Venezuela (Llanos - Andes - Junglaven) - November 2004

Published by Jan Vermeulen (jem.vermeulen AT wxs.nl)

Participants: Jan Vermeulen, Vital van Gorp, Luc Bekart, Jos Elsermans, Staf Elsermans

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GENERAL INFORMATION

This report details a 2½ weeks birding trip to Venezuela in November 2004. Vital Van Gorp, Luc Bekaert and the brothers Jos & Staf Elzermans accompanied me.

Venezuela is currently one of the most accessible countries of South America and holds a good proportion of the region's avifauna. Venezuela has everything a birder could want: a rich avifauna, a well-illustrated new guide, ample and diverse habitats and modern facilities. Venezuela is one of the countries with most bird species on Earth. Over 1380 species have been recorded making Venezuela the world’s sixth most bird species rich nation. Of these, 49 are found only in Venezuela and a further 117 have most of their distribution within Venezuela.

The people in Venezuela are in general both friendly and helpful, making for a pleasant and relatively hassle free trip.

Venezuela is widely recognised as an ideal country in which to gain an introduction to the diverse and colourful birdlife of the South American continent, 'The Bird Continent'.

When you add to this the vast cloud forests, the endless savannah wetlands of the Llanos, the dramatic scenery of the high Andes, the good infrastructure of roads, the relative ease of accessibility to the various areas, the fine hotels and the excellent food, Venezuela becomes the obvious choice for a birding trip to the South American continent.

Vital and I had already visited Venezuela twice (1988 and 1994), but always regretted that we did not visit Hato El Cedral in the Llanos. So we decided to visit the Llanos a second time. Our trip encompassed some well known sites in Venezuela.

We concentrated on four areas: the Llanos (Hato El Cedral), the Andes near Santo Domingo, a short visit to Colonia Tovar near the coast and our main target: Junglaven camp in the state of Amazonas.

FLIGHT AND VISA

We booked our flight from Brussels to Caracas for € 670 with Iberia. This flight took approximately 12 hours and went via Barcelona and Madrid. The flights were punctual and trouble free.

As with most South American countries you do not need a visa for Venezuela if you intend to stay no more than 90 days.

Domestic flights are pretty cheap in Venezuela between main cities and daily, saving a lot of driving time.

The flight (Air Venezuela) from Caracas – Puerto Ayacucho took about two hours. For domestic flights you have to pay a departure tax of US$10.

MONEY AND ACCOMMODATION

The unit of currency in Venezuela is the Bolivar. The exchange rate in November 2004 was about 2.500 Bs to the € and 2.000 Bs to the US$.

The main problem with the currency in Venezuela is that you end up with a hugh wad of money, as the notes do not come in large denomination notes. Also the shops in small villages sometimes cannot accept large denomination notes, as they do not have enough change.

One can easily change US Dollars and Euros everywhere in the cities, although this is unnecessary, because US dollars and Euros are accepted in every shop and restaurant. Credit cards are widely accepted, and there are many ATM machines in the main towns. However, we were strongly warned against using these unless totally avoidable. Credit card fraud is rife, and cloning of credit and debit cards is also a major problem. At the same time, you should avoid carrying large sums in cash in major towns and cities as petty crime such as mugging and pick pocketing is also a serious problem.

Some prices:
Hotel Santiago – Macuto (near airport) 75.000 Bs (double room)
Hotel Lido – Barinitas 40.000 Bs (double room)
Hotel Santo Domingo – Santo Domingo 30.000 Bs (double room)
Hotel Los Frailes – Santo Domingo 120.000 Bs (cabin 5 persons)
Hotel Bergland – Colonia Tovar 70.000 Bs (double room)

FOOD AND DRINK

Standards of accommodation, food and hygiene are high. Upset stomachs are a rare occurrence here, unlike in many Asian and African countries. Meals in Venezuela are relatively inexpensive, even at the capital's finest hotels. For the most part, meals are likely to average no more than $10 to $20 (US) per couple.

We frequently did our own breakfasts and lunches. Stay away from uncooked fruits and vegetables that you haven't peeled yourself, and don't use ice. It is best to avoid drinking the water unless you know it is boiled. Drink bottled drinks.

HEALTH AND SAFETY

With caution you should not anticipate any problems. During our drive through the country we had several encounters with roadblocks, but we experienced no problems from the police.

The usual tropical health problems present themselves on a trip to Venezuela, compounded by the possible joys of altitude sickness, which can be a three days horrible illness if unconditioned.

For vaccinations consult your own doctor for up to date advice. There is a small chance of malaria in the lowlands.

Be sure to get enough malaria tablets for your trip, and do take them.
It is advisable to take a good medical kit with you as you are sometimes along way away from the nearest largest town. Mosquitoes (Junglaven) and flies are sometimes a problem.

At Hato El Cedral and Junglaven were vicious microscopic itchy little buggers known as chiggers. These tiny mites raise welts, which itch like, well, like crazy. Chiggers attack wherever clothes fit tightly, such as around the belt line and sock tops, but also at other places of your body, no matter how private.

In Junglaven I found a large Tarantula in our “bathroom”, but we left this large spider alone and it kept the insects away.

Insect repellent is necessary here. Spray your socks and pant-legs liberally with an insect repellent before going afield and take a soapy bath upon returning.

LANGUAGE

Most people in Venezuela speak little or no English. A short study of names of food in Spanish before departure will be of benefit to the traveller. At gas stations sign language for a fill-up and reading the total on the pump works fine.

Asking for directions may be a nightmare if you don't understand Spanish.
Always carry a Spanish-English dictionary. With just a slight knowledge of the language you will make out with few problems.

WEATHER

Birders traditionally visit Venezuela during the November-April dry season. Certainly this is the time of year when dry weather is most likely even though, as global climate becomes ever less predictable, this rule is more and more frequently broken. Despite the dry season bias, the wet season offers extremely productive birding. Why? Firstly, activity tends to trail off at the end of the dry season, as there is simply not enough water about. The beginning of the rains (May-June) brings a burst of activity and many birds breed. In addition, one is more likely to discover unusual birds that visiting birders have simply not been here to see - such as austral migrants. The truth is that any time of the year can be good birding in Venezuela. European birders will often prefer the traditional dry season as it coincides with the northern winter and thus dozens of species of North American migrants are an added bonus.

