was paid for in several bites. Apparently this is the worst time of year for mossies and 1996 was supposed to be an exceptionally bad year. Nonetheless we saw scaled piculet, white-winged becard and red-rumped woodpecker as well as several antbird spp and an exceptional variety of flycatchers. One of the highlights was an incredibly close view of a female white-bellied antbird. Fairly inactive in intense heat over mid-day but did see great ani. Late afternoon again spent on the road overlooking the lagoon.

20th December: First thing birding along the road, seeing chestnut-crowned becard, pale-legged hornero etc. Then had to leave more hurriedly than planned since locals had called a strike in order to attempt to force the government to take action over the contamination and the previous day had blocked the road from 9 until 6. Frustratingly passed a lagoon with american flamingoes and large numbers of ducks, waders and ibises but could only stop for 5 minutes. This lagoon is about 15 mins drive from the National Park entrance and easily viewed from the coast road. After the drive to Caracas we managed to spend 3 hours in Avila National Park. This large area of rain- and cloud-forest is about ten minutes drive from the centre of Caracas. We entered at Sabas Nieves which is on the Decima Transversal street near the restaurant Tarzilandia. The trails are fairly well used but not enough to interfere with birding and within minutes of entering the park we had seen collared trogon and strong-billed woodcreeper. Other species seen included band-tailed guan and green jay. Then transferred to the airport for return to Britain. Remember that a departure tax - $22 per person when we left but steadily rising - is payable.


Species List

*Little tinamou (Crypturellus soui): One seen on road just south of El Dorado on 11th.

Variegated tinamou (Crypturellus variegatus): Heard on La Escalera at Km110 on 8th.

Brown booby (Sula leucogaster): 8 seen in mangroves at Morrocoy on 18th.

Brown pelican (Pelacanus occidentalis): 33 at Hotel Santiago on 6th; up to 40 daily at Morrocoy..

Olivaceous cormorant (Phalacrocorax olivaceus): 1 at Hotel Santiago; up to 40 on 2 days at Hato Piñero; and up to 100 daily at Morrocoy.

Anhinga (Anhinga anhinga): c30 at Parque Cachamay on 7th; 2 on 15th and 30 on 16th at Hato Piñero.

Magnificent frigatebird (Fregeta magnificens): 12 at Hotel Santiago on 6th; up to 550 daily at Morrocoy including displaying males.

Rufescent tiger-heron (Tigrisoma lineatum): 2 at small stream north of El Dorado on 11th; 2 near Angel Falls on 13th; and 15 on 15th and 8 on 16th at Hato Piñero.

Great blue heron (Ardea herodias2 on 2 days at Hato Piñero and on 1 day at Morrocoy.

*White-necked heron (Ardea cocoi): Up to 15 daily at Hato Piñero.

Great egret (Casmerodius albus): 1 at Parque Cachamay on 7th; 1 at Rio Orinoco on 11th; up to 40 daily at Hato Piñero; and up to 12 daily at Morrocoy.

Snowy egret (Egretta thula): 2 at Hato Piñero on 15th and 3 on 17th and up to 20 daily at Morrocoy.

Little blue heron (Florida caerulea): Up to 10 daily at Hato Piñero and up to 40 daily at Morrocoy.

Tricoloured heron (Hydranassa tricolor): Up to 100 daily at Morrocoy.

Cattle egret (Bubulcus ibis): Up to 300 daily at Hato Piñero and up to 40 at and around Morrocoy.

*Striated heron (Butorides striatus): 1 near Angel Falls on 13th and up to 20 daily at Hato Piñero.

*Whistling heron (Syrigma sibilatrix): Up to 10 daily at Hato Piñero.

Black-crowned night-heron (Nycticorax nycticorax): Up to 40 daily at Hato Piñero..

Boat-billed heron (Cochleariuscochlearius): 4 on 15th and 2 on 16th at Hato Piñero.

White ibis (Eudocimus albus): 2 on both dates at Morrocoy.

*Scarlet ibis (Eudocimus ruber): Up to 3 daily at Hato Piñero and 200 daily at Morrocoy.

*Bare-faced ibis (Phimosus infuscatus): Up to 300 daily at Hato Piñero.

Green ibis (Mesembrinibis cayennensis): 3 on Rio Cuyuni on 7th; 1 near Angel Falls on 13th; 3 at Hato Piñero on 15th and 4 on 16th.

*Sharp-tailed ibis (Cercibis oxycera): 20 at Hato Piñero on 15th and 1 there on 16th.

*Buff-necked ibis (Theristicus caudatus): Up to 100 daily at Hato Piñero.

Roseate spoonbill (Ajaia ajaja): 4 at Hato Piñero on 16th.

*Jabiru (Jabiru mycteria): 2, 5 and 4 on the 3 dates at Hato Piñero.

*American flamingo (Phoenicopterus ruber): 50 at Morrocoy on 20th.

*Horned screamer (Anhima cornuta): 4 at Hato Piñero on 17th.

Black-bellied whistling duck (Dendrocygna autumnalis):Up to 200 at Hato Piñero.

Muscovy duck (Cairina moschata): 8 at Hato Piñero on 15th.

*Brazilian duck (Amazonetta brasiliensis): 1 at Hato Piñero on 17th.

Blue-winged teal (Anas discors): 15 at Morrocoy on 20th.

Black vulture (Coragyps atratus): Seen most days, usually in large numbers.

Turkey Vulture (Cathartes aura): Seen every day, usually in large numbers.

*Lesser yellow-headed vulture (Cathartes burrovianus): At least 10 seen north of El Dorado on 7th - most vultures not checked subsequently.

*Greater yellow-headed vulture (Cathartes melambrotus): Seen in small numbers in the Barquilla de Fresa area, the most being 10+ on 9th.

King vulture (Sarcoramphus papa): 1 north of El Dorado on 7th.

Osprey (Pandion haliaetus); 1 near Hato Piñero on 17th; 2 at Morrocoy on 18th..

Grey-headed kite (Leptodon cayanensis): 1 at Morrocoy on 19th.

Hook-billed kite (Chondrohierax uncinatus): Small numbers on 4 days in Bolivar, the most being 5 on 11th..

*Pearl kite (Gampsonyx swainsonii): 2 north of El Dorado on 7th; 1 at Hato Piñero on 16th.

