South-East Brazil - June 2005

Published by Mark Harper (markharper AT


Participants Mark, Richard and Shirley Harper, Don and Doris Pearson

This trip was organised through Tropical Birding ( and was superbly guided throughout by Nick Athanas. Tropical Birding has only recently begun to offer tours in Brazil and is using the Guapi Assu Bird Lodge ( as its base. The lodge, which is where we spent the first five nights, is at any elevation of only 50 metres, but is surrounded by high peaks with good access to medium elevations and is close to the Serra dos Orgãos National Park.

5th June

We were met at Rio airport by Nick, Don and Doris who had spent the previous few days birding at Intervales National Park. As we headed off to our first stop to look for the critically endangered Restinga Antwren near Praia Seca, Nick showed us some photographs that he had taken at Intervales, including Rusty-breasted Nunlet and this made us even more eager to start birding.

It was after 9.00am by the time we arrived at Praia Seca, and we soon had our first lifer in the form of several Plain-breasted Ground-Doves, in common with several of the species seen here these would not be seen again during the trip.

We then headed to a spot where Nick had seen Restinga Antwrens a couple of weeks earlier, a quick play of the tape and we had a pair of them circling us. This was a great start to the trip and Nick followed it up by calling in Hangnest Tody-Tyrant and Lemon-chested Greenlet.

A short walk down to some saltpans revealed Yellowish Pipit, White-browed Blackbird and Grassland Sparrow, but with the exception of a few Greater Yellowlegs and a Collared Plover, the saltpans were largely devoid of birds.

We were soon back in the van for the drive to Guapi Assu Bird Lodge. We stopped in some farmland a couple of kilometres short of the lodge, where there were large numbers of White-collared Swifts feeding. It wasn’t long before we had all been able to get onto one of several Biscutate Swifts that were amongst them.

After a splendid lunch we enjoyed some easy birding by the swimming pool seeing our first Rufous-breasted Hermit, Swallow-tailed Hummingbird, Masked Water-Tyrant, Planalto Tyrannulet, Yellow-lored Tody-Flycatcher and Burnished-buff Tanager. Nick also taped in a Chestnut-backed Antshrike, which had been calling ever since we arrived at the lodge.

About 3.00pm we set off on foot to explore a wetland that the lodge overlooks in the distance, a closer wetland is currently under construction and is expected to be flooded in the next few months.

A party of White Woodpeckers were soon added to our already growing list, as was Tail-banded Hornero, a northern-eastern specie that has recently begun to move into areas further south.

A lone Rufescent Tiger-Heron was our only sighting of the trip and whilst we saw several Capped Herons we did not record them from anywhere other than Guapi Assu. We tried to lure out Rufous-sided and Ash-throated Crakes, but whilst both were very vociferous only the Ash-throated Crake gave brief views.

On a wooded bank on the far side of the marsh we lured in the endemic Long-billed Wren, whilst Moustached Wren was only heard. As dusk fell we headed to a spot where Nick had seen Giant Snipe and Swallow-tailed Nightjar, but unfortunately neither of these species were seen. We did however spotlight a Rufous Nightjar as we walked back to the lodge.

As we sipped our Caipirinhas Nicholas Locke, the President of REGUA (Reserva Ecologica de Guapiaçu) and the owner of Guapi Assu Bird Lodge, explained to us about the formation of the reserve and the plans to restore the wetlands and replant areas of the reserve that were deforested in the last century. Considering that the land within the reserve is owned by several different parties, including the Schincarol brewery and that there is very little to be gained financially by the owners from the reserve, it is admirable that they have achieved what they have to date. They have already reduced hunting and trapping on the reserve by 95%, through the introduction of forest guards and have an education program for local school children to explain the benefits of preserving the wildlife.

6th June

We took a short drive to the start of the waterfall trail within REGUA, there is a small house with hummingbird feeders at the start of the trail and we soon saw Violet-crowned Woodnymph and the endemic Saw-billed Hermit.

The first part of the trail is through second growth, but even so we were stopping regularly for species such as White-bearded Manakin, Golden-chevroned, Flame-crested and Rufous-headed Tanagers.

One of our target species for this trail was Southern Antpipit and as soon as Nick heard one calling we started trying to lure it into view. After 20 – 30 minutes all we had to show for our efforts was several flight views, we decided to leave it at this point and to try again on our walk back down.

As the trail came out into an opening we were able to look back at the forest edge, where there was a mixed bird flock and we were able to pick out Brazilian and Green-headed Tanagers, Blue-naped Chlorophonia and Black-capped Becard amongst others.

A Black-cheeked Gnateater was heard calling as we got into primary forest and after a short wait we were able to obtain superb views at very close range of this fabulous endemic.
As we continued through the forest we regularly heard the call of Blue Manakins and we eventually came across several of these and a fine male Pin-tailed Manakin. New species were being added to the list at a fair rate with the likes of Yellow-throated Woodpecker, Buff-fronted, Black-capped and White-eyed Foliage-gleaners, Star-throated, White-flanked and Unicoloured Antwrens, Eye-ringed Tody-Tyrant and Yellow-rumped Flycatcher.

The South-East Brazilian Drymophila Antbirds are a spectacular group of birds and we saw our first in the form of a Scaled Antbird, a fairly simple black and white colour scheme compared to the others, but still a fabulous bird. We would eventually see all six species during the course of our trip and never get tired of looking at them.

For the last few months Nick had been seeing an Elegant Mourner (Shrike-like Cotinga) along the trail, we were around 1,300 metres along the trail, (the trails are conveniently marked every 50 metres), when Nick first heard its call and was able to call it in so that we could enjoy great views of this rarity which is not easy to find anywhere.

The waterfall is 2,500 metres from the start of the trail, but the birding had been so good that we had only reached the 2,000 metre mark by lunchtime. As there was conveniently a bench there we stopped to eat our packed lunches whilst a Sepia-capped Flycatcher provided good views for us.

Rather than walk to the waterfall we decided to head back birding along the way, eventually reaching the spot where we had been playing hide and seek with the Southern Antpipit earlier. A quick play of the tape and it was soon calling again after a couple of flypasts we were able to see it on the ground, it was best located by listening for the sound of its soft bill snapping it regularly makes.

As we started to head down the track a Thrush-like Schiffornis was spotted perched on the trunk of a sapling, right next to the path, this was the first Nick had seen at REGUA, although it had been reported by Jose Illanes another Tropical Birding guide a couple of weeks earlier.

We spent a short time photographing the hummingbirds on the feeders, before driving back to the lodge, with a quick stop at a very smelly barn to add Barn Owl to the list.

7th June

An early start saw us heading across the Serra Dos Orgaos mountain range to drier forest along the Sumidouro Road. Early fog slowed us down and it took over two hours to reach the forest patch where we would start birding. No sooner had we exited the minibus than Nick spotted a Ferruginous Pygmy-Owl sat in a dead tree.

Our main target here was the vulnerable endemic Three-toed Jacamar and we soon heard these calling and spotted a couple sat high above us. Once we had achieved better views of these we set about finding what else inhabited the small forest patch.

A Sapphire-spangled Emerald sighting was to be our only one of the trip as was a family of Sooty Grassquits. Walking along the road we added Eared Pygmy-Tyrant and Planalto Hermit to our list, but it was not long before we were out into open country so we headed for the bus and drove towards Sumidouro with roadside stops along the way for Common Thornbird, Black-capped Donacobius, White-eared Puffbird and Pileated Finch.

A lunch stop at a roadside café produced our first Green-winged Saltator, unfortunately this bird was caged, as were many more we began seeing, they are a very popular cage bird in Brazil.

The afternoon was spent birding the Theodoro trail, which is within the area defined as the Tres Picos State Park. Generally afternoons in Brazil were very quiet, but we did manage to see a good selection of birds here including Plovercrest, Surucua Trogon, Yellow-browed Woodpecker, Greenish Tyrannulet, Grey-hooded Attila and finally a wild Green-winged Saltator.