Normally it is hot all year around, especially along the northern part of the coast. A hat is recommended in the mountains and necessary in the lowlands. The tropical sun is intense at altitude. At high altitudes conditions range from cool to decidedly cold. Required clothing: lightweight linens with a raincoat.

However the weather in Venezuela is unpredictable. At anytime of year at higher elevations, there may be rain, clouds and mist (Laguna Mucubaji). Downpours can occur everywhere in Venezuela, but especially in the tropical zone they can last for hours. An umbrella and rubber boots are very useful! The trails are sometimes very muddy (Junglaven – Laguna de Galápagos).

TRANSPORT, ROADS AND ALCABALAS

Quite a lot of the good birding localities cannot be reached easily by public transport, so it's best to hire a car if you can afford it. For car rental, you will need a major credit card, a passport and a valid driver's license. In Caracas taxis are abundant and cheap, usually running at a fixed price within certain boundaries. Venezuela car rental options are pretty limited and all the majors appear to offer the same poor service.

We hired two Hyundai Elantras in Caracas from Marguerita Car Rental. We paid Bs 1,400,000 per car for 11 days.

The petrol was very cheap! We paid only € 0, 05 (Bs 97) per litre.

During our drive through the country we had several encounters with security points (alcabalas), manned by armed soldiers. Stay calm and keep smiling. Always carry your passport. The main roads are usually well maintained and for these a normal car is fine. When driving in Venezuela, you have to be very careful. A lot of Venezuelan drive like madmen. We saw some terrible accidents.

BIRD SONGS & EQUIPMENT

A tape recorder and the tape of "Birds of Eastern Ecuador" by Peter H. English and Theodore A. Parker and "Voices of the New World Owls" by J.W. Hardy et al are quite useful for drawing in birds. With the help of the tape recorder we played the songs of a lot of birds. Often we recorded the song or call and played it back again.

A tape recorder is essential if you want to catch sight of secretive species like Antbirds, Antthrushes and Antpittas.

A good torch is a must. A telescope is useful at coastal sites and lakes and very useful for viewing canopy species especially from roadsides.

Clothing can be T shirt and short anywhere, except in the high Andes where a sweater is more comfortable.

ENGLISH NAMES

I have decided to follow the English names of James F. Clements (Birds of the World, A Check List, Fifth Edition, 2000, including updates May 2000 - December 2004).

MAPS

Maps of Venezuela can be obtained at the airports or from bookshops in Caracas. The standard of the maps is not too high, and all the roads are not shown on them, but they do give you a bit of an idea as where to stay.

Usually I draw maps of important sites, but the birding areas are so well described in Mary Lou Goodwin’s “Birding in Venezuela”, the available reports (see references) and on the Internet that there is little point in giving exact locations for birds.

COMMON BIRD SPECIES

The following list of birds we saw frequently and if you spend any sort of time in the right habitats you will too: Neotropic Cormorant, Anhinga, Cocoi Heron, Great Egret, Snowy Egret, Cattle Egret, Striated Heron, Black-crowned Night Heron, Maguari Stork, Buff-necked Ibis, Bare faced Ibis, White faced Whistling Duck, Black bellied Whistling Duck, Black Vulture, Turkey Vulture, Lesser Yellow headed Vulture, Roadside Hawk, Crested Caracara, Yellow headed Caracara, Wattled Jacana, Black necked Stilt, Pied Lapwing, Southern Lapwing, Spotted Sandpiper, Large billed Tern, Black Skimmer, Eared Dove, Scaled Dove, Greater Ani, Ringed Kingfisher, Swallow wing, Yellow chinned Spinetail, Great Kiskadee, Tropical Kingbird, Tropical Mockingbird, Bananaquit, Silver beaked Tanager, Blue gray Tanager, Red capped Cardinal, Red breasted Blackbird, Carib Grackle.

The list of birds mentioned in the daily log, which follows, is purely taken at random from each day’s events highlighting some of the more interesting species. For a detailed report of species and numbers please refer to the systematic list at the end of this report.

SOFTWARE

BIRDBASE & BIRDAREA: I use this software to keep track of the birds I have seen and to make lists of any country, labelling endemics and birds previously seen in that country, outside it, or both. BirdArea can produce checklists of the birds of any country of Clements’ world birds.

USEFUL ADDRESSES

Scarlet Perez
Tur-V Special Tours CA
Edificio Mero Mari, piso 2, ofc 2-C,
entre las calles Jose Felix Rivas con calle Bolivar
Chacao - Caracas zona 1060
Venezuela
Telephone 264-6466 / 4555 / 3312 / 7797
Fax 264-1176
E-mail: turvspecialtours@cantv.net

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

Once again I want to thank Mark van Beirs for his help and valuable advice in planning this trip.

BOOKS

• James F. Clements. Birds of the World. A Check List, Fifth Edition.
• John S. Dunning. South American Birds, a Photographic Aid to Identification.
• Louise H. Emmons and Francois Feer. Neotropical Rainforest Mammals – A Field Guide.
• Steven Hilty. Birds of Venezuela.
• Mary Lou Goodwin. Birding in Venezuela.
• Robert S. Ridgely and Guy Tudor. The Birds of South America, Volume I, The Oscine Passerines.
• Robert S. Ridgely and Guy Tudor. The Birds of South America, Volume II, The Suboscine Passerines.
• Nigel Wheatley. Where to watch birds in South America.

REPORTS

• Simon Allen & Mike Catsis. Venezuela July – August 2002.
• Danish Ornithological Society. Birdwatching in Venezuela, November – December 1995.
• Jan Vermeulen. A Birding Trip to Venezuela. 25 August – 12 September 1988.
• John Hornbuckle. Venezuela Birding Trip Report 19 January – 23 February 2001.
• John van der Woude. Venezuela (Junglaven Amazonas, Henri Pittier, SE Falcon), 7 – 24 January 1994.