White-tailed kite (Elanus leucurus): 2 south of Ciudad Guyana on 7th; 1 at Hato Piñero on 17th.

Snail kite (Rostrhamus sociabilis): 1 at Hato Piñero on 16th.

Crane-hawk (Geranospiza caerulescens): 2 at Hato Piñero on 16th; 1 there on 17th; and 1 at Morrocoy on 19th.

*Great black hawk (Buteogallus urubitinga): 2 over Canaima on 14th; singles at Hato Piñero on 15th & 16th.

*Savanna hawk (Heterospizias meridionalis): 2 north of El Dorado on 7th; 1 in same area on 11th; up to 40 daily at Hato Piñero.

*Black-collared hawk (Busarellus nigricollis): 1 south of El Dorado on 11th; 1, 3 and 2 on the 3 days at Hato Piñero.

Grey hawk (Buteo nitidus): 4 on way to Barquilla de Fresa on 7th; 1 there on 8th; and 2 on way back on 11th.

Roadside hawk (Buteo magnirostris): 1 at Barquilla de Fresa on 9th; up to 10 daily at Hato Piñero; 1 at Morrocoy on 18th.

Broad-winged hawk (Buteo platypterus): 1 on La Escalera on 10th.

*Ornate hawk-eagle (Spizaetus ornatus): 1 over Km88 track on 9th.

*Red-throated caracara (Daptrius americanus): 1 at clearing north of El Dorado on 7th.

*Crested caracara (Polyborus plancus): Seen on 9 days in non-forest areas with maximum of 9 on 11th.

*Yellow-headed caracara (Milvago chimachima): Seen on 10 days in non-forest areas with maximum of 10 on 17th.

Laughing falcon (Herpetotheres cachinnans): 2 at Hato Piñero on 16th.

American kestrel (Falco sparverius): Seen at and near Hato Piñero on 4 days with maximum of 6 on 17th.

Peregrine (Falco peregrinus): 1 over Hato Piñero on 16th.

*Aplomodo falcon (Falco femoralis): 3 at Hato Piñero on 16th.

*Rufous-vented chachalaca (Ortalis ruficauda): 4 on 15th and 14 on 16th at Hato Piñero; up to 12 daily at Morrocoy.

*Little chachalaca (Ortalis motmot): 2 at Canaima on 14th on scrubby slope above camp and along stream behind camp.

*Band-tailed guan (Penelope argyrotis): 2 at Avila on 20th.

*Yellow-knobbed curassow (Crax daubentoni): Up to 11 at Hato Piñero.

*Grey-necked wood-rail (Aramides cajanea): 15 at Hato Piñero on both 15th & 16th..

American purple gallinule (Porphyrula martinica): 20 at Hato Piñero on both 15th & 16th.

*Sunbittern (Eurpyga helias): 3 at Hato Piñero on both 15th & 16th.

Limpkin (Aramus guarauna): 20 at Hato Piñero on 15th & 4 there on 16th.

*Double-striped thick-knee (Burhinus bistriatus): Seen at Hato Piñero - 3 on both 15th & 16th and 5 on 17th.

*Southern lapwing (Vanellus chilensis): 2 at Canaima on 12th; 20 at Hato Piñero on 15th and 8 there on 16th.

Grey plover (Pluvialis squatarola): 1 at Morrocoy on 18th & 19th.

Semipalmated plover (Charadrius semipalmatus): 2 at Morrocoy on 18th.

Black-necked stilt (Himantopus himantopus): Up to 200 daily at Morrocoy.

*Wattled jacana (Jacana jacana): 1 at Km80 on 9th; up to 150 daily at Hato Piñero.

*Greater yellowlegs (Tringa melanoleuca): Up to 50 daily at Morrocoy.

Lesser yellowlegs (Tringa flavipes): Up to 100 daily at Morrocoy.

Solitary sandpiper (Tringasolitaria): 2 at Hato Piñero on 15th.

Willet (Catoptrophorus semipalmatus): 1 at Morrocoy on 18th.

Spotted sandpiper (Actitis macularia): Up to 5 at Canaima on 2 days; 1 and 2 at Hato Piñero on 2 days; and 4 at Morrocoy on 18th.

Whimbrel (Numenius phaeopus): 1 and 2 at Morrocoy on 18th & 19th.

Ruddy turnstone (Arenaria interpres): 20 at Morrocoy on 18th.

Semipalmated sandpiper (Calidris pusilla): 10 at Morrocoy on 20th.

Stilt sandpiper (Micropalama himantopus): 20 at Morrocoy on 20th.

*Short-billed dowitcher (Limnodromus griseus): 1 at Morrocoy on 18th and 20 there on 20th..

Royal tern (Sterna maxima): 1 at Morrocoy on 18th.

*Yellow-billed tern (Sterna superciliaris): 1 near Canaima on 13th.

*Large-billed tern (Phaetusa simplex): 10 on Rio Orinoco on 11th; 3 at Canaima on 14th.

*Black skimmer (Rynchops nigra): 8 on Rio Orinoco on 11th.

Pale-vented pigeon (Columba cayennensis): Not seen in Barquilla de Fresa area - otherwise seen daily with maxima of 40 on 16th & 18th.

*Scaled pigeon (Columba speciosa): 1 over clearing on Km67 trail on 9th.

Ruddy/plumbeous pigeon (Columba subvinacea/plumbea): 4 at clearing north of El Dorado on 7th..

*Eared dove (Zenaida auriculata): 4 at Hato Piñero on 15th.

Common ground-dove (Columbina passerina): 2, 4 & 4 on the three days at Morrocoy.

Plain-breasted ground-dove (Columbina minuta): 2 on 18th and 4 on 19th at Morrocoy.

Ruddy ground-dove (Columbina talpacoti): 1 near El Dorado on 11th; up to 100 daily at Hato Piñero; and 2 at Morrocoy on 19th.

Blue ground-dove (Claravis pretiosa): Up to 10 at Hato Piñero and 2 at Morrocoy on 19th.

*Scaled dove (Scardafella squammata): Up to 20 daily at Hato Piñero and up to 15 daily at Morrocoy.

White-tipped dove (Leptotila verreauxi): Up to 20 daily at Hato Piñero and up to 10 daily at Morrocoy.

*Grey-fronted dove (Leptotila rufaxilla): At least 2 on Km88 track on 11th.

*Ruddy quail-dove (Geotrygon montana): 1 in riverside woodland upstream of Canaima on 12th..