That evening, as we sat outside drinking our Caipirinhas we heard the call of a Tawny-browed Owl within about 30 metres of where we sat. There followed a quick dash for binoculars and spotlight we were soon watching not one, but two Tawny-browed Owls.

8th June

Nicholas drove us in his jeep up the 4WD track in REGUA so that we could bird at a slightly higher elevation along the Papagaio trail.

Channel-billed Toucans were heard calling almost as soon as we stopped although we were only able to obtain brief and distant views of these. Our first Planalto Woodcreeper was however much easier to see as it worked its way up a nearby tree trunk.

Our main target was the White-bibbed Antbird and as soon as we heard one we headed off the trail into the undergrowth and up a steep bank. Once we found a spot with reasonable visibility we were able to call a pair in and we all eventually got good views. Before we started to head back to the trail a group of Yellow-green Grosbeaks worked their way through the trees directly above us in the company of a Black-tailed Tityra.

Further along the trail we heard a Variegated Antpitta calling some distance below us in a steep gully, we tried calling it in from the trail, but it didn’t want to move. Seeing no easy way down we were all ready to carry on, but Nicholas persuaded us to climb down the slope, which must have descended close to 50 metres in a horizontal distance of only 25 metres. Once down there we were able to lure in the bird fairly close, but it always remained out of sight. Eventually we found ourselves back on the trail with nothing to show for our efforts, but at least we tried and as this was the only Antpitta we heard during the whole trip we may have regretted it if we had not done so.

Further along we came across a nice mixed flock and added Rufous-winged Antwren, Streak-capped Antwren, Ochre-bellied Flycatcher and Rough-legged Tyrannulet to our list. The endemic Yellow-eared Woodpecker also seen here was our only sighting of the trip.

We headed back to the lodge for a late lunch, before heading to another wetland on the reserve. This wetland held similar species to the one closer to the lodge, but we also found a Black-capped Donacobius here, the first Nick had seen within REGUA.

We walked along the Yellow trail, which starts behind the wetland, but it was very quiet. Nick eventually managed to call up a Rufous-capped Motmot, which most of us were able to get reasonable views of before it moved off. We struck lucky with a Crescent-chested Puffbird, which sat quietly above the trail, we had been looking for this bird near to the lodge ever since we arrived as there had been one in residence behind the swimming pool.

As we headed back past the marsh the large numbers of Cattle Egrets and Capped Herons looked impressive as they came in to roost and walking back to the minibus we also found a Rusty-margined Guan, which we were all able to enjoy.

Back at the lodge we decided to make the effort to see Tropical Screech-Owl, which had been heard calling every night. Typically the night we decided to look for it the only one we could hear was some distance away so we clambered down a bank and headed out across the new marsh they were digging in pursuit of our quarry. We spotted a Pauraque along the way, but when we arrived near to where the Screech-Owl had been calling, the only one we could hear was back near the lodge. Back we went across the new marsh and up the bank, eventually seeing the bird from the road within 40 metres of the lodge.

9th June

Today, we were visiting the private reserve of David Miller, an expert and author on orchids, located within the Macae de Cima Reserve. The site was at a much higher elevation than anywhere we had visited to date and we expected to see a whole host of new species.

We made several stops along the Estrada de Macae de Cima, before reaching the reserve and picked up species such as Dusky-tailed Antbird, White-rimmed Warbler, Ochre-faced Tody-Flycatcher and Serra do Mar Tyrannulet.

Once we were within David’s property new birds came thick and fast and as I was fast approaching 3,000 species on my life list I was anxious to keep track. In the end it was a toss-up between Rufous-backed Antvireo and Brazilian Ruby for number 3,000, despite Nick’s best efforts to call in a Hooded Berryeater. The final analysis concluded number 3,000 was the Antvireo.

David was telling us at lunchtime, the advantage birders have over orchid enthusiasts is birders can spend their time on the road whilst the orchid enthusiasts have to head into the forest to find their quarry. This is true to some extent as we had seen the likes of Pallid Spinetail, Sharp-billed Treehunter, White-throated Woodcreeper, Bertoni’s and Ochre-rumped Antbird, Black-and-gold Cotinga, Drab-breasted Bamboo-Tyrant, Shear-tailed Grey-Tyrant, Brassy-breasted Tanager and Bay-chested Warbling-Finch, all whilst walking along the road. However a few species necessitated us getting into the undergrowth to track them down from their calls. Hooded Berryeater’s have a very distinctive loud call, but we could not get any to come close to the road with playback, so we resorted to standing under a fruiting tree in the forest and calling them into it. This was really successful, one bird came and perched only five metres from us and sat there for over ten minutes, until we had satisfied ourselves with him and began to call in a pair of Brazilian Antthrushes that also put on a good show. A Rufous-breasted Leaftosser was not so obliging and after 30 minutes or more, all we had seen were five or six flybys and a couple of quick perched views.

We arrived at David’s House, just in time for lunch, but not before we had spent some time photographing the seven species of hummingbird visiting his feeders, which included Scale-throated Hermit, Black Jacobin, Versicoloured Emerald and Amethyst Woodstar all of which were new to us.

After an enormous lunch, we ambled rather than walked back down the road seeing many of the same species as on the way up. It was not until we were back on the Estrada de Macae de Cima that we added any new species, with first, two Slaty-breasted Woodrails that headed from the edge of the road into the forest as we passed by. Nick then successfully called in a Serra Tyrant-Manakin, which we had looked for without success in the same area that morning. We finished the day with a quite dull looking Southern Bristle-Tyrant, which fortunately sat in the same place for ten minutes or more whilst we studied it from every angle and photographed it.

10th June

We had 30 minutes around the gardens of Guapi Assu, before heading to Serra dos Orgãos National Park, and this enabled us to add White-chinned Sapphire and Blond-crested Woodpecker in addition to getting much improved views of Rufous-breasted Hermit.

Arriving at Serra dos Orgãos National Park, we headed straight to the Pedro do Sino trail. Given enough time this trails goes high enough to get into Grey-winged Cotinga territory, but we would not have time to do this and it seems as though the success rate of people who do try for the Cotinga is not that high.

There is a good spot for Sharp-tailed Streamcreeper 20 – 30 metres downstream from the car park, so we headed along a path that lead to that point. Almost as soon as we got there a Streamcreeper was visible hopping on the rocks and then climbing along a pipe.

We then began our walk up the Pedro do Sino trail. Many of the birds were the same as we had seen the previous day, with further great views of Brazilian Antthrush and Hooded Berryeater. Having struggled to see Rufous-breasted Leaftosser the previous day, we found a very obliging bird here that after one play of the tape flew in close and sat in full view. A Mouse-coloured Tapaculo also proved easy to see as it hopped about only two metres from us.

All too soon it was time to head back to the minibus for lunch. The afternoon was spent driving down the coast road to Angra dos Reis, where we arrived late afternoon and headed straight out to a beachfront bar where we sat and had a few beers until the sun went down.

11th June

Pereque was our destination today and we had a key bird to target, the Black-hooded Antwren. On arrival at the site it took less than five minutes before we had great views of a pair of them. However, there is more to see at the site than just the Antwrens and we soon saw Neotropical River Warblers hopping along the road whilst a Sombre Hummingbird perched above it. Red-eyed Thornbirds, of the erythrophthalmus race, were called in and showed well. A short distance along a sidetrack found a very obliging Rufous-tailed Jacamar, which posed wonderfully for photos.

It wasn’t long before Nick heard the call of a distant Squamate Antbird, this required us to head off into the undergrowth. We only went in a short distance initially and tried to call the Squamate Antbird towards us, a Ferruginous Antbird came to investigate us and distracted us for a while. The Squamate Antbird continued to call in the distance so we carried on in its direction, eventually getting very close and were finally able to call it into view.

Our excursion off-track had been very successful with two superb Antbirds. Whilst we had been enjoying our close views of the Squamate Antbird, Nick had heard another of our coastal lowland targets, a Fork-tailed Tody-Tyrant. We pushed on a little further in its direction and called it in right above us, we had excellent views even being able to see that it had, surprisingly, been ringed, a red plastic ring on one leg and a metal ring on the other.