ITINERARY

SUMMARY

THE LLANOS

October 29 Chaam * Brussels * Barcelona * Caracas
October 30 Caracas * Maracay * Valencia * San Carlos * Acarigua * Guanare * Bruzual * Hato El Cedral
October 31 Hato El Cedral
November 1 Hato El Cedral
November 2 Hato El Cedral * The Llanos * Bruzual * Barinas * Barinitas

THE ANDES

November 3 Barinitas * Rio Barragán * La Soledad Road * San Isidro Tunnel Road * Santo Domingo
November 4 Santo Domingo * La Soledad Road * San Isidro Tunnel Road * Santo Domingo
November 5 Santo Domingo * San Isidro Tunnel Road * Santo Domingo * Hotel Los Frailes
November 6 Hotel Los Frailes * Laguna Mucubaji * Condor Centre at Mifafi * Hotel Los Frailes

STATE OF ARAGUA

November 7 Hotel Los Frailes * Barinas * San Carlos * Valencia * Maracay * La Victoria * Colonia Tovar
November 8 Colonia Tovar * Caracas

STATE OF AMAZONAS

November 9 Caracas * Puerto Ayacucho * Junglaven
November 10 Junglaven
November 11 Junglaven
November 12 Junglaven
November 13 Junglaven
November 14 Junglaven * Puerto Ayacucho * Caracas
November 14/15 Caracas * Madrid * Brussels * Chaam

DESCRIPTIONS OF THE SITES VISITED IN VENEZUELA

The notes are only information supplementary to Mary Lou Goodwin’s excellent “Birding in Venezuela”, the essential guide to the bird sites of Venezuela. For a detailed report of species and numbers please refer to the systematic list at the end of this report.

THE LLANOS

The Llanos (literally "the plains") are formed by vast grasslands with ribbons of forest along the creeks and rivers.

The Llanos is stretching west from the Orinoco Delta to the Andes and south well into Colombia. It occupies nearly 1/3 of Venezuelan territory, which is some 300.000 km² or about the size of Germany. It is an environment of harsh extremes, drought alternating with flood. The Llanos, is a flat area with vast savannahs. Even though temperatures are relatively constant all year long, by contrast, rainfall is extremely seasonal. The wet season - from May to October - receives about 90 % of the annual 1500 mm-rain. In this period gigantic thunderstorms make the rivers overflow and transform the savannahs into shallow seas. In November the dry season starts. Rain becomes a rarity and the Llanos dries up. Water retreats to the few tree-bordered rivers.

In February/March the area is at its driest and the mighty Apure River is at its lowest level. Wildlife congregates around the few waterholes that are left. It is the time that wildlife can be easiest seen and especially in enormous quantities. The Llanos are Venezuela's greatest repository of wildlife. The Llanos are sparsely populated. Most of the inhabitants live from cattle raising. Enormous ranches, the so-called Hatos (some up to 800.000 ha) were built for this purpose.

Some of these ranches now have turned to ecotourism as well and you can visit already their own beautiful websites with plenty of pictures (Hato El Frio and Hato El Cedral).

You find more than 320 bird species and more than 50 mammals (includes the Capybara, the worlds largest rodent, Armadillos, Peccaries, Opossums, Tapirs, Ocelots). Also the Orinoco Cayman - threatened with extinction - lives here.

Species seen en route in the Llanos (Sabaneta – Bruzual – Mantecal): Neotropic Cormorant, Anhinga, Great Blue Heron, Cocoi Heron, Great, Snowy & Cattle Egret, Little Blue Heron, Striated Heron, Black crowned Night Heron, Rufescent Tiger Heron, Wood Stork, Maguari Stork, Jabiru, Buff necked Ibis, Bare faced Ibis, Roseate Spoonbill, Fulvous Whistling Duck, White faced Whistling Duck, Black bellied Whistling Duck, Orinoco Goose, Black & Turkey Vulture, Lesser Yellow headed Vulture, King Vulture, Osprey, White tailed Kite, Crane Hawk, Great Black Hawk, Savanna Hawk, Harris’ Hawk, Black collared Hawk, Roadside Hawk, Crested Caracara, Yellow headed Caracara, American Kestrel, Hoatzin, Limpkin, Purple Gallinule, Azure Gallinule, Wattled Jacana, Black necked Stilt, Double striped Thick knee, Pied Lapwing, Southern Lapwing, Spotted & Solitary Sandpiper, Large billed Tern, Black Skimmer, Eared Dove, Ruddy Ground Dove, Scaled Dove, White tipped Dove, Scarlet Macaw, Chestnut fronted Macaw, Green rumped Parrotlet, Yellow crowned Parrot, Dwarf Cuckoo, Squirrel Cuckoo, Greater Ani, Smooth billed Ani, Striped Cuckoo, Lesser Nighthawk, Black throated Mango, Ruby topaz Hummingbird, Glittering throated Emerald, Ringed Kingfisher, Amazon Kingfisher, Green Kingfisher, American Pygmy Kingfisher, Pied Puffbird, Scaled Piculet, Red crowned Woodpecker, Spot breasted Woodpecker, Yellow chinned Spinetail, Common Thornbird, Plain brown Woodcreeper, Straight billed Woodcreeper, White fringed Antwren, Southern Beardless Tyrannulet, Forest Elaenia, Common Tody Flycatcher, Vermilion Flycatcher, Pied Water Tyrant, White headed Marsh Tyrant, Cattle Tyrant, Piratic Flycatcher, Great Kiskadee, Social Flycatcher, White bearded Flycatcher, Tropical Kingbird, Gray Kingbird, Fork tailed Flycatcher, Brown chested Martin, White winged Swallow, Barn Swallow, Stripe backed Wren, Buff breasted Wren, House Wren, Tropical Mockingbird, Tropical Gnatcatcher, Yellow Warbler, Bananaquit, Silver beaked Tanager, Blue gray Tanager, Blue black Grassquit, Gray Seedeater, Saffron Finch, Orange fronted Yellow Finch, Red capped Cardinal, Grayish Saltator, Yellow hooded Blackbird, Red breasted Blackbird, Eastern Meadowlark, Carib Grackle, Shiny Cowbird, Yellow Oriole, Venezuelan Troupial, Oriole Blackbird.