*Fiery-shouldered parakeet (Pyrrhura egregia): 20 over La Escalera at Km120 on 10th.

*White-eyed parakeet (Aratinga leucophthalmus): 4 between Canaima and Angel Falls on 13th..

*Brown-throated parakeet (Aratinga pertinax): 2 at Barquilla de Fresa on 8th; up to 20 daily at Hato Piñero; up to 40 daily at Morrocoy.

*Chestnut-fronted macaw (Ara severa): 3 at Hato Piñero on 16th.

*Red-bellied macaw (Ara manilata): 11 at Canaima on 12th and 3 there on 14th.

*Red- and green-macaw (Ara chloroptera): 8 on La Escalera over Km120 on 10th; 2 over Canaima on 12th.

*Scarlet macaw (Ara macao): At Hato Piñero 10 on 15th, 4 on 16th & 3 on 17th.

*Blue-and yellow macaw (Ara ararauna): 1 between Canaima and Angel Falls on 13th.

*Green-rumped parrotlet (Forpus passerinus): 1 at Barquilla de Fresa on 8th; 2 on Km88 track on 9th; 11 there on 11th; up to 20 at Hato Piñero; up to 60 at Morrocoy.

Orange-chinned parakeet (Brotogeris chrysopterus): 12 at Hato Piñero on 16th; 6 at Morrocoy on 18th.

*Tepui parrotlet (Nannopsittaca panychlora): Over 300 on La Escalera around Km132 on 8th.

*Caica parrot (Pionopsitta caica): 1 on Km88 track on 9th.

*Dusky parrot (Pionus fuscus): 2 at Barquilla de Fresa on 9th.

*Blue-headed parrot (Pionus menstruus): 26 at Barquilla de Fresa and Km88 track on 9th; 12 in same places on 11th.

Mealy parrot (Amazona farinosa): 1 between Canaima and Angel Falls on 13th.

*Orange-winged parrot (Amazona amazonica): 1 at Hotel Santiago on 6th; 6 at Barquilla de Fresa on 8th; up to 6 daily at Canaima.

*Yellow-headed parrot (Amazona ochrocephala): Up to 15 daily at Hato Piñero; up to 200 daily at Morrocoy.

*Red-fan parrot (Deroptyus acciptrinus): 1 at Km88 track on 9th; 6 over La Escalera at Km111 on 10th; and 2 at Km88 track on 11th.

*Hoatzin (Opisthocomus hoazin): At Hato Piñero 15 on 15th and 100 on 16th.

Squirrel cuckoo (Piaya cayana): 2 on La Escalera on 8th & 1 there on 10th; 3 at Hato Piñero on 15th and singles there on 16th & 17th.

*Little cuckoo (Piaya minuta): 1 on La Escalera on 8th at Km100; 1 by stream behind cabins at Canaima on 14th.

*Greater ani (Crotophaga major): 1 at Morrocoy on 19th.

Smooth-billed ani (Crotophaga ani): Common in unforested lowlands.

Groove-billed ani (Crotophaga sulcirostris): Common in unforested lowlands but not all anis checked.

Barn owl (Tyto alba): 2 at Hato Piñero on 15th.

*Great-horned owl (Bubo virginianus): 1 near Hato Piñero on 14th & 2 there on 15th..

*Ferruginous pygmy-owl (Glaucidium brasilianum): 1 on Km88 track on 9th; 2 by road near Valencia on 14th & 1 there on 17th.

*Lesser nighthawk (Chordeiles acutipennis): 2 at Hato Piñero on 16th.

*Nacunda nighthawk (Podager nacunda): 5 at Hato Piñero on 16th.

*Common pauraque (Nyctidromus albicollis): 1 at Hato Piñero on 15th and 20+ there on 16th.

*White-tailed nightjar (Caprimulgus cayennensis): 4+ at Hato Piñero on 16th. Not all nightjars seen positively identified.

*Great potoo (Nyctibius grandis): 4 at Hato Piñero on 16th.

*Tepui swift (Cypseloides phelpsi): 2 over La Escalera at Km132 on 8th.

White-collared swift (Streptoprocne zonaris): Several hundred seen on several occasions in Bolivar.

*Short-tailed swift (Chaetura brachyura): 2 over forest clearing north of El Dorado on 7th..

Grey-rumped swift (Chaetura cinereiventris): Small numbers seen in several places in Bolivar - not all Chaetura seen were identifiable.

*Fork-tailed palm-swift (Reinarda squamata): 10 over forest clearing north of El Dorado on 7th; up to 30 at Canaima.

*Rufous-breasted hermit (Glaucis hirsuta): Singles on La Escalera on both 8th and 10th.

*Pale-tailed barbthroat (Threnetes leucurus): Single on La Escalera at Km123 on 10th.

Long-tailed hermit (Phaethornis superciliosus): 1 on Km88 track on 9th.

*Pale-bellied hermit (Phaethornis anthophilus): 3 in woodland at Morrocoy on 19th.

*Straight-billed hermit (Phaethornis bourcieri): 1 seen and many heard on La Escalera on 8th.

Little hermit (Phaethornis longuemareus): 2 at Hato Piñero on 17th; single in Avila on 20th.

*Rufous-breasted sabrewing (Campylopterus hyperythrus): 3 on La Escalera on 8th.

*Buff-breasted sabrewing (Campylopterus duidae): 2 on La Escalera on 8th.

*Brown violet-ear (Colibri delphinae): Singles on La Escalera at Km123 on 8th and 10th.

*Black-throated mango (Anthracothorax nigricollis): 1 at Canaima on 12th; 8 there on 14th; 2 at Hato Piñero on 17th.

Violet-headed hummingbird (Klais guimeti): 2 at Avila on 20th.

*Peacock coquette (Lophornis pavonina): 1 or 2 on La Escalera at Km111 on 10th.

*Spangled coquette (Lophornis stictolopha): 1 at Hato Piñero on 17th.

*Blue-chinned sapphire (Chlorestes notatus): 3 at Canaima on 12th and 2 there on 14th.

*Blue-tailed emerald (Chlorostilbon mellisugus): 3 at Canaima on 12th and 1 at Morrocoy on 19th.

*Shining green hummingbird (Lepidopyga goudoti): 9 at Morrocoy on 19th and 2 there on 20th.