Before we left the Pereque area for Ubatuba we stopped and called in a fabulous male Tufted Antshrike and saw our first Yellow-fronted Woodpeckers. A stop by the river to look at some perched Scaly-headed Parrots also found us our first Buff-throated Purpletuft in the same tree.

After a pleasant lunch we reached Corcovado, near Folha Seca, a site for Russet-winged Spadebill. We spent all afternoon there and all we saw were a few Blue Manakins, although we did get a good collection of insect bites. The walk back to the minibus took us alongside a small pool, where a flock of Grey-rumped Swifts put on a great show as they skimmed the surface to take a drink, before rising sharply to clear the trees at the end of the pool.

12th June

This morning was spent in a different area of Folha Seca to the previous afternoon. We left the minibus where the track forked, to the right it became a slightly overgrown trail to the left a stream impassable by vehicle blocked the road. We began by calling in a Slaty Bristlefront, which showed really well as he came down onto the mud by the small stream.

The Bristlefront in the bag we walked the overgrown trail to a large clearing with a few scattered groups of trees. We had a fairly good selection of birds here including Crescent-chested Puffbird, White-spotted Woodpecker, Greyish Mourner and Green-backed Becard.

Returning to where we had earlier seen the Slaty Bristlefront, Nick picked out the call of a Tawny-throated Leaftosser. This individual proved highly responsive to the tape and flew in to within a few metres of us and sat on a branch in full view for several minutes.

We then crossed the stream and headed along the other track. A Black Hawk-Eagle that had been calling on and off during the morning, put on a fine show as it soared above us. The same or another Tawny-throated Leaftosser was seen a couple of times, tossing leaves, as we tracked down a calling Rufous-capped Antthrush a short distance along the trail.

Returning to the van and walking back along the entrance road towards the first house, which had several hummingbird feeders in the garden. A Buff-bellied Puffbird, a South-East Brazilian endemic since its split from White-necked Puffbird, was seen on the way and this proved to be our only sighting of the trip.

Jonas, whose house it was, kindly invited us into his garden to observe the feeders at close range. We saw seven species of hummingbird at the feeders, but by far the most welcome were the Festive Coquettes of which there were several including at least one adult male. In addition to hummingbird feeders, Jonas had also put out lots of fruit, which was attracting many birds, Green-headed and Brazilian Tanagers and Green Honeycreepers to name but a few.

We drove back into Ubatuba for lunch, before heading back to the site of our previous days failure to look once again for the Russet-winged Spadebill. If anything we were even less successful as the previous day we had at least heard the bird, but today there was not even a sound.

13th June

We had several hours to explore Fazenda Angelim, before we had to begin the long drive to Itatiaia and we were determined to make the most of it. Nick had seen Spot-backed Antshrike there recently, so he played the tape as we walked the main track. We hadn’t gone more than a couple of hundred metres before we had a response and were able to tape in a male.

A Spotted Bamboowren then began calling along a sidetrack, as we headed towards it we were distracted for a short time by our first White-shouldered Fire-eye. Fortunately the Bamboowren continued to call and as we came around a bend in the track it was sat in view, but quickly dropped out of sight before everyone got to see it. We then spent 15 minutes or more searching as it circled us calling, but always out of sight until eventually it arrived back in the bush where we had first seen it and everyone saw it well.

Despite spending a couple more hours there we were unable to find any new birds, Bare-throated Bellbirds could be heard calling but we just could not see them.

It was late afternoon by the time we arrived at Itatiaia, giving us a short time to spend at the hummingbird feeders by the Chocolate shop. Unfortunately there was no Frilled Coquette to be seen, but we did see Grey-hooded Flycatcher and Gilt-edged Tanagers in the vicinity. We pushed on to the Hotel do Ype, where we had just enough daylight left to enjoy the Dusky-legged Guans, Saffron Toucanets and a variety of Hummingbirds visiting the feeders.

14th June

We drove down the road from the hotel to a trail that leads to the start of the Tres Picos trail and eventually the Hotel Simon. Before reaching the start of the Tres Picos trail we had seen a lot of good birds, some that we had seen before, but several including White-collared Foliage-gleaner, Black-billed Scythebill, White-bearded Antshrike and Large-headed Flatbill that we had not.

Nick heard a Fork-tailed Tody-Tyrant, but we didn’t try to call it in as we had seen one previously. This bird seems to be expanding into Itatiaia, as other birders staying at the Hotel had also recorded them recently.

We spent some time looking for a Such’s Antthrush that was calling close to the Tres Picos trail, but unfortunately it was not very cooperative showing itself to only a couple of the group. Much more obliging was a Pileated Parrot that provided excellent views for around ten minutes.

As we descended the trail a flock of the Foliage-gleaner like Brown Tanagers moved through the canopy directly over our heads and a small mixed flock yielded our first White-throated Spadebill. A Rufous Gnateater also gave good views.

After lunch we drove lower in the park stopping for a mixed flock by the roadside, which contained our first Sirystes and Ochre-breasted Foliage-gleaners. The latter were with several Buff-fronted Foliage-gleaners, providing a good comparison of these similar species.

We continued on to the Aldeia dos Passeros Pousada where Nick had seen Blackish-Blue Seedeater and Half-collared Sparrow in the garden, whilst staying here a couple of weeks earlier. Unfortunately for us neither of these birds were seen, but a small stream behind the hotel reception area attracted a Sharp-tailed Streamcreeper that showed really well.

Next we headed to a private house close to the Hotel Simon, which had hummingbird feeders that we had been told had Frilled Coquettes visiting. None were seen in the time we were there but we did get good views of several Magpie Tanagers and perched Blue-winged Parrotlets.

Whilst looking for the Coquette we had heard Red-breasted Toucans calling from the direction of the Hotel Simon. So we walked on up the hill and found a pair perched very close to the road. We spent some time watching them comically bob up and down as they called.

15th June

An early start was required to get to the Agulhas Negras road for dawn, but it was well worth it for the species we saw. The road is in very poor condition and it was definitely more pleasant walking up it than driving, but to get to the higher elevations for the likes of Itatiaia Thistletail it is necessary to drive.

We began fairly close to the start where we enjoyed good views of a Grey-bellied Spinetail as it worked its way along the bushes close to the edge of the road. A couple of Thick-billed Saltators showed well enough for us to see all the key identification features. Red-rumped and Bay-chested Warbling-Finches were common, as were the spectacular Diademed Tanagers. Rufous-tailed Antbirds also proved fairly common along the road, and so we completed the full set of six South-East Brazilian Drymophila Antbirds.
Nick had been carefully measuring 5km from the start of the road to a point where he had seen the vulnerable Black-capped Piprites a couple of weeks earlier, but we successfully tracked one down before reaching this spot.

As we headed higher we made a short stop by Casa de Pedra for a mixed bird flock, adding White-crested Tyrannulet to the list. Whilst we were watching this I heard the call of an Araucaria Tit-Spinetail, which then showed really well very close to the road. There were very few Araucaria trees here making it much easier to see than at the traditional site higher up where there are a lot more. An Olivaceous Elaenia was also seen here as it hawked for insects from a treetop and the only Golden-winged Cacique of the trip also put in an appearance.

Higher still we reached the habitat of the Itatiaia Thistletail, as we walked along the road all was quiet. Even the tape could not encourage one to sing and give away its location, but after some time one came in silently and showed superbly well.

Having come so far already we continued on to the top of the road where a short walk found a Rufous-thighed Hawk and a Buff-browed Foliage-gleaner.

We were staying the night at Hotel Casa Alpina, which was only a few kilometres from the start of the Agulhas Negras Road so after lunch we drove there to drop off our luggage. There were quite a lot of Araucaria trees around the hotel and Tit-Spinetails could be heard constantly calling from the hotel room balconies.