Other birds seen in 1988: Yellow crowned Night Heron, Sharp tailed Ibis, Short tailed Hawk, Zone tailed Hawk, Long winged Harrier, Pearl Kite, Military Macaw, Brown throated Parakeet, Pale bellied Hermit, Pale headed Jacamar, Black crowned Tityra, White winged Becard, Lineated Woodpecker, Red rumped Woodpecker, Crimson crested Woodpecker, Cream coloured Woodpecker, Rusty backed Spinetail, Lesser Kiskadee, Hooded Tanager, Chestnut vented Conebill.

HATO EL CEDRAL

Accommodation: El Cedral is equipped with 25 comfortable air-conditioned cabins with ceiling fans and private bathrooms with hot water. Among the amenities are a swimming pool and a pleasant dining room where native and international food is available. Telephone and fax facilities are also available.

Hato El Cedral is a beautiful cattle ranch and an important tourist centre for the growing ecological and adventure tourism. It is located in the low plains of the Apure State in Venezuela, near the town of Mantecal.

Dikes have been used to improve the natural conditions of hydrological systems creating large water reserves to help sustain the abundant animal life and vegetation all year round. 140 km of roads inside the ranch makes it possible to visit the different sectors any time of the year.

A vast quantity of mammals and reptiles can be seen like Crab-eating Fox, Giant Anteaters, White tailed Deer, Red Howler Monkeys, Pink Dolphins, Pumas and Jaguar. Among the reptiles most frequently seen are Crocodiles, Caimans and Anacondas or water snakes. The Capybaras -the largest rodent in the world - have a privileged place with a number that exceeds the 20,000.

Species seen here: Pied billed Grebe, Neotropic Cormorant, Anhinga, Whistling Heron, Cocoi Heron, Great, Snowy & Cattle Egret, Little Blue Heron, Striated Heron, Agami Heron, Black crowned Night Heron, Boat billed Heron, Rufescent Tiger Heron, Wood Stork, Maguari Stork, Jabiru, Buff necked Ibis, Bare faced Ibis, Scarlet Ibis, Glossy Ibis, Roseate Spoonbill, White faced Whistling Duck, Black bellied Whistling Duck, Orinoco Goose, Brazilian Teal, Black & Turkey Vulture, Lesser Yellow headed Vulture, Osprey, Crane Hawk, Great Black Hawk, Savanna Hawk, Harris’ Hawk, Black collared Hawk, Roadside Hawk, White tailed Hawk, Crested Caracara, Yellow headed Caracara, American Kestrel, Aplomado Falcon, Peregrine Falcon, Rufous vented Chachalaca, Yellow-knobbed Curassow, Crested Bobwhite, Hoatzin, Gray necked Wood Rail, Purple Gallinule, Azure Gallinule, Sunbittern, Wattled Jacana, Black necked Stilt, Double striped Thick knee, Pied Lapwing, Southern Lapwing, Semipalmated Plover, Collared Plover, Lesser Yellowlegs, Spotted & Solitary Sandpiper, Least Sandpiper, Baird’s Sandpiper, Gull billed Tern, Yellow billed Tern, Large billed Tern, Black Skimmer, Pale vented Pigeon, Ruddy Pigeon, Eared Dove, Plain breasted Ground Dove, Ruddy Ground Dove, Scaled Dove, Blue Ground Dove, White tipped Dove, Scarlet Macaw, Chestnut fronted Macaw, Green rumped Parrotlet, Yellow crowned Parrot, Dwarf Cuckoo, Squirrel Cuckoo, Greater Ani, Smooth billed Ani, Striped Cuckoo, Barn Owl, Great Horned Owl, Burrowing Owl, Lesser Nighthawk, Nacunda Nighthawk, Band tailed Nighthawk, Pauraque, Black throated Mango, Glittering throated Emerald, Ringed Kingfisher, Amazon Kingfisher, Green Kingfisher, Green and rufous Kingfisher, American Pygmy Kingfisher, Rufous tailed Jacamar, Two banded Puffbird, Red crowned Woodpecker, Yellow chinned Spinetail, Common Thornbird, Plain brown Woodcreeper, Straight billed Woodcreeper, Black crested Antshrike, Barred Antshrike, Wire tailed Manakin, Southern Beardless Tyrannulet, Forest Elaenia, Pale tipped Tyrannulet, Common Tody Flycatcher, Yellow Olive Flycatcher, Yellow breasted Flycatcher, Fuscous Flycatcher, Eastern Wood Pewee, Vermilion Flycatcher, Amazonian Black Tyrant, Pied Water Tyrant, White headed Marsh Tyrant, Cattle Tyrant, Great Kiskadee, Social Flycatcher, White bearded Flycatcher, Tropical Kingbird, Gray Kingbird, Fork tailed Flycatcher, Brown chested Martin, White winged Swallow, Barn Swallow, Yellowish Pipit, Black capped Donacobius, Bicoloured Wren, Stripe backed Wren, House Wren, Tropical Mockingbird, Long billed Gnatwren, Tropical Gnatcatcher, Yellow Warbler, Blackpoll Warbler, Prothonotary Warbler, Bananaquit, Silver beaked Tanager, Blue gray Tanager, Trinidad Euphonia, Burnished buff Tanager, Blue black Grassquit, Gray Seedeater, Yellow bellied Seedeater, Ruddy breasted Seedeater, Chestnut bellied Seed Finch, Saffron Finch, Grassland Yellow Finch, Orange fronted Yellow Finch, Red capped Cardinal, Yellow browed Sparrow, Grayish Saltator, Orinocan Saltator, Red breasted Blackbird, Eastern Meadowlark, Carib Grackle, Shiny Cowbird, Yellow Oriole, Venezuelan Troupial, Yellow rumped Cacique, Oriole Blackbird.