*Fork-tailed woodnymph (Thalurania furcata): 1 on Km88 track on 9th and 2 on La Escalera on 10th.

*White-chinned sapphire (Hylocharis cyanus): 1 at Canima on 12th.

*Golden-tailed sapphire (Chrysuronia oenone): 2 at Morrocoy on 19th.

*White-tailed goldenthroat (Polytmus guainumbi): 1 at Hato Piñero on 15th and 20 there on 17th.

*Glittering-throated emerald (Amazilia fimbriata):4 at Hato Piñero on 15th; 20 there on 17th; 7 at Morrocoy on 18th.

*Copper-rumped hummingbird (Amazilia tobaci): 1+ at Parque Cachamay on 7th; 2 at Canaima on 14th; 1 at Hato Piñero on 16th.

*Crimson topaz (Topaza pella): 1 at Km92 on 10th.

*Black-eared fairy (Heliothryx aurita): Singles on La Escalera on 8th & 10th; on Km88 track on 11th; and at Canaima on 13th.

*Long-billed starthroat (Heliomaster longirostris): 1 near Canaima on 13th.

*White-tailed trogon (Trogon viridis): 2 on La Escalera at Km101 on 8th and 12 on Km88 track on 9th.

*Collared trogon (Trogon collaris): 1 at Avila on 20th.

Ringed kingfisher (Ceryle torquata): 2 at San Felix on 11th; up to 15 daily at Hato Piñero.

Amazon kingfisher (Chloroceryle amazona): 1 on Rio Cuyuni on 7th; 6 at Canaima on 13th; 10 at Hato Piñero on 16th.

Green kingfisher (Chloroceryle americana): 2 on Km88 track on 11th; 1 at Canima on 13th; 2 0n 15th and 3 on 16th at Hato Piñero.

*Green- and rufous-kingfisher (Chloroceryle inda): 1 at Hato Piñero on 16th.

American pygmy kingfisher (Chloroceryle enea): Singles at Hato Piñero on 15th & 16th.

*Pied puffbird (Notharchus tectus): 2 on Km88 track on 11th.

*Russet-throated puffbird (Hypnelus ruficollis): 2 at Hato Piñero on 15th.

*Black nunbird (Monasa atra): 1 at Canaima on 13th.

*Swallow-wing (Chelidoptera tenebrosa): 2 at Barquilla de Fresa on 8th & 1 there on 9th; 8 between Barquilla de Fresa and El Dorado on 11th; 12 between Canaima and Angel Falls on 13th.

Rufous-tailed jacamar (Galbula ruficauda): 3 at Morrocoy on 18th and 7 there on 19th.

*Paradise jacamar (Galbula dea): 3 on La Escalera at Km100 on 8th and 4 on Km88 track on 9th.

*Black-spotted barbet (Capito niger): 1 on Km88 track on 9th.

*Chestnut-tipped toucanet (Aulacorrhynchus derbianus): 2 on La Escalera at Km134 on 10th.

*Black-necked aracari (Pteroglossus aracari): 2 on Km88 track on 11th and 1 near El Dorado the same day.

*Green aracari (Pteroglossus viridis): 2 on Km88 track on 9th and 1 there on 11th.

*Guianan toucanet (Selenidera culik): 2 on La Escalera at Km100 on 8th.

*Channel-billed toucan (Ramphastos vitellinus): 5 at Barquilla de Fresa and Km88 on 9th; 2 at Km92 on 10th; 2 at Canaima on 13th.

*Red-billed toucan (Ramphastos tucanus): At Barquilla de Fresa 1 on 8th; 2 on 9th; and 3 on 10th; 15 near El Dorado on 11th.

*Scaled piculet (Picumnus squamulatus): 1 in woodland at Morrocoy on 19th.

*Golden-spangled piculet (Picumnus exilis): 2 at Km88 track on 9th; 1 presumably this species but unmarked white below and with very prominent red fore-crown on La Escalera at Km111 on 10th; 2 at Canaima on 12th.

*Yellow-tufted woodpecker (Melanerpes cruentatus): On 9th 2 at Barquilla de Fresa, 6 on Km88 track and 2 at Km67; 5 on Km88 track on 11th.

Red-crowned woodpecker (Melanerpes rubricapillus): 2 at Parque Cachamay on 7th; 6 at Hato Piñero on 15th and 2 there on 16th; up to 4 daily at Morrocoy.

*Golden-collared woodpecker (Venilornis cassini): 1 on La Escalera at Km132 on 8th.

*Red-rumped woodpecker (Venilornis kirkii): 1 in woodland at Morrocoy on 19th.

*Yellow-throated woodpecker (Piculus flavigula): 1 on Km88 track on 11th.

*Golden-olive woodpecker (Piculus rubiginosus): 1 on La Escalera at Km111 on 10th.

Lineated woodpecker (Dryocopus lineatus): 4 on Km88 track on 9th; singles at Canaima on 14th and at Hato Piñero on 15th & 16th; 2 at Morrocoy on 18th and 1 there on 20th.

*Crimson-crested woodpecker (Campephilis melanoleucos): 1 in forest clearing north of El Dorado on 7th.

*Red-necked woodpecker (Campephilis rubricollis): 2 on Km88 track on 9th.

*Pale-legged hornero (Furnarius leucopus): up to 5 daily at Morrocoy.

*Pale-breasted spinetail (Synallaxis albescens): 2 at Morrocoy on 18th.

*Yellow-throated spinetail (Certhiaxis cinnamomea): 3 at Hato Piñero on 15th and 16th..

*Crested spinetail (Cranioleuca subcristata): 1 in woodland at Morrocoy on 19th.

*Rusty-backed spinetail (Cranioleuca vulpina): 3 in forest at Hato Piñero on 16th..

*Plain-fronted thornbird (Phacellodomus rufifrons): Up to 15 daily at Hato Piñero and up to 6 daily at Morrocoy.

*Roraiman barbtail (Premnoplex adusta): 1 on La Escalera at Km111 on 10th.

Plain xenops (Xenops minutus): 1 on La Escalera at Km111 on 10th.

*Plain-brown woodcreeper (Dendrocincla fuliginosa): 1 in woodland at Morrocoy on 19th.

*Olivaceous woodcreeper (Sittasomus griseicapillus): 2 at Barquilla de Fresa on 8th.