We headed back to the Agulhas Negras road and spent some time trying to call in a Large-tailed Antshrike without any success. It was generally quiet in the afternoon and we saw nothing much other than the common species that we had seen earlier in the day.

Back at the hotel we decided to walk the track leading past a waterfall and alongside a river looking for Owls. It had only just got dark when we found a Spectacled Owl, which showed really well in the spotlight. Further along the track a Rusty-barred Owl called a couple of times, but could not be located with the spotlight or taped in.

16th June

We had a long (475km) drive ahead of us so we only had time for a couple of hours birding before breakfast. The hotel owners had told us that the road through the back of their property went right up to the top of the mountains and was in much better condition than the Agulhas Negras road so we tried birding along here. Unfortunately the forest along the road was of poor quality with very little bamboo, the only birds of note were Plumbeous Pigeon and Serra Tyrant-Manakin.

After breakfast we began the long drive to Canastra, the road in places was terribly potholed and the last 20 kilometres or so of dirt road was in the process of being upgraded to a sealed road. It took over an hour to get through the stretch of roadworks as there were three lanes and little by way of signs to tell us which we should be on. At one point we ran up against a pile of earth blocking the lane we were on, with a one metre drop on either side of us, so we had to turn round and find a point where we could get onto one of the other lanes.

Eventually we found our way through and arrived at Sao Roque de Minas nine hours after leaving the hotel near Itamonte. We had made only a few short stops for birds during the day, Buff-necked Ibises, Red-legged Seriemas, Blackish Rail, Harris’s Hawk, Toco Toucan, Peach-fronted and Yellow-chevroned Parakeets, White-rumped Swallows and Streamer-tailed Tyrants being the highlights.

17th June

We were to spend the day birding the upper part of Canastra, accessed from Sao Roque de Minas. As the park does not open until 8.00am, we began by birding along the road a couple of kilometres before the entrance. Playing the Ferruginous Pygmy Owl tape soon brought in a few species and before long we had gained good views of Narrow-billed Woodcreeper, Sooty-fronted Spinetail, Stripe-breasted Starthroat, Highland Elaenia, Black-throated Saltator and Plumbeous Seedeater.

At 8.00am we were at the park entrance and whilst Nick went and sorted out the Brazilian bureaucracy necessary to get in, we enjoyed a White-vented Violetear feeding on nearby flowers.

We were soon back in the van and heading along the road towards the waterfall (Casca D’Anta). The dirt road is incredibly bumpy and fairly steep in a few places, it is not somewhere to try driving if the weather is bad, but fortunately for us it was dry all day.

We made stops whenever we saw something interesting, including the likes of Tawny-headed Swallow, White-rumped Tanager, Wedge-tailed Grassfinch, Great Pampa-Finch, Yellow-billed Blue Finch, Black-masked Finch and Grey-backed Tachuri. At a large patch of scrubby bushes, near to where the row of pylons first meet the road, Nick taped a Brasilia Tapaculo into the exact same dead bush that he had first seen it a year earlier.

Further along we made a rapid stop as a Sharp-tailed Tyrant flew past the minibus, upon exiting the minibus we found that there were at least four of them and they were definitely one of the top birds of the day. At the same spot we saw our second female Cock-tailed Tyrant of the day, scanning round we eventually spotted a male in the distance, but he would not allow us to approach close enough for a decent photo.

It was lunchtime when we eventually reached the waterfall and now we could start to look for our main Canastra target, the Brazilian Merganser, but first we sat and ate lunch. We walked upstream scanning the river, wherever we could force our way through the undergrowth. In retrospect it would probably have been easier to cross the river by the waterfall parking area and have walked on the opposite bank as there was less vegetation to obstruct the view of the river from that side.

A couple of hours hard walking in long grass, going up and down hills resulted in no Mergansers and not a great deal else. The lower part of Canastra is where the Mergansers are more often seen and we were going there the next day so we were not too disheartened with our failure.

The drive back to the park entrance was fairly quiet on the birding front with only King Vulture an addition to the list, but two Giant Anteaters were very welcome. We spent the late afternoon birding the park approach road as we had that morning and added Rufous-winged Antshrike, Hepatic and Cinnamon Tanagers and Rufous-winged Antshrike and Hooded Siskin to the list.

18th June

There are quite a few places where the river can be seen on the way to the park entrance at Vargem Bonita and to give ourselves the best chance of seeing the Merganser, we would have to stop and check all of them. After the first few stops all we had added to the list was a White-bellied Warbler and a pair of Muscovy Ducks.

The road then climbed so that it was much higher than the river and further away, whilst scanning the river from one viewpoint a single Brazilian Merganser flew past us at just above eyelevel and only 50 metres away, it headed upstream and landed out of sight. With some relief that we now had the bird on our list we drove on to where we could see the stretch of river where we thought it had landed, but there was no sign.

The road now turned away from the river and our attention turned to the other birds that could be seen along the road. We had soon added Yellow-bellied Seedeater and Stripe-tailed Yellowfinch, as well as finding again many of the species we had seen for the first time the day before. We had been hoping to reach the park entrance by 8.00am, but it was closer to 9.30am by the time we arrived.

We headed straight down the track to a picnic area by the river, where we found another Brazilian Merganser asleep on a rock. We watched it and photographed it for 30 minutes and it only lifted its head once for a couple of seconds in all this time.

We had other target birds for this part of the park and the longer we left it, the harder it would be to see them so we left the Merganser and took the track to the base of the waterfall that we had been at the top of the previous day. We hadn’t gone far before we found a superb male Helmeted Manakin. Chestnut-headed and Orange-headed Tanagers were both seen before we reached the waterfall, as were Grey Elaenia and Fork-tailed Woodnymph.

There was a large flock of Swifts just above the top of the waterfall, which also happened to be exactly where the sun was, causing difficulties for us to get decent views. If they had been there the previous day it would have been easy, eventually they moved away from the waterfall to where we could get a good view and see that they were nearly all Great Dusky Swifts with a few White-collared Swifts amongst them.

As we walked back along the trail we found our other target bird the Russet-mantled Foliage-gleaner, within a small mixed flock. Back at the picnic area the Brazilian Merganser was still asleep on the same rock, so I decided to creep a bit closer which at least caused it to lift its head long enough for me to get a photograph showing it awake. It was almost three hours since we had first seen the Merganser asleep on the rock and it hadn’t moved an inch.

Back to the minibus for lunch and we then headed back along the road to Vargem Bonita to try to track down a Collared Crescentchest and anything else that might be around. At one of the stops I happened to notice a large bird of prey fly over and join up with a kettle of Black Vultures. Once everyone had got onto the bird we were able to study it in some detail, further investigation on our return from Brazil revealed it to have been a sub-adult Crowned Eagle, as we had suspected at the time, and a lifer for all of us.

Whilst we heard a distant Collared Crescentchest, we could not find any close enough to call in, but we were successful in using a Ferruginous Pygmy-Owl tape to lure in Rufous Casiornis and Grey-eyed Greenlet. As we drove back to the hotel we found a flock of Curl-crested Jays close to the road, a significant improvement on the previous day when we had seen some fly by and eventually land on the opposite side of a valley from us.

19th June

Another long drive again today from Sao Roque de Minas to Serra do Cipo, we had an early breakfast, but it was still early afternoon by the time we reached our hotel. After a short break we headed out of town, up onto the mountain tops a few kilometres past the Pousada Chapeu do Sol. We parked a couple of hundred metres past a large viewing area and walked up the hill to our right.

We had four target birds for the area Hyacinth Visorbearer, Cipo Canastero, Cinereous Warbling-Finch and Pale-throated Serra-Finch. The other speciality bird of the area Horned Sungem, appears to undertake a migration as it rarely reported from here in the austral winter.

We had hoped to find at least two of the targets this afternoon and this we achieved with Hyacinth Visorbearer and Cinereous Warbling-Finch both being seen well, the others would have to wait for tomorrow.