THE ANDES

The Venezuelan Andes is the most northern part of the Andes. They are separated from the Colombian part by a wide gap. This makes that some of the high mountain birds evolved as endemics. Within a short travel distance one can reach extreme different habitats. From dry foothill forest to cloud forests, elfin forests, ferntree forests, mangroves, paramo (treeless highlands above 3,500 m) and arid highlands. The road from Barinitas to Santo Domingo traverses the Santo Domingo Valley and offers the birder a good opportunity to see some very localized species, including seven endemics. We visited the following sites:

SANTO DOMINGO VALLEY – RIO BARRAGÁN AREA

Accommodation: A hotel in Barinitas. We slept in Hotel Lido.

The first bridge, a few kilometres beyond the village of Barinitas en route to Santo Domingo spans the small Barragán River. We walked a short time along the little stream and in the vicinity of the stream.

Species seen here: Roadside Hawk, Broad winged Hawk, Black and chestnut Eagle, Yellow headed Caracara, White tipped Dove, Short tailed Swift, Stripe throated Hermit, Shining green Hummingbird, Glittering throated Emerald, Many banded Aracari, Red crowned Woodpecker, Wire tailed Manakin, Southern Beardless Tyrannulet, Forest Elaenia, Sepia capped Flycatcher, Black Phoebe, Great Kiskadee, Rusty margined Flycatcher, Lemon browed Flycatcher, Streaked Flycatcher, Black crowned Tityra, Bare eyed Thrush, Pale breasted Thrush, Golden fronted Greenlet, Rufous browed Peppershrike, Lesser Goldfinch, American Redstart, Bananaquit, White shouldered Tanager, White lined Tanager, Summer Tanager, Silver beaked Tanager, Blue gray Tanager, Palm Tanager, Blue necked Tanager, Ruddy breasted Seedeater, Grayish Saltator, Buff throated Saltator, Crested Oropendola.

SANTO DOMINGO VALLEY – LA SOLEDAD ROAD

Accommodation: A hotel in Santo Domingo. In 2004 we slept in Hotel Santo Domingo and in 1988 we booked a room in Hotel Moruco.

The first paved road in a hairpin bend on your left after leaving Barinitas. Opposite the road is a small restaurant on the right side of the road.

You can’t drive the road, because the road is too steep. The road passes through degraded forest, but is worth a look if time allows. Most of the birds seen along this road can also be seen at the San Isidro Tunnel Road.

Species seen here: King Vulture, Gray Hawk, Roadside Hawk, Black Hawk Eagle, Band tailed Pigeon, White tipped Dove, White collared Swift, Short tailed Swift, Pale bellied Hermit, Violet crowned Woodnymph, Steely vented Hummingbird, Glittering throated Emerald, Copper rumped Hummingbird, Violet fronted Hummingbird, Red headed Barbet, Scaled Piculet, Red crowned Woodpecker, Azara’s Spinetail, Crested Spinetail, Montane Woodcreeper, White bearded Manakin, Greenish Elaenia, Yellow bellied Elaenia, Olive striped Flycatcher, Slaty capped Flycatcher, Flavescent Flycatcher, Cinnamon Flycatcher, Olive sided Flycatcher, Brown crested Flycatcher, Rusty margined Flycatcher, Social Flycatcher, Tropical Kingbird, Blue and white Swallow, Whiskered Wren, Rufous breasted Wren, Mountain Wren, Tropical Mockingbird, Chestnut bellied Thrush, Bare eyed Thrush, Pale breasted Thrush, Yellow legged Thrush, Golden fronted Greenlet, Rufous browed Peppershrike, Lesser Goldfinch, Blackburnian Warbler, Cerulean Warbler, Black and white Warbler, American Redstart, Slate throated Redstart, Citrine Warbler, Bananaquit, Common Bush Tanager, Guira Tanager, White shouldered Tanager, White lined Tanager, Hepatic Tanager, Summer Tanager, White winged Tanager, Silver beaked Tanager, Blue gray Tanager, Palm Tanager, Orange bellied Euphonia, Speckled Tanager, Bay headed Tanager, Burnished buff Tanager, Blue necked Tanager, Beryl spangled Tanager, Purple Honeycreeper, Blue black Grassquit, Gray Seedeater, Yellow bellied Seedeater, Ruddy breasted Seedeater, Buff throated Saltator, Blue black Grosbeak, Crested Oropendola.

Other birds seen in 1988: Tiny Hawk, Scaled Piculet, Spotted Barbtail, Rusty margined Flycatcher, Blue Dacnis, Green Honeycreeper, Speckled Tanager.

SANTO DOMINGO VALLEY – THE SAN ISIDRO TUNNEL ROAD

Accommodation: A hotel in Santo Domingo. During this trip we slept in Hotel Santo Domingo and in 1988 we booked a room in Hotel Moruco.

The second paved (concrete) road on the left side of the road after leaving Barinitas. The entrance to this road leads to a quarry (look for the Cliff Flycatcher here). The kaolin mine is in operation every day, so big trucks often go up and down the road every day. Beyond the quarry the road continues. The San Isidro Tunnel Road is an easy-to-walk trail, which plays host to some of the most exciting birds in the Santo Domingo Valley. The road ends at a creek. You can descend along a steep track to see the only accessible lek of the Andean Cock-of-the-Rock in Venezuela, although we did not have to go to the lek, because we saw a few males along the trail!

The large mixed species flocks here support a stunning array of Tanagers, Flycatchers and Thrushes.