*Wedge-billed woodcreeper (Glyphorynchus spirurus): 1 at Km67 on 9th and 5 on La Escalera on 10th.

*Strong-billed woodcreeper (Xiphocolaptes promeropirhynchus): 1 in Avila on 20th.

Black-banded woodcreeper (Dendrocolaptes picumnus): 2 at Km67 on 9th.

*Straight-billed woodcreeper (Xiphorhynchus picus): 1 at Km67 on 9th; singles at Hato Piñero on 16th and 17th; 2 at Morrocoy on 18th..

*Striped woodcreeper (Xiphorhynchus obsoletus): 1 at Hato Piñero on
17th.

Buff-throated woodcreeper (Xiphorhynchus guttatus): 1 at Parque Cachamay on 7th.

*Black-crested antshrike (Sakesphorus canadensis): 3 at Hato Piñero on 16th and 1 at Morrocoy on 20th.

*Black-backed antshrike (Sakesphorus melanonotus): 1 at Morrocoy on 18th.

Barred antshrike (Thamnophilus doliatus): 1 at Hato Piñero on 15th.

*White-shouldered antshrike (Thamnophilus aethiops): 2 at Canaima on 12th.

*Slaty antshrike (Thamnophilus punctatus): 2 at Canaima on 14th.

*Cinerous antshrike (Thamnomanes caesius): 1 at Barquilla de Fresa on 11th.

*Streaked antwren (Myrmotherula surimansis): 1 at Barquilla de Fresa on 11th.

*White-flanked antwren (Myrmotherula axillaris): 1 on Km88 track on 9th.

*Rufous-winged antwren (Herpsilochmus rufimarginatus): 2 in woodland at Morrocoy on 19th.

*White-fringed antwren (Formicivora grisea): 1 at Hato Piñero on 15th and daily at Morrocoy with 4 there on 19th.

*Jet antbird (Cercomacra nigricans): 1 in woodland at Morrocoy on 19th.

*Silvered antbird (Sclateria naevia): 2 at Canaima on 12th.

*White-bellied antbird (Myrmeciza longipes): 1 female in woodland at Morrocoy on 19th.

*Black-throated antbird (Myrmeciza atrothorax): 1 on Km88 track on 11th.

Brown-breasted antpitta (Myrmothera simplex): Heard on La Escalera at Km123 on 8th.

*Sooty-headed tyrannulet (Phyllomyias griseiceps): 2 in woodland at Morrocoy on 19th.

Mistletoe (paltry) tyrannulet (Tyranniscus villissimus): 2 at Avila on 20th.

*Yellow-crowned tyrannulet (Tyrannulus elatus): 2 at Barquilla de Fresa on 11th.

*Pearly-vented tody tyrant (Idioptilon margaritaceiventer): 3 in woodland at Morrocoy on 19th.

Southern beardless tyrannulet (Camptostoma obsoletum): Singles at Barquilla de Fresa on 8th & 9th and at Morrocoy on 18th & 19th.

*Mouse-coloured tyrannulet (Phaeomyias murina): Seen daily at Morrocoy with 6 on 19th.

*Scrub flycatcher (Sublegatus modestus): 3 at Morrocoy on 19th.

*Forest elaenia (Myiopagis gaimardii): 1 at Avila on 20th.

*Grey elaenia (Myiopagis caniceps): 1 on Km88 track on 11th.

Yellow-bellied elaenia (Elaenia flavogaster): 1 at Hato Piñero on 16th and 2 there on 17th; singles at Morrocoy on 18th & 20th with 2 there on 19th.

*Plain-crested elaenia (Elaenia cristata): Singles at Parque Cachamay on 7th and at Km140 on 10th.

*Lesser elaenia (Elaenia chiriquensis): 2 at Canaima on 12th and singles daily at Morrocoy.

*Sierran elaenia (Elaenia pallatangae): 1 on La Escalera at Km 132 on 10th.

*Pale-tipped tyrannulet (Inezia subflava): 1 on woodland edge at Morrocoy on 19th.

*Tawny-crowned pygmy tyrannulet (Euscathmus meloryphus): 2 in woodland at Morrocoy on 19th..

*Olive-striped flycatcher (Mionectes olivaceus): 2 at Avila on 20th.

Ochre-bellied flycatcher (Pipromorpha oleaginea): 1 at Barquilla de Fresa on 8th.

Slaty-capped flycatcher (Leptopogon superciliaris): 3 at Avila on 20th.

Yellow tyrannulet (Capsiempsis flaveola): 1 in woodland at Morrocoy on 19th.

*Pale-eyed pygmy-tyrant (Atalotriccus pilaris): 8 at Morrocoy on 19th and 1 there on 20th.

Slate-headed tody-flycatcher (Todirostrum sylvia): 2 on Km88 track on 11th.

Common tody-flycatcher (Todirostrum cinereum): 2 at Parque Cachamay on 7th; 1 at Canaima on 14th; daily at Hato Piñero with 8 there on 17th; daily at Morrocoy with 8 there on 18th.

*Olivaceous flatbill (Rhynchocyclus olivaceus): 2 at Parque Cachamay on 7th; 1 on La Escalera on 8th; 1 on Km88 track on 9th; singles at Hato Piñero on 15th and 16th.

*Yellow-olive flycatcher (Tolmomyias sulphurescens): Singles at Hato Piñero on 15th and 16th.

*Yellow-margined flycatcher (Tolmomyias assimilis): 2 at Barquilla de Fresa on 9th. Presumably this sp rather than the last because they had dark irises.

*Greater (smoke-coloured) peewee (Contopus fumigatus): Single on La Escalera at Km123 on 10th.

Tropical peewee (Contopus cinereus): Single at Hato Piñero on 16th.

*Euler's flycatcher (Empidonax euleri): Single at Hato Piñero on 16th.

*Fuscous flycatcher (Cnemotriccus fuscatus): 2 in woodland at Morrocoy on 19th.

*Vermilion flycatcher (Pyrocephalus rubinus): Seen daily at Hato Piñero with 20 there on 15th.

*Pied water-tyrant (Fluvicola pica): Seen daily at Hato Piñero with 15 there on 15th; 1 at Morrocoy on 20th.

*Long-tailed tyrant (Colonia colonus): 2 at Km67 on 9th.

*Cliff flycatcher (Hirundinea ferruginea): 1 on La Escalera at Km111 on 10th.