20th June

We returned to the same area of Serra do Cipo in our search for the remaining species that we had failed to find yesterday. One of the first birds we found was a singing Plain-crested Elaenia. Pale-throated Serra-Finch was soon heard calling and we were able to get great views as it sat on top of a bush. A Pearly-vented Tody-Tyrant was found as we climbed a slope to photograph a pair of Rufous-winged Antshrikes. Several more Hyacinth Visorbearers and Cinereous Warbling-Finches were seen, but there was no sign of the Cipo Canastero.

It was decided that we would split up in order to cover more area, after 30 minutes and having only seen a Grey-backed Tachuri, it was not looking good for the Canastero. At this point I headed in the direction of a more distant and steeper looking outcrop. As I got there I saw a bird with a fairly long tail on top of a rock, but I was looking directly into the sun, it gave a brief burst of song and another bird replied from higher up the slope. The bird then flew out of sight, I was fairly sure that it was a Canastero, but not wanting to incorrectly call all the others over I walked around the rock to get the sun into a better position. Unable to see the bird I started to climb up the outcrop and spotted it sat only three to four metres from me, I was now certain that it was a Cipo Canastero and had to get the others.

Unfortunately none of the others were in sight so I had to leave the bird in order to fetch them. Once I had climbed down I was able to see two of them several hundred metres away, so I shouted them over, eventually everyone heard me even Nick who must have been nearly a kilometre away and they all came to the spot I had seen the bird. After an anxious few minutes for both them and me the bird showed itself to everyone, eventually approaching to within a couple of metres. Having the Canastero on our lists we happily walked the couple of kilometres back to the van.

We had a four hour drive to Caraca, so it was mid-afternoon before we arrived at the monastery. A late afternoon walk along the Tanque Grande trail saw several of us get lucky with a fly over Red-ruffed Fruitcrow, but a Such’s Antthrush was not going to show itself to anyone. A Serra Antwren was more obliging as it showed close to the start of the trail on our return, but it was generally quiet, we hoped for better things the next morning.

Every evening food is put out for a Maned Wolf, we had been told that it can show up at any time after 7.30pm, so we got to the appointed place on time and sat waiting, the food was put out at 8.00pm. By 9.00pm several of us had had enough waiting and called it a night, those that stayed got to see the Maned Wolf at 9.05pm, but it was unusually timid and only stayed for a couple of minutes.

21st June

With a long drive to Venda Nova do Imigrante we only had a few hours to find several key species. Again we birded along the Tanque Grande Trail and it was much better than the previous afternoon, with White-breasted Tapaculo easily seen in response to playback and a mixed flock holding Scaled Woodcreeper and Cinnamon-vented Piha.

At this time of year Swallow-tailed Cotinga’s gather in large groups and move away from their breeding areas. Caraca is supposedly one of the best places to see them, but unfortunately for us we were unable to find them in the limited time we had. Black-capped Antwren whilst a welcome addition to the list was not quite adequate compensation during our search.

As we drove towards Venda Nova do Imigrante it began to rain, apart from a couple of light showers we had had at Canastra, this was the first rain we had seen on trip. Over dinner we met up with Ana and Pedro, two researchers who had discovered the Cherry-throated Tanager at Fazenda Pindobas IV in 1998, and were to be our guides whilst we searched for the bird the next day at this private site.

22nd June

Our first day searching for Cherry-throated Tanagers at Fazenda Pindobas IV was a complete washout, not only did it rain all day, but it was foggy until 2.00pm also. The habitat was very degraded with Eucalyptus and Pine trees dominating, with small surviving forest patches in between.

I recorded a grand total of 21 species seen, with several others heard, including Golden-tailed Parrotlet which without the fog we would surely have had a good chance of seeing flying over. We definitely needed the weather to improve the next day if we were to stand any chance of seeing the Tanagers.

23rd June

Ana and Pedro discovered a second site for Cherry-throated Tanager two years ago, this is at a forest on the edge of a town called Caetes, a 45 minute drive from Venda Nova do Imigrante where we were staying. The forest is 3,000 hectares and is known to contain at least 8 Cherry-throated Tanagers, being the maximum number that have been seen together.

Like Fazenda Pindobas IV the site is privately owned, we took a dirt track for a couple of kilometres from the town until the track forked and we birded the track to the right beyond a locked gate to which Pedro had the key. The track to the left appeared to be a public road and this also passed through the forest, as the Tanagers move around in mixed flocks there would seem to be little reason why they couldn’t be seen from this other track.

Whilst it was still raining, it wasn’t foggy so visibility was reasonable. The forest was quite good and we saw quite a lot of different species including Sharp-tailed Streamcreeper, White-collared Foliage-gleaner, Black-billed Scythebill, and both Ochre-rumped and Ferruginous Antbirds.

We spent a couple of hours spread out along a 200 metre section where the Tanagers had been seen most often, looking for mixed flocks and listening for the Sirystes which is the leader of the flocks in which the Tanagers are seen. In this time we had only one good Sirystes lead flock pass through and whilst Ana claimed to have heard a Cherry-throated Tanager calling, the rest of us did not hear it. All too quickly this flock passed out of sight and all we had to show for our efforts was our first sighting of the endemic Oustalet’s Tyrannulet.

We had a long drive ahead of us so at 11.00am we called time on the Tanagers and headed off towards Linhares. We arrived just before dark and checked into our cabins, we appeared to be the only guests staying there and at dinner the only other people were four researchers.

After dinner we decided to see if we could find any nightbirds, so we headed off up the entrance road, we hadn’t gone far before we heard an owl calling that we didn’t recognise. Despite recording it and playing it back it wouldn’t come to the edge of the forest and so we had to go in. Heading into the forest during daylight hours is generally not too bad, but trying to find our way through in the dark and still wearing the clothes we went to dinner in was an experience. We eventually found our way to the tree from which the owl was calling and were able to spotlight another Spectacled Owl. The walk back along the road only added Pauraque to our days list.

24th June

Linhares is a huge reserve owned by Compania Vale do Rio Doce and is adjacent to the Sooretama Reserve. It would be hard to do it justice in the one day that we had, but we had to try and so we met our guide to take us around at 5.30am. It is compulsory to have a local guide within the reserve and this is included within the admission fee of US$35 per person. The guide that we had was no expert on birds, but he did point out a few things.

In keeping with the last few days it was raining when we set out and would rain for a significant portion of the day, fortunately quite lightly at first. A great start to the day was a Solitary Tinamou that flew down from its roosting tree and walked along the edge of the road for a few metres before disappearing into the undergrowth.

Our guide took us first to a site where Harpy Eagles had been seen on several occasions recently including one time eating a monkey. Although we did not see the Harpy Eagle we did get off to a good start with a pair of Mealy Parrots, the endemic race of Blue-headed Parrot and good close views of a pair of Sooretama Slaty-Antshrikes, which we had only previously seen at REGUA and that individual had remained in the canopy.

We then headed for a track that lead to an abandoned building and whilst we walked for a couple of kilometres our driver followed in the minibus. New species came thick and fast with White-eared Parakeet, Blue-winged Macaw, Minute Hermit, Black-necked Aracari, White-lored Tyrannulet, Grey-crowned Flycatcher, Olivaceous Flatbill and Cocoa Thrush all going on the list. We also saw lots of female White-crowned and Red-headed Manakins and eventually saw at least one male of each, before stopping to eat our packed lunch.

After lunch we set out in the minibus for our next site in the reserve, with Nick sitting out of the window looking for mixed flocks in the canopy. It was this height advantage that enabled him to spot a pair of Red-billed Currasows on the road over the crest of a hill. We were able to stop the van before spooking them too much so that we could all get a good view, before they saw us and headed off into the trees. I was able to see through the telescope the head off one bird just off the side of the road, so we waited a few minutes and first one then the other crossed the road, before disappearing for good.

The afternoon was quieter, but whilst we continued to search for another key target the Red-browed Parrot we were able to find a Bat Falcon, several Rusty-margined Guans and an Orange-winged Parrot. I had previously seen Buff-throated Woodcreeper in Costa Rica and Ecuador, but these had subsequently been split off as Cocoa and Lafresnaye’s Woodcreepers respectively, so it was pleasing to see the genuine article although the view as a pair flew several times across the track were not the best.