Species seen here: Black Vulture, Roadside Hawk, Band tailed Guan, Band tailed Pigeon, Lined Quail Dove, Saffron headed Parrot, Lesser Swallow tailed Swift, Stripe throated Hermit, Blue chinned Sapphire, Copper rumped Hummingbird, Red headed Barbet, Scaled Piculet, Red crowned Woodpecker, Golden olive Woodpecker, Plain Xenops, Slaty Antwren, Andean Cock of the Rock, Golden winged Manakin, Olive striped Flycatcher, Slaty capped Flycatcher, Variegated Bristle Tyrant, Venezuelan Tyrannulet, Golden faced Tyrannulet, Cliff Flycatcher, Smoke coloured Pewee, Boat billed Flycatcher, Golden crowned Flycatcher, Tropical Kingbird, Black and white Becard, Brown chested Martin, Blue and white Swallow, Gray breasted Wood Wren, Spotted Nightingale Thrush, Swainson’s Thrush, Chestnut bellied Thrush, Black hooded Thrush, Bare eyed Thrush, Pale breasted Thrush, Green Jay, Brown capped Vireo, Golden fronted Greenlet, Rufous browed Peppershrike, Lesser Goldfinch, Blackburnian Warbler, Cerulean Warbler, Black and white Warbler, American Redstart, Slate throated Redstart, Three striped Warbler, Bananaquit, Guira Tanager, White lined Tanager, Hepatic Tanager, Silver beaked Tanager, Blue gray Tanager, Palm Tanager, Thick billed Euphonia, Golden rumped Euphonia, Orange bellied Euphonia, Blue naped Chlorophonia, Golden Tanager, Speckled Tanager, Bay headed Tanager, Blue necked Tanager, Blue Dacnis, Buff throated Saltator, Yellow backed Oriole, Crested Oropendola, Russet backed Oropendola.

Other birds seen in 1988: Violaceous Quail Dove, Rose headed Parakeet, Little Hermit, Wedge billed Hummingbird, Golden bellied Starfrontlet, Blue and black Tanager, Black capped Tanager, Black faced Tanager.

LAGUNA DE MUCUBAJI/HOTEL LOS FRAILES

Accommodation: Hotel Los Frailes (or Hotel Paso Real)

The beautiful paramo around Laguna Mucubaji supports a distinctive group of high-altitude bird species including the incomparable Bearded Helmetcrest , the endemic Ochre-browed Thistletail and Merida Wren, as well as Black-chested Buzzard-Eagle, Bar-winged Cinclodes, Andean Tit-Spinetail and Brown-backed Chat-Tyrant.

Species seen here: Laguna de Mucubaji - Pied-billed Grebe, Neotropic Cormorant, Speckled Teal, Blue winged Teal, Southern Lapwing, Wilson’s Snipe, Andean Snipe, Spotted Sandpiper, Tyrian Metaltail, Andean Tit Spinetail, Ochre browed Thistletail, Brown backed Chat Tyrant, Paramo Pipit, Great Thrush, Andean Siskin, Plumbeous Sierra Finch, Paramo Seedeater, Rufous collared Sparrow.

Hotel Los Frailes - Cattle Egret, Turkey Vulture, Plain breasted Hawk, American Kestrel, Orange throated Sunangel, Tyrian Metaltail, Ringed Kingfisher, Pearled Treerunner, White throated Tyrannulet, Brown backed Chat Tyrant, Streak throated Bush Tyrant, Great Thrush, Blue backed Conebill, Merida Flowerpiercer, Rufous collared Sparrow.

Other birds seen during our trip in 1988: Bearded Helmetcrest, Occelated Tapaculo, Bar winged Cinclodes, Slaty Brush Finch.

THE CONDOR CENTRE AT MIFAFI

En route from Santo Domingo – Merida you will meet 3 km after Laguna de Mucubaji a crossroad. Turn to the right and go up the mountain for approximately 5 km, where you will meet a small sign on your left indicating the Condor Centre.
Walk up the very bad mountain road for 750 metres until you reach the centre.

Birding around the centre can be rewarding for high Andean birds including Bearded Helmetcrest.

Species seen here: “Andean Condor”, Black chested Buzzard Eagle, Black and chestnut Eagle, Sparkling Violetear, Longuemare’s Sunangel, Bar winged Cinclodes, Andean Tit Spinetail, Brown backed Chat Tyrant, Brown bellied Swallow, Paramo Pipit, Great Thrush, Merida Flowerpiercer, Plumbeous Sierra Finch, Plain coloured Seedeater.

COLONIA TOVAR

Accommodation: A hotel in Colonia Tovar. We slept in Hotel Bergland, but in 1988 we slept in Hotel Edelweiss.

Colonia Tovar is a tourist village located on the Humboldt Valley surrounded by mountains, about 60 kilometres west of Caracas. This unusual mountain town with typical Bavarian style was funded in 1843 by a group of German settlers.

Today, the village has great attraction because of its German style hotels and restaurants, offering typical dishes from the Bavarian cuisine, for its extraordinarily colourful landscapes and vernal climate. During weekends the Colonia Tovar gets crowded with tourists.

We only birded the Cortada de Maya Road. This (partially) concrete road is on the right side en route to La Victoria (approximately 8 kilometres from Hotel Bergland).

Species seen here (Cortada de Maya): Black Vulture, Roadside Hawk, White tipped Dove, Red eared Parakeet, Lazuline Sabrewing, Golden tailed Sapphire, Bronzy Inca, Tyrian Metaltail, Long tailed Sylph, Groove billed Toucanet, Black throated Spinetail, Streaked Xenops, Streaked Tuftedcheek, Streak headed Woodcreeper, Montane Woodcreeper, Chestnut crowned Antpitta, Green and black Fruiteater, White throated Tyrannulet, Cliff Swallow, Glossy black Thrush, Green Jay, Golden fronted Greenlet, Blackburnian Warbler, Black crested Warbler, Three striped Warbler, Capped Conebill, Common Bush Tanager, Blue capped Tanager, Plush capped Finch, Blue black Grassquit, White sided Flowerpiercer, Bluish Flowerpiercer, Ochre breasted Brush Finch, Rufous collared Sparrow.

Other birds seen during our trip 1988: Black Hawk Eagle, White tipped Quetzal, Collared Trogon, Scaled Piculet, Crested Spinetail, Plain Xenops, Plain backed Antpitta, Olive sided Flycatcher, Cinnamon Flycatcher, Caracas (Paltry) Tyrannulet, Beryl spangled Tanager, Purple Honeycreeper, Oleaginous Hemispingus.

JUNGLAVEN

Accommodation: Junglaven Campement.

Junglaven is a Fishing Camp (lodge) located on a branch of a river which, during dry season, becomes a greatly elongated lagoon which is separate from the main Ventuari River, in the Venezuelan state of Amazonas. The area is almost untouched, populated by just a few tribes of Amazonian Indians. This is the only well established lodge in Venezuelan Amazonia and is visited by the likes of VENT, Sunbird and BirdQuest.