*Cattle tyrant (Machetornis rixosa): Seen daily at Hato Piñero with 15 there on 15th; 1 at Morrocoy on 19th.

*Short-crested flycatcher (Myiarchus ferox): 2 at Canaima on 14th.

*Brown-crested flycatcher (Myiarchus tyrannulus): 1 at Morrocoy on 18th.

*Lesser kiskadee (Pitangus lictor): 1 at Canaima on 14th; 20 at Hato Piñero on 17th; 2 at Morrocoy on 20th.

Greater kiskadee (Pitangus sulphuratus): Seen in good numbers almost daily. Maximum of 30 on 15th.

Boat-billed flycatcher (Megarynchus pitangua): 2 at Canaima on 12th and 14th.

*Rusty-margined flycatcher (Myiozetetes cayanensis): Common in lowlands of Bolivar with maximum of 10 on both 8th & 9th.

Social flycatcher (Myiozetetes similis): 1 at Hotel Santiago on 6th; up to 4 at Morrocoy.

*White-bearded flycatcher (Myiozetetes inornatus): 6 at Hato Pinero on 15th and 2 there on 17th.

Streaked flycatcher (Myiodynastes maculatus): 4 at Parque Cachamay on 7th and 1 at Morrocoy on 19th.

Piratic flycatcher (Legatus leucophaius): At Barquilla de Fresa 2 on 8th, 1 on 9th and 2 on 11th..

*Variegated flycatcher (Empidonomus varius): 2 at Parque Cachamay on 7th and 1 at Hato Piñero on 15th.

Tropical kingbird (Tyrannus melanocholicus): Seen in good numbers most days with a maximum of 22 on 11th.

*Grey kingbird (Tyrannus dominicensis): 1 at Hato Piñero on 16th; 2 near there on 17th; 2 at Morrocoy on 18th.

*Fork-tailed flycatcher (Muscivora tyrannus): 1 north of El Dorado on 7th; 2 on way to Hato Piñero on 14th; 20 at Hato Piñero on 16th; and 2 near there on 17th.

*Chesnut-crowned becard (Pachyramphus castaneus): 1 at Morrocoy on 20th.

*White-winged becard (Pachyramphus polychopterus): 1 in woodland at Morrocoy on 19th.

*Pink-throated becard (Platypsaris minor): 5 between Canaima and Angel Falls on 13th.

*Black-tailed tityra (Tityra cayana): 1 in forest clearing north of El Dorado on 7th.

*Black-crowned tityra (Tityra inquisitor): 2 at Barquilla de Fresa on 9th.

*Red-banded fruiteater (Pipreola whitelyi): Male on La Escalera at Km132 on 8th.

*Rose-collared piha (Lipaugus streptophorus): Female on La Escalera at Km123 on 8th.

*Purple-breasted cotinga (Cotinga cotinga): Male at Barquilla de Fresa on 9th.

*Spangled cotinga (Cotinga cayana): Female on Km88 track on 9th.

*Pompadour cotinga (Xipholena punicea): Female on La Escalera at Km100 on 8th; male on Km88 track on 11th.

Capuchinbird (Perissocephalus tricolor): Heard on Km88 track on 11th.

*White bellbird (Procnias alba): Several heard on La Escalera. Male seen at Km117 on 8th.

*Bearded bellbird (Procnias averano) Few heard on La Escalera. Male seen at Km116 on 8th.

*Guianan cock-of-the-rock (Rupicola rupicola): At least 3 on La Escalera at Km111 on 10th.

*Olive manakin (Chloropipo uniformis): 3 on La Escalera at Km132 on 8th.

*White-crowned manakin (Pipra pipra): Male on Km88 track on 9th.

Blue-crowned manakin (Pipra coronata): Male on La Escalera at Km132 on 8th.

*White-fronted manakin (Pipra serena): Single males on La Escalera at Km132 on 8th and at Km111 on 10th.

*Golden-headed manakin (Pipra erythrocephala): Male at Angel Falls on 13th.

*Scarlet-horned manakin (Pipra cornuta): Male on La Escalera at Km132 on 8th.

Grey-breasted martin (Progne chalybea): Seen in small numbers over various lowland localities. Maximum of 20 on 19th.

*White-winged swallow (Tachycineta albiventer): 10 at Rio Cuyuni on 7th; 1 at Rio Orinoco on 11th; daily at Hato Piñero with 4 on 16th.

*White-banded swallow (Atticora fasciata): 30 between Canaima and Angel Falls on 13th.

*Black-collared swallow (Atticora melanoleuca): 10 at Parque Cachamay on 7th and 1 on the same day at Rio Cuyuni.

Blue- and white-swallow (Notiochelidon cyanoleuca): 30 around quarry at Km116 on 8th and 10th.

*Tawny-headed swallow (Alopochelidon fucata): 20 at Parque Cachamay on 7th.

Southern rough-winged swallow (Stelgidoptertyx ruficollis): 2 on La Escalera on 10th and 1 at Morrocoy on 20th.

Barn swallow (Hirundo rustica): Good numbers in lowland localities.

*Cayenne jay (Cyanocorax cayanus): 6 at Barquilla de Fresa on 8th; 2 there on 9th with 8 at Km88 and 6 at Km67; 10 at Km88 on 11th.

*Green jay (Cyanocorax yncas): 6 at Avila on 20th.

*Stripe-backed wren (Campylorhynchus nuchalis): Seen daily at Hato Piñero with 8 there on 17th.

*Rufous- and white-wren (Thryothorus rufalbus): 2 in forest at Hato Piñero on 16th.

*Buff-breasted wren (Thryothorus leucotis): 1 on La Escalera by stream at Km108 on 8th.

House wren (Troglodytes aedon): Singles at Parque Cachamay and Barquilla de Fresa; 1s and 2s daily at Hato Piñero; daily at Morrocoy with 8 there on 18th.

*Long-billed gnatwren (Ramphocaenus melanurus): 3 in woodland at Morrocoy on 19th.

*Tropical gnatcatcher (Polioptila plumbea): 3 at Parque Cachamay on 7th; 2 at Canaima on 14th; 1 at Hato Piñero on 16th; up to 8 daily at Morrocoy.

*Rufous-brown solitaire (Myadestes leucogenys): 3 on La Escalera on 8th and 6 there on 10th..

*Yellow-legged thrush (Platycichla flavipes): 1 on La Escalera at Km111 on 10th.