As the afternoon wore on we headed for the open area around the canopy tower, with hopes of being able to see some parrots. On the way we saw another party of three Red-billed Currasows, which included an adult male. We didn’t actually go up in the canopy tower, which requires individuals to be winched up, but in its immediate surroundings we were able to add Blue-throated Parakeet, Yellow-breasted Flycatcher and Crested Becard. We also heard Bare-throated Bellbirds calling for the final time on the trip, unfortunately, here like everywhere else we had been, they chose to remain out of sight.

It was getting towards dusk and we still hadn’t seen the endangered Red-browed Parrot, and at our local guide’s suggestion we left the reserve to drive north along the main road looking for perched parrots. We hadn’t even done a kilometre, before we saw two parrots in the top of a tree next to the road, a quick stop and we were able to confirm that they were Red-browed Parrots. This was an excellent final tick for the trip.

25th June

As we had an early flight to Rio de Janeiro, we had to leave at 4.30am for the two and a half hour drive to Vitoria. The plane took off on time and we arrived at Rio with several hours to wait for our connecting flight back to the UK.

Species Lists

PS - Praia Seca
GA - Guapi Assu
SR - Sumidouro Road
TT – Theodoro Trail, Tres Picos State Park
MC - Macae de Cima
SO - Serra dos Orgaos
PQ - Pereque
CC - Corcavado
FS - Folha Seca
FA - Fazenda Angelim
IT – Itatiaia
AN – Agulhas Negras Road
UC - Upper Canastra
LC - Lower Canastra
CP - Cipo
CA – Caraca
FP – Fazenda Pindobas IV
CS - Caetes
LI – Linhares

(h) – Heard Only
(CR) – Critically Endangered
(EN) – Endangered
(VU) – Vulnerable
(NT) – Near threatened

Solitary Tinamou (NT) – LI
Little Tinamo – LI(h)
Brown Tinamou - GA(h), MC(h), FS(h), FA(h), CA(h), FP(h)
Variegated Tinamou – LI(h)

Least Grebe – CA

Brown Booby – Rio de Janeiro

Neotropic Cormorant – Rio de Janeiro

Anhinga – Roadside on the way to Canastra

Magnificent Frigatebird – Seen regularly whilst driving along the coast

Whistling Heron – SR, roadside near Ubatuba
Capped Heron - GA
Great Egret – Commonly seen whilst driving
Snowy Egret – Occasionally seen whilst driving
Cattle Egret – Commonly seen whilst driving
Striated Heron – Roadside between Vitoria and Linhares
Black-crowned Night-Heron - GA
Rufescent Tiger-Heron - GA

Buff-necked Ibis – Four flew past on road to Canastra

Muscovy Duck – LC and along road from Vitoria to Linhares
Brazilian Teal – GA and on roadside pools on way to Canastra and Linhares
Brazilian Merganser (CR) - LC

Black Vulture – Seen daily
Turkey Vulture – GA and roadside several times
Lesser Yellow-headed Vulture - GA
King Vulture - UC

Grey-headed Kite – One on road near Venda Nova do Imigrante
Snail Kite – Several on road between Vitoria and Linhares
Rufous-thighed Hawk – AN, CP
Savanna Hawk – Seen on roadside several times
Harris’s Hawk – Seen roadside on the way to Canastra
Black-chested Buzzard-Eagle – LC, UC, CP, CA
Crowned Eagle (EN) – LC
Roadside Hawk - Commonly seen whilst driving
White-tailed Hawk – Seen fairly commonly whilst driving
Black Hawk-Eagle – FS

Southern Caracara - Seen daily
Yellow-headed Caracara – Seen daily
Laughing Falcon – Seen occasionally whilst driving
Barred Forest Falcon – TT(h)
American Kestrel – Seen fairly commonly whilst driving
Aplomado Falcon – GA
Bat Falcon – LI
Rusty-margined Guan – GA, LI
Dusky-legged Guan – IT, CA
Red-billed Currasow (EN) – LI

Spot-winged Wood-Quail – MC(h), FP(h)

Rufous-sided Crake – GA(h) Only Nick got a brief look at this one.
Grey-necked Wood-Rail – UC
Slaty-breasted Wood-Rail – MC, CA(h)
Ash-throated Crake – GA
Blackish Rail – LC, CA
Common Moorhen – GA

Red-legged Seriema – UC, LC

Wattled Jacana – GA

Southern Lapwing – Seen daily
Collared Plover – PS

Greater Yellowlegs – PS

Kelp Gull – Rio de Janeiro

Royal Tern – PS

Picazuro Pigeon – Seen daily
Pale-vented Pigeon – UC
Plumbeous Pigeon – AN
Eared Dove – UC
Plain-breasted Ground-Dove – PS
Ruddy Ground-Dove – Common in most open areas
Scaled Dove – LC and by roadside several times in the last 10 days of the trip
Grey-fronted Dove – FS. Other White-tipped / Grey-fronted Doves also seen, but not well enough to confirm ID.
Ruddy Quail-Dove – FS(h)

Blue-winged Macaw (NT) – LI
White-eyed Parakeet – SR(h), PQ and on way to and from Canastra
Peach-fronted Parakeet – UC, LC, CP, LI
Blue-throated Parakeet (VU) – LI
Maroon-bellied Parakeet – GA, SR, MC, SO, PQ, FS, IT, AN, CS
White-eared Parakeet – LI
Blue-winged Parrotlet – FS, IT
Plain Parakeet – GA, SR, PQ, IT, LI
Yellow-chevroned Parakeet – CP, also in town of Itamonte, near AN.
Golden-tailed Parrotlet (VU) – FP(h)
Pileated Parrot – MC(h), IT
Blue-headed Parrot – LI
Scaly-headed Parrot – GA(h), MC(h), PQ, FS, IT, AN
Red-browed Parrot (EN) – LI
Orange-winged Parrot – LI
Mealy Parrot – LI

Squirrel Cuckoo – SR(h), MC, PQ, LI
Smooth-billed Ani – Seen almost daily
Guira Cuckoo – Seen almost daily
Striped Cuckoo – PQ(h)

Barn Owl – GA

Tropical Screech-Owl – GA, CA(h)
Rusty-barred Owl (NT) – Casa Alpina near AN(h)
Spectacled Owl – Casa Alpina near AN, LI
Tawny-browed Owl – GA, CA(h)
Ferruginous Pygmy-Owl – SR, UC(h), CP, CA, LI
Burrowing Owl – PS, GA, LC

Pauraque – GA, LC, LI
Rufous Nighjar – GA

Great Dusky Swift – LC
White-collared Swift – GA, SR, FS, IT, LC, CA
Biscutate Swift – GA. Only separable given good views from previous specie, as a result both species are only recorded for sites where they were positively identified, although White-collared type swifts were seen very regularly and the majority would have been White-collared Swifts.
Grey-rumped Swift – GA, CC

Saw-billed Hermit (NT) – GA, PQ, FS, FA
Rufous-breasted Hermit – GA
Scale-throated Hermit – MC, SO, IT, AN, CS
Planalto Hermit – SR
Minute Hermit – LI
Reddish Hermit – GA, SR, PQ, FA
Sombre Hummingbird – PQ, FS
Swallow-tailed Hummingbird – GA, PQ, FS, IT, UC
Black Jacobin – MC, IT
White-vented Violet-ear – UC, LC, CP
Plovercrest – TT, MC, AN
Festive Coquette – FS
Glittering-bellied Emerald – SR, UC, LC, CP
Fork-tailed Woodnymph – LC
Violet-capped Woodnymph – GA, MC, FS, IT, AN, FP
White-chinned Sapphire – GA
White-throated Hummingbird – TT, MC, IT, AN
Versicoloured Emerald – MC, IT, AN
Sapphire-spangled Emerald – SR
Glittering-throated Emerald – GA, FS, CS
Brazilian Ruby – MC, IT, AN, CA, FP
Hyacinth Visorbearer (NT) – CP
Stripe-breasted Starthroat – UC, LC
Amethyst Woodstar – MC, CP