The accommodation in banda-type huts with cold showers is good, food and soft drink OK but not up, to Ecuadorian or Peruvian lodge standards and beer (cans) only available some of the time. Everything has to be flown in, very little is home-grown.
Junglaven affords a unique opportunity to birdwatch in lowland rainforest, and due to the lack of disturbance and absence of hunting, consequently still holds a number of species, which are difficult to see in other areas of Amazonia.

This is probably the most predictable place in the world for Rufous-winged Ground-Cuckoo.

Junglaven is a seasonally flooded varzea forest which transitions into primary lowland forest. The dirt road/track which connects the lodge to the Ventuari River passes through 10 km of lowland forest with slightly undulating topography---the birding here is excellent, as there are no vehicles on this road other than the Junglaven jeep which we used for transport. The road is especially good for Gray-winged Trumpeters. As the road approaches the Ventuari River, the habitat changes to white sand forest and savannah, which holds its own set of special birds, such as the localised Pale-bellied Mourner. Junglaven Lodge is owned by Captain Lorenzo Rodriguez, who himself was a pilot. He scheduled our flights to and from Junglaven to Puerto Ayacucho. Electricity is supplied by a generator that is on from about 5.00 am to mid-morning and from dusk to around 10.00 pm. Contact between the Lodge and the rest of the world is by radio.

To directly schedule a stay at the Junglaven Lodge is almost impossible. Hence, the widespread belief that Junglaven has closed. Tur-V Special Tours CA (Scarlet Perez) handled the booking process for us.

Originally we planned to visit Junglaven with 6 persons and had to pay US$ 943 per person (which includes flights from Caracas – Puerto Ayacucho – Junglaven and back to Caracas, local guide, meals and jeep/transportation).

Eventually we did the trip with 5 persons and had to pay US$1100, per person. Nowadays the most regularly visited birding destination in Amazonas, Junglaven nonetheless had two additions to its bird list in store during our visit. We found Blue and yellow Macaw and White bearded Manakin.

Species seen here: Great Tinamou, Neotropic Cormorant, Anhinga, Capped Heron, Cocoi Heron, Striated Heron, Rufescent Tiger Heron, Black Vulture, Turkey Vulture, Greater Yellow headed Vulture, Osprey, Double toothed Kite, Crane Hawk, Black faced Hawk, Great Black Hawk, Savannah Hawk, Black collared Hawk, Roadside Hawk, Ornate Hawk Eagle, Black Caracara, Bat Falcon, Little Chachalaca, Spix's Guan, Blue throated Piping Guan, Black Curassow, Gray winged Trumpeter, Sungrebe, Spotted Sandpiper, Black Skimmer, Pale vented Pigeon, Ruddy Pigeon, Plain breasted Ground Dove, Ruddy Quail Dove, Blue and yellow Macaw, Scarlet Macaw, Chestnut fronted Macaw, Brown throated Parakeet, Maroon tailed Parakeet, Black headed Parrot, Orange cheeked Parrot, Yellow crowned Parrot, Orange winged Parrot, Squirrel Cuckoo, Greater Ani, Rufous winged Ground Cuckoo, Crested Owl, Band tailed Nighthawk, Blackish Nightjar, Tepui Swift, White collared Swift, Gray rumped Swift, Short tailed Swift, Eastern Long tailed Hermit, Reddish Hermit, White necked Jacobin, Rufous throated Sapphire, White chinned Sapphire, White tailed Goldenthroat, Green tailed Goldenthroat, Long billed Starthroat, White tailed Trogon, Ringed Kingfisher, Amazon Kingfisher, Green Kingfisher, Green and rufous Kingfisher, American Pygmy Kingfisher, Green tailed Jacamar, Bronzy Jacamar, Paradise Jacamar, Black Nunbird, Swallow wing, Gilded Barbet, Green Aracari, Ivory billed Aracari, Many banded Aracari, Tawny tufted Toucanet, White throated Toucan, Golden spangled Piculet, Yellow tufted Woodpecker, Cream coloured Woodpecker, Ringed Woodpecker, Lineated Woodpecker, Red necked Woodpecker, Crimson crested Woodpecker, Slender billed Xenops, Wedge billed Woodcreeper, Long billed Woodcreeper, Amazonian Barred Woodcreeper, Black banded Woodcreeper, Buff throated Woodcreeper, Black crested Antshrike, Blackish gray Antshrike, White shouldered Antshrike, Amazonian Antshrike, Cinereous Antshrike, Pygmy Antwren, Cherrie’s Antwren, White flanked Antwren, Warbling Antbird, Spot winged Antbird, Immaculate Antbird, White browed Purpletuft, Spangled Cotinga, Amazonian Umbrellabird, White bearded Manakin, Black Manakin, Yellow crested Manakin, Dwarf Tyrant Manakin, Plain crested Elaenia, McConnell's Flycatcher, Amazonian Tyrannulet, Helmeted Pygmy Tyrant, Rufous tailed Flatbill, White crested Spadebill, Amazonian Black Tyrant, Drab Water Tyrant, Cinnamon Attila, Citron bellied Attila, Cinereous Mourner, Grayish Mourner, Pale bellied Mourner, Swainson’s Flycatcher, Lesser Kiskadee, Social Flycatcher, Tropical Kingbird, Black tailed Tityra, Brown chested Martin, White winged Swallow, White banded Swallow, Southern Rough winged Swallow, Barn Swallow, Swainson’s Thrush, Tropical Gnatcatcher, Violaceous Jay, Red eyed Vireo, Gray chested Greenlet, Brown headed Greenlet, Blackpoll Warbler, Black and white Warbler, Bananaquit, Rufous crested Tanager, Red shouldered Tanager, Silver beaked Tanager, Blue gray Tanager, Palm Tanager, Burnished buff Tanager, Blue Dacnis, Short billed Honeycreeper, Swallow Tanager, Lined Seedeater, Wedge tailed Grass Finch, Grassland Sparrow, Rufous collared Sparrow, Yellow green Grosbeak, Blue black Grosbeak, Moriche Oriole, Yellow rumped Cacique, Amazonian Oropendola.