*Black-hooded thrush (Turdus olivater): Singles on La Escalera at Km108 on 8th and at Km111 on 10th.

*Pale-breasted thrush (Turdus leucomelas): 2 at Parque Cachamay on 7th and 1 at Canaima on 14th.

*Black-billed thrush (Turdus ignobilis): 4 at Canaima on 12th and 2 there on 14th; 4 at Avila on 20th.

*Lawrence's thrush (Turdus lawrencii): 1 at Canaima on 14th.

*Bare-eyed thrush (Turdus nudigenis): 1 at Avila on 20th.

*White-necked thrush (Turdus albicollis): 1 at Canaima on 14th.

*Tropical mockingbird (Mimus gilvus): Seen in various non-forested lowland locations with maximum of 12 on 18th.

*Yellowish pipit (Anthus lutescens): 1 at Hato Piñero on 15th.

Warbling vireo (Vireo gilvus): 1 at Avila on 20th.

*Tepui greenlet (Hylophilus sclateri): 2 mobbing broad-winged hawk on La Escalera on 10th.

*Golden-fronted greenlet (Hylophilus aurantiifrons): 2 at Hato Piñero on 16th.

Scrub greenlet (Hylophilus flavipes): 1 at Hato Piñero on 16th, 2 at Morrocoy on 18th and 7 there on 19th.

Tawny-crowned greenlet (Hylophilus ochraceiceps): 2 on La Escalera at Km111 on 10th .

*Slaty-capped shrike-vireo (Smaragdolanius leucotis): 1 on La Escalera at Km111 on 10th.

Rufous-browed peppershrike (Cycarhis gujanensis): 1 at Morrocoy on 19th.

Yellow warbler (Dendroica petechia): 2 at Canaima on 12th and 1 there on 14th; 4 at Hato Piñero on 15th and 6 there on 16th; 1 at Avila on 20th.

Blackburnian warbler (Dendroica fusca): 1 at Canaima on 12th.

*Blackpoll warbler (Dendroica striata): 1 at Barquilla de Fresa on 9th and 4 at Canaima on 12th.

American redstart (Setophaga ruticilla): 2 at Hato Piñero on 15th and singles there on 16th and 17th; singles at Morrocoy on 18th and 19th.

Northern waterthrush (Seiurus noeboracensis): Singles at Canaima on 14th and Morrocoy on 19th.

*Slate-throated redstart (Myioborus miniatus): Singles on La Escalera at Km123 on 8th and at Avila on 20th.

*Two-banded warbler (Basileuterus bivittatus): 1 on La Escalera at Km111 on 10th.

Bananaquit (Coreba flaveola): Seen almost every day with maximum of 11 on 7th.

*Chestnut-vented conebill (Conirostrum speciosum): 1 at Hato Piñero on 17th.

*Bicoloured conebill (Conirostrum bicolor): 6 at Morrocoy on 18th.

*Opal-rumped tanager (Tangara elia): 10 on Km88 track on 9th and 5 there on 11th.

*Paradise tanager (Tangara chilensis): 15 on La Escalera at Km133 on 10th.

*Spotted tanager (Tangara punctata): 3 on La Escalera at Km132 on 8th.

*Speckled tanger (Tangara guttata): On La Escalera 2 at Km132 on 8th and 2 at Km111 on 10th.

*Yellow-bellied tanager (Tangara xanthogastra): 4 on La Escalera at Km132 on 8th.

*Turquoise tanager (Tangara mexicana): 4 on Km88 track on 9th.

*Bay-headed tanager (Tangara gyrola): 6 on La Escalera on 10th.

*Burnished-buff tanager (Tangara cayana): 12 at Canaima on 12th and 10 there on 14th; 4 at Hato Piñero on 15th and 6 there on 16th.

*Black-headed tanager (Tangara cyanoptera): 2 on La Escalera at Km132 on 8th and 1 at Km133 on 10th.

Blue dacnis (Dacnis cayana): 2 on Km88 track on 9th.

*Black-faced dacnis (Dacnis lineata): 1 on Km88 track on 9th.

Green honeycreeper (Chlorophanes spiza): 6 on La Escalera at Km101 on 8th.

*Purple honeycreeper (Cyanerpes caeruleus): 6 on La Escalera at Km100 & 101 on 8th and 1 at Canaima on 13th.

*Orange-bellied euphonia (Euphonia xanthogaster): 1 on La Escalera at Km111 on 10th.

*Trinidad euphonia (Euphonia trinitatis): 1 at Hato Piñero on 15th.

*Violaceous euphonia (Euphonia violacea): 2 at Barquilla de Fresa on 8th & 11th; 3 at Canaima on 12th.

*Plumbeous euphonia (Euphonia plumbea): 1 at Canaima on 12th.

Blue-grey tanager (Thraupis episcopus): Seen in good numbers most days with a maximum of 20 on 8th.

*Glaucous tanager (Thraupis glaucocolpa): 4 at Hato Piñero on 17th; 4 at Morrocoy on 18th & 19th and 2 there on 20th.

Palm tanager (Thraupis palmarum): Seen in good numbers most days with a maximum of 20 on 13th.

*Fulvous shrike-tanager (Lanio fulvus): 2 on La Escalera at Km111 on 10th.

*Red-shouldered tanager (Tachyphorus phoenicius): 3 on La Escalera at Km130 on 8th.

*Fulvous-crested tanager (Tachyphorus surinamus): 1 on La Escalera at Km101 on 8th.

*Flame-crested tanager (Tachyphorus cristatus): 1 on La Escalera at Km101 on 8th.

*White-lined tanager (Tachyphorus rufus): 3 south of Ciudad Guyana on 11th; seen daily at Morrocoy with 12 on 18th; and 2 at Avila on 20th.

*Hepatic tanager (Piranga flava): On La Escalera 1 at Km132 on 8th, 1 at Km111 on 10th and 1 at Km133 on 10th.

*Silver-beaked tanager (Ramphocelus carbo): Seen in good numbers in the Barquilla de Fresa area with 12 on 11th; 4 at Canaima on 14th; and singles at Morrocoy on 19th & 20th..

*Olive-backed tanager (Mitrospingus oleagineus): On La Escalera 4 at Km132 on 8th and 12 at Km111 on 10th.

*Hooded tanager (Nemosia pileata): At Hato Piñero 7 on 15th and 15 on 16th.