White-tailed Trogon – PQ(h), FA
Black-throated Trogon – GA, CS
Surucua Trogon – GA(h), TT, MC, AN, CA

Ringed Kingfisher – Seen several times whilst driving
Amazon Kingfisher – Seen several times whilst driving
Green Kingfisher – CC, UC

Rufous-capped Motmot – GA, IT

Three-toed Jacamar (VU) – SR
Rufous-tailed Jacamar – PQ, LC

Buff-bellied Puffbird – FS
White-eared Puffbird – SR
Crescent-chested Puffbird – GA, FS

Black-necked Aracari – LI
Saffron Toucanet (NT) – MC, IT
Spot-billed Toucanet – GA(h)
Channel-billed Toucan – GA, LI(h)
Red-breasted Toucan – IT
Toco Toucan – UC, LC

White-barred Piculet – PS, GA, PQ, FS, IT, LC
White Woodpecker – GA, UC
Yellow-fronted Woodpecker – PQ, IT
White-spotted Woodpecker – FS, IT, AN
Yellow-eared Woodpecker – GA
Yellow-throated Woodpecker – GA
Yellow-browed Woodpecker (NT) – TT, MC
Campo Flicker – GA, PQ, UC, LI
Blond-crested Woodpecker – GA, PQ
Lineated Woodpecker – IT(h), CA
Robust Woodpecker – IT(h), AN(h), CS(h)

Tail-banded Hornero – GA
Rufous Hornero – GA, SR, FA, LC
Araucaria Tit-Spinetail (NT) – AN
Sooty-fronted Spinetail – UC
Pale-breasted Spinetail – UC, LC
Chicli Spinetail – PQ, FS(h), CA(h), CS(h)
Rufous-capped Spinetail – MC(h), SO, PQ, FS, FA(h), IT, FP(h)
Grey-bellied Spinetail – AN
Pallid Spinetail – MC, IT, AN, CA(h)
Yellow-chinned Spinetail – GA
Itatiaia Thistletail – AN
Cipo Canastero (VU) – CP
Common Thornbird – GA(h), SR, UC
Red-eyed Thornbird – PQ, FS(h)
Streaked Xenops – MC, SO, LC, CS, LI
Sharp-billed Treehunter – MC, SO
White-browed Foliage-gleaner (NT) – TT, SO, IT, CS
Buff-browed Foliage-gleaner – AN
Pale-browed Treehunter – GA, SO, FS, IT, CS(h)
Buff-fronted Foliage-gleaner – GA, MC, IT, CA(h), FP, CS
Ochre-breasted Foliage-gleaner – IT
Russet-mantled Foliage-gleaner – LC
Black-capped Foliage-gleaner – GA, IT, CS
White-collared Foliage-gleaner – IT, CS
White-eyed Foliage-gleaner – GA, TT(h), FS(h), FA(h)
Tawny-throated Leaftosser – FS
Rufous-breasted Leaftosser – MC, SO, CA(h)
Sharp-tailed Streamcreeper – SO, IT, AN(h), CA(h), CS

Thrush-like Woodcreeper – GA, FS, IT
Olivaceous Woodcreeper – GA, SR, MC, SO, IT, LC, CA, CS
White-throated Woodcreeper – MC
Planalto Woodcreeper – GA, TT, MC, IT, AN, CS
Buff-throated Woodcreeper – LI
Narrow-billed Woodcreeper – UC
Lesser Woodcreeper – GA, PQ, FA, IT, LI
Scaled Woodcreeper – CA
Black-billed Scythebill – IT, CS

Spot-backed Antshrike – FA
Tufted Antshrike – PQ
Large-tailed Antshrike – MC(h), AN(h)
White-bearded Antshrike (VU) – IT
Chestnut-backed Antshrike – GA, PQ
Sooretama Slaty-Antshrike – GA, LI
Variable Antshrike – AN, UC, LC, CA, FP(h)
Rufous-winged Antshrike – UC, CP
Spot-breasted Antvireo (NT) – GA, CS
Plain Antvireo – FS, IT
Rufous-backed Antvireo – MC, SO
Star-throated Antwren – GA, TT, SO, CS
White-flanked Antwren – GA, LI
Unicoloured Antwren (NT) – GA, FS
Black-capped Antwren – CA
Rufous-winged Antwren – GA, FS(h)
Serra Antwren – CA
Restinga Antwren (CR) – PS
Black-hooded Antwren (EN) – PQ
Ferruginous Antbird – PQ, FS(h), FA(h), IT, CS
Bertoni’s Antbird – MC
Rufous-tailed Antbird (NT) – AN
Ochre-rumped Antbird (NT) – MC, IT, CS
Dusky-tailed Antbird – MC
Scaled Antbird – GA, SO
Streak-capped Antwren – GA, FA
White-shouldered Fire-eye – SO(h), FA, IT, CA(h)
White-bibbed Antbird – GA, CA(h), FP(h), CS
Squamate Antbird – PQ

Rufous-capped Antthrush – GA(h), FS
Brazilian Antthrush – TT(h), MC, SO, AN(h)
Such’s Antthrush – SO(h), IT(h), CA(h), FP(h), CS(h)
Variegated Antpitta – GA(h)

Rufous Gnateater – TT(h), IT, AN(h), LC(h)
Black-cheeked Gnateater – GA

Collared Crescent-chest – LC(h)
Spotted Bamboowren (NT) – FS(h), FA
Slaty Bristlefront (NT) – GA(h), FS
Mouse-coloured Tapaculo – MC(h), SO, AN(h)
Brasilia Tapaculo (NT) – UC
White-breasted Tapaculo (NT) – CA

Sharpbill – GA, SO, FP(h), CS(h)
Shrike-like Cotinga (NT) – GA
Black-and-gold Cotinga (NT) – MC, AN
Hooded Berryeater (NT) – MC, SO, FP, CS(h)
Buff-throated Purpletuft (NT) – PQ, FA
Cinnamon-vented Piha (NT) – CA, FP(h), CS
Red-ruffed Fruitcrow – CA
Bare-throated Bellbird (VU) – MC(h), SO(h), CC(h), FS(h), FA(h), LI(h)

White-bearded Manakin – GA, PQ, FS(h), FA(h), LC(h)
Blue Manakin – GA, TT(h), MC, SO, CC, FS, IT, AN(h), CA
White-crowned Manakin – LI
Red-headed Manakin – LI
Helmeted Manakin – LC
Pin-tailed Manakin – GA, MC, FS, LC, FP, CS
Serra Tyrant-Manakin – MC, AN
Black-capped Piprites (VU) – AN
Thrush-like Schiffornis – GA
Greenish Schiffornis – TT, MC, CA(h), FP(h)