*Guira tanager (Hemithraupis guira): 2 at Avila on 20th.

*Fulvous-headed tanager (Thylpopsis fulviceps): 2 at Avila on 20th.

*Black-faced tanager (Schistochlamys melanopis): 1 on La Escalera at Km138 on 10th.

*Swallow tanager (Tersina iridis): Male at Canaima on 14th.

Streaked saltator (Saltator albicollis): Singles daily at Morrocoy.

Greyish saltator (Saltator coerulescens): 1 at Barquilla de Fresa on 9th; 1 at Hato Piñero on 16th; 10 at Morrocoy on 19th and 4 there on 20th.

Buff-throated saltator (Saltator maximus): Daily at Morrocoy with 10 on 18th.

*Yellow-green grosbeak (Caryothraustes canadensis): 4 on La Escalera at Km111 on 10th.

*Red- and black grosbeak (Periporphyrus erythromelas): Female on La Escalera at Km111 on 10th.

Blue-black grosbeak (Cyanocompsa cyanoides): Female at Barquilla de Fresa on 8th.

*Ultramarine grosbeak (Cyanocompsa cyanea): Male in woodland at Morrocoy on 18th.

*Red-capped cardinal (Paroaria gularis): At Hato Piñero 10 on 15th and 20 on 16th..

*Tepui brush-finch (Atlapetes personatus): 2 on La Escalera at Km132 on 8th.

*Pectoral sparrow (Arremon taciturnus): 2 at Barquilla de Fresa on 8th and 1 at Canaima on 14th.

Black-striped sparrow (Arremonops conirostris): 3 at Avila on 20th.

*Grassland sparrow (Ammodramus humeralis): 1 at Canaima on 14th.

*Yellow-browed sparrow (Ammodramus aurifrons): 1 at Hato Piñero on 17th.

Rufous-collared sparrow (Zonotrichia capensis): 2 on La Escalera at Km117 on 8th.

Blue-black grassquit (Volatinia jacarina): 4 at Km88 on 9th; 2 there on 11th; 1 at Canaima on 14th.

*Grey seedeater (Sporophila intermedia): Seen daily at Hato Piñero (max 200) and Morrocoy (max 40).

*Plumbeous seedeater (Sporophila plumbea): 4 north of El Dorado on 11th.

*Lined seedeater (Sporophila lineola): 4 at Canaima on 14th and 4 at Morrocoy on 18th.

*Yellow-bellied seedeater (Sporophila nigricollis): 1 at Barquilla de Fresa on 11th.

*Ruddy-breasted seedeater (Sporophila minuta): 4 at Canaima on 12th.

*Lesser seed-finch (Oryzoborus angolensis): 1 at Canaima on 14th.

*Black-faced grassquit (Tiaris bicolor): 2 at Hato Piñero on 17th.

*Greater flower-piercer (Diglossa major): 1 on La Escalera at Km120 on 10th.

*Saffron finch (Sicalis flaveola): 2 at Canaima on 12th; daily at Hato Piñero (max 150) and Morrocoy (max 150).

*Yellow-hooded blackbird (Agelaius icterocephalus): At Hato Piñero 6 on 15th and 500+ on 16th; 1 at Morrocoy on 20th.

*Red-breasted blackbird (Leistes militaris): At Hato Piñero 12 on 15th, 2 on 16th and 4 on 17th.

Eastern meadowlark (Sturnella magna): At Hato Piñero 4 on 15th and singles on 16th & 17th.

*Carib grackle (Quiscalus lugubris): Common near the coast - the first bird we saw in Venezuela..

*Golden-tufted grackle (Macroagelaius imthurni): On La Escalera at Km123 - 5 on 8th and 25 on 10th.

*Shiny cowbird (Molothrus bonariensis): 15 at Km80 on 11th; daily at Hato Piñero (max 200) and at Morrocoy (max 20).

*Oriole blackbird (Gymnomystax mexicanus): At Morrocoy 1 on 18th and 3 on 19th.

*Troupial (Icterus icterus): At Hato Piñero 6 on 15th, 2 on 16th and 3 on 17th..

*Yellow oriole (Icterus nigrogularis): 1 at Hotel Santiago on 6th; 1 north of El Dorado on 11th; 2 at Hato Piñero on 16th; and 1 at Morrocoy on 19th.

*Yellow-rumped cacique (Cacicus cela): Singles at Km88 on 9th & 11th; daily at Hato Piñero (max 40).

*Red-rumped cacique (Cacicus haemorrhous): 2 at Km88 track on 9th and 1 there on 11th.

*Crested oropendola (Psarocolius decumanus): Common in lowland areas with max of 35 on 11th.

*Green oropendola (Gymnostinops viridis): 20 on La Escalera on 8th.

Mammals

Brown capuchin monkey: Parque Cachamay, Barquilla de Fresa and Hato Piñero.
Red howler monkey: Rio Cuyuni, Barquilla de Fresa and Hato Piñero.
Savanna fox: Hato Piñero on evenings of 14th, 15th & 16th.
White-tailed deer: Common at Hato Piñero.
Capybara: Common at Hato Piñero.

Bat spp: All sites.

Squirrel spp: Various sites.

Other Wildlife

Spectacled caiman: Hato Piñero
Iguana: Parque Cachamay, Hato Piñero, Morrocoy.
Smaller lizards (some quite impressive) were numerous at all sites.
Terrapin: A large sp common at Hato Piñero.
Marine toad: Common around buildings at Hato Piñero.
Other frogs and toads were common, including tree frogs and a black and yellow poison-dart frog at Canaima.

Butterflies were abundant at all sites and included 100s of excellent spp but we could name only a few: Moths seen at lights etc were on the whole very boring but we saw a few hawk moths, a clearwing sp at Hato Piñero and at Canaima great owl moths which were excellent.

Dragonflies and damselflies were also excellent but we couldn't identify any. The Km88 track was especially good. We saw a helicopter damselfly sp at Angel Falls. We saw various bush-crickets, crickets and grasshoppers and just 1 praying mantis.

The plants were superb but again we could name very few. Epihytes including bromeliads, aroids, ferns, cacti and orchids were widespread but not abundant. We saw a few quite showy orchids in flower and many excellent ferns, especially in Bolivar. Cacti were quite widespread. Familiar plants seen included busy lizzie and species of Begonia, passion flower and morning glory.