White-lored Tyrannulet – LI
Southern Beardless-Tyrannulet – GA, UC, LC, LI(h)
Yellow Tyrannulet – PQ, IT
Grey Elaenia – LC
Yellow-bellied Elaenia – PS(h), GA, SR, UC
Olivaceous Elaenia – AN
Plain-crested Elaenia – CP
Highland Elaenia – UC, LC, CA, FP
Sooty Tyrannulet – UC, LC, CA
White-crested Tyrannulet – AN
Ochre-bellied Flycatcher – GA
Grey-hooded Flycatcher – IT, LC
Sepia-capped Flycatcher – GA, SR, SO, IT
Southern Bristle-Tyrant (NT) – MC
Oustalet’s Tyrannulet (NT) – CS
Serra do Mar Tyrannulet (NT) – MC, AN
Mottle-cheeked Tyrannulet – MC, AN
Planalto Tyrannulet – GA, TT, AN, LC, CA
Rough-legged Tyrannulet – GA, SO
Greenish Tyrannulet – TT, MC, AN, CA, FP
Grey-capped Tyrannulet (NT) – SO, IT, AN, CA
Sharp-tailed Tyrant (VU) – UC
Grey-backed Tachuri (NT) – UC, CP
Eared Pygmy-Tyrant – SR, IT, CS, LI
Drab-breasted Bamboo-Tyrant – MC, IT, CA, FP(h), CS
Eye-ringed Tody-Tyrant – GA, FS, IT(h)
Hangnest Tody-Tyrant – PS
Pearly-vented Tody-Tyrant – CP
Fork-tailed Tody-Tyrant (VU) – PQ, IT(h)
Ochre-faced Tody-Flycatcher – MC
Yellow-lored Tody-Flycatcher – GA, SR(h), PQ, LC
Common Tody-Flycatcher – GA, UC
Southern Antpipit – GA
Large-headed Flatbill – IT
Olivaceous Flatbill – LI
Yellow-olive Flycatcher – GA, SR, PQ, FS, IT, LC(h), CA
Grey-crowned Flycatcher – LI
Yellow-breasted Flycatcher – LI
White-throated Spadebill – IT
Russet-winged Spadebill (VU) – CC(h)
Bran-coloured Flycatcher – SR, PQ
Yellow-rumped Flycatcher – GA, PQ, FS
Black-tailed Flycatcher – IT, CS
Cliff Flycatcher – GA, MC, PQ, IT, UC, CA
Euler’s Flycatcher – GA(h)
Tropical Pewee – GA, FA, IT, CA, CS
Grey Monjita – UC
White-rumped Monjita – SR, UC, LC, CP, CA
Blue-billed Black-Tyrant – AN, CS
Velvety Black-Tyrant – IT, AN, LC, CA
Crested Black-Tyrant – SR, PQ, UC, LC
Masked Water-Tyrant – PS, GA, SR, LC, CA
White-headed Marsh-Tyrant – GA
Cock-tailed Tyrant (VU) – UC
Streamer-tailed Tyrant – LC and along road heading towards Canastra
Yellow-browed Tyrant – PQ, UC, LC
Long-tailed Tyrant – GA, PQ, FS, FA, IT, LC, CA
Cattle Tyrant – PS, GA, PQ
Shear-tailed Grey-Tyrant – MC
Grey-hooded Attila – GA(h), TT
Rufous Casiornis – LC
Sirystes – IT, LC, CS(h)
Greyish Mourner – FS, LI
Dusky-capped Flycatcher – LI
Short-crested Flycatcher – GA, FA, UC, LC
Brown-crested Flycatcher – LC
Great Kiskadee – Common most places
Boat-billed Flycatcher – GA, TT, LC
Social Flycatcher – PS, GA, SR, PQ, FS, FA, LC, CA
Tropical Kingbird – PS, GA, SR, MC, PQ, LC, CP, CS, LI
Chestnut-crowned Becard – PQ, IT, FP
Green-backed Becard – FS
White-winged Becard – GA
Black-capped Becard – GA, LI
Crested Becard – LI
Black-tailed Tityra – GA, LI

Grey-breasted Martin – PS, GA, LI
White-rumped Swallow – UC, LC
Blue-and-white Swallow – Common everywhere
White-thighed Swallow – GA, PQ, FA
Tawny-headed Swallow – UC
Southern Rough-winged Swallow – PS, GA, SR, PQ, UC, CA

Yellowish Pipit – PS, GA, SR(h)

Black-capped Donacobius – GA, SR
Thrush-like Wren – LI(h)
Moustached Wren – GA(h)
Long-billed Wren – GA
House Wren – GA, SR, PQ, FA, AN, LC

Chalk-browed Mockingbird – Common, seen most days

Yellow-legged Thrush – GA, FP
Rufous-bellied Thrush – SR, MC, SO, PQ, FA, IT, AN, CA, FP, CS
Pale-breasted Thrush – GA, AN, UC, LC, CA
Creamy-bellied Thrush – GA, SO, PQ, FA, IT
Cocoa Thrush – LI
White-necked Thrush – GA

Long-billed Gnatwren – PQ
Curl-crested Jay – UC, LC

House Sparrow – Common in towns

Common Waxbill – PS

Red-eyed Vireo – GA, SR, PQ, LI
Rufous-crowned Greenlet – MC, SO, AN
Grey-eyed Greenlet – LC, CS
Lemon-chested Greenlet – PS
Rufous-browed Peppershrike – SR(h), MC(h), SO, CA, FP(h)

Hooded Siskin – UC

Tropical Parula – GA, LC, LI
Masked Yellowthroat – PQ, CP
Golden-crowned Warbler – TT, MC, SO, FS(h), IT, AN, CS
White-bellied Warbler – LC
White-rimmed Warbler – TT(h), MC, SO, AN(h), CA(h)
Neotropical River Warbler – PQ, CC

Bananaquit – GA, SR, PQ, FS, IT, AN, LC
Chestnut-vented Conebill – SR, SO
Brown Tanager (NT) – IT
Cinnamon Tanager – UC, CP
White-rumped Tanager – UC
Magpie Tanager – IT, CA
Chestnut-headed Tanager – LC
Orange-headed Tanager – LC
Rufous-headed Tanager – GA, PQ, LC
Yellow-backed Tanager – GA, LI
Olive-green Tanager – GA, FS
Flame-crested Tanager – GA, FS, LI
Ruby-crowned Tanager – GA, SR, PQ, FS, IT
Black-goggled Tanager – GA, TT, SO, IT, LC
Red-crowned Ant-Tanager – GA, SO, FS
Hepatic Tanager – UC
Brazilian Tanager – GA, PQ, FS, IT
Sayaca Tanager – Seen most days
Azure-shouldered Tanager (NT) – GA, TT, FP
Golden-chevroned Tanager – GA, TT, MC, FS, IT
Palm Tanager – GA, CC, FA
Diademed Tanager – AN
Fawn-breasted Tanager – AN
Purple-throated Euphonia – PS
Violaceous Euphonia – GA, FS, LI
Orange-bellied Euphonia – GA, LI
Chestnut-bellied Euphonia – GA, FS, IT, CS
Blue-naped Chlorophonia – GA, FP
Turquoise Tanager – LI
Green-headed Tanager – GA, PQ, FS, IT
Red-necked Tanager – GA, FA, FP
Brassy-breasted Tanager – MC, AN, FP
Gilt-edged Tanager – IT, LC, FP
Burnished-buff Tanager – GA, SR, IT, UC, LC, CA
Blue Dacnis – GA, SR, PQ, FS, FA, IT, UC, LC, CA, FP, LI
Green Honeycreeper – FS
Swallow-Tanager – PQ

Black-masked Finch (VU) – UC
Pileated Finch – GA, SR, UC, LC
Bay-chested Warbling-Finch – MC, AN
Red-rumped Warbling-Finch – AN
Cinereous Warbling-Finch (VU) – CP
Blue-black Grassquit – LC
Plumbeous Seedeater – UC
Yellow-bellied Seedeater – LC
Double-collared Seedeater – GA, UC
Sooty Grassquit – SR
Saffron Finch – GA, SR, LC, CS
Stripe-tailed Yellow-Finch – LC
Wedge-tailed Grass-Finch – UC, LC
Pale-throated Serra-Finch (NT) – CP
Great Pampa-Finch – UC
Grassland Sparrow – PS, UC, LC, CP
Rufous-collared Sparrow – Common most places

Buff-throated Saltator – GA, LI
Green-winged Saltator – TT, GA, IT, AN, UC, LC, CA
Thick-billed Saltator – AN
Black-throated Saltator – UC, LC, CP
Yellow-green Grosbeak – GA
Yellow-billed Blue-Finch (NT) – UC

Chestnut-capped Blackbird – GA, SR
White-browed Blackbird – PS
Red-rumped Cacique – GA, PQ, FS, IT, LI
Golden-winged Cacique – AN
Crested Oropendola – SR, PQ, FS, UC, LC, CA
Yellow-rumped Marshbird – LC, CP
Chopi Blackbird – SR, UC