DAILY LOG

Friday 29 October

A long early morning flight to Venezuela with Iberia was a conventional enough start to our journey. We had a short respite in our trip with stopovers at Barcelona and Madrid and landed somewhat delayed at Simón Bolivar International Airport in Caracas at 16.45.

Graciela from Tur-V Special Tours was waiting for us and handed us the tickets for the flight to Puerto Ayacucho.

Having changed money (and become instant millionaires) we left the confines of the airport building and rented two cars in the nearby local airport at the Marguerita Rental-office. We then headed in the company of Graciela to the nearby small town of Macuto and booked rooms at the coastal Hotel Santiago. We said goodbye to Graciela and then had dinner at the beach of Macuto.

Saturday 30 October

After an early morning wake up call at 4.15 we departed southwards for our drive to Hato El Cedral. The long drive to Hato El Cedral, in the wet Llanos of the state of Apure, was rather unremarkable, except maybe the sight of a King Vulture in a large group of Black Vultures.

Then we hit the bridge at Bruzual and the start of the wet Llanos. After we passed through Bruzual there were so many waterbirds and raptors to observe as we travelled across the seemingly endless wet savannahs that stretched as far as the eye can see, that it was hard to control ourselves from stopping every few minutes. Roadside ponds and lakes were literally alive with Herons, Egrets, Ibises, Storks, Ducks and waders. Our first stops were all too hectic as we didn't have enough eyes to take it all in. Most of the species we would be able to study again at the Hato, but the Snail Kite got some extra attention, as it was absent there.

As we neared Hato El Cedral, the numbers of Spectacled Caimans increased, Capybaras were everywhere and a group of 75 amazing Jabirus were seen.

In the late afternoon we arrived at the locked entrance gate, the guard radioed the ranch and we were allowed in with permits, and then drove 7 km to the ranch. This last stretch consisted of a very muddy road and we met lots of Capybaras.
We arrived just in time for the afternoon excursion in an open van, which has been converted into a vehicle for safaris.

This gave us the opportunity to observe the abundance of wildlife present in the Llanos.

It included Savannah Foxes, White tailed Deer, Capybaras, Caimans, Orinoco Crocodiles, Iguanas and Turtles. But it was the birds that we had mostly come to see and we were not disappointed. We saw a tremendous numbers of wetland species as well as several specialties such as the near endemic Dwarf Cuckoo and White-bearded Flycatcher. The sheer numbers of Ibises, Herons and Whistling-Ducks were certainly impressive. Hato El Cedral reminded me of Hacienda El Cutal in Bolivia.

In the surrounding grasslands we found Lesser Yellow-headed Vulture, Bay-winged
Hawk, Aplomado Falcon, Double striped Thick-knee, Burrowing Owl and Red-breasted Blackbird.

Sunday 31 October

During the night we received quite a bit of rain, but we awoke to clear blue skies and somewhat lower temperatures.

Our chalets at El Cedral were situated in a patch of woodland surrounded by extensive grasslands and lakes.

The gardens held Great Horned Owl, Barn Owl, Common Tody Flycatcher, Bicoloured Wren, Stripe backed Wren, Orange fronted Yellow-Finch and the noisy Red Howler Monkeys. Orange-fronted Yellow-Finches and several Tanagers fed at the nearby feeder.

In the company of the Hato El Cedral guide Alejandro Nagy we made an early morning trip with the truck.

The flooded areas held vast flocks of Herons and Egrets (nine species), Whistling Ducks, Storks and Ibises, Large billed Terns and waders including Pied Lapwings and Collared Plovers.

Other highlights included our first Scarlet Ibises, Rufous vented Chachalacas, Scarlet Macaws, Green and Amazon Kingfishers, White bearded Flycatchers and Red capped Cardinals.

Grassy areas held Burrowing Owls, Double-striped Thick-knees, Eastern Meadowlarks, Yellowish Pipits and Grassland Yellow Finches.

Raptors were well represented, scanning for potential prey from tree tops and fence posts. Lesser Yellow headed Vulture, Osprey, Crane Hawk, Savannah Hawk, Harris’ Hawk, White tailed Hawk, Great Black Hawk, Yellow-headed Caracara, Crested Caracara and Peregrine Falcon were all seen this morning. It seemed more like the plains of Africa than South America.

Hereafter we made a stroll through the gallery forest adding the recently split Two banded Puffbird, Black-throated Mango, Straight billed Woodcreeper and Venezuelan Troupial to our list.

After a siesta and a dive in the swimming pool we made an afternoon trip by boat along the channels that meandered through dense aquatic vegetation teeming with birds before we reached the Matiyure River. Our first venture on the Matiyure River was fairly quiet, although we heard the Yellow-knobbed Curassow, saw prehistoric looking Hoatzins, five species of Kingfishers, Wire tailed Manakin and the localized Amazonian Black Tyrant and lots of Spectacled Caimans provided enough entertainment. In the fading light we returned to the lodge and managed to spotlight many Lesser and Band tailed Nighthawks and a Nacunda Nighthawk.

Monday 1 November

The next morning we made another boat ride to the Matiyure River. Victor again threw a piece of meat in the air and the Great Black Hawk had no trouble at all catching the meat in mid-air. Before we reached the side creek we saw a secretive Sunbittern.

We again pulled into a side creek in the gallery forest and this time we had great looks of the beautiful Agami Heron and a Boat billed Heron. The prize bird of the boat trip was a male Yellow-knobbed Curassow, which obligingly sat in nearby bushes overhanging the water and allowed quite close approach.

We ventured out again in mid-afternoon and made a long drive with the truck to another part of the ranch. Amongst the birds we encountered were Black collared Hawk, Aplomado Falcon, Crested Bobwhite, Rufous tailed Jacamar, Barred Antshrike, Prothonotary Warbler, Trinidad Euphonia and Orinocan Saltator.

We lingered until dusk looking for Band-tailed Nighthawks and Pauraques over the nearby river. We then drove back to the ranch and suddenly our truck got stuck in the mud. The last 7 kilometres we had to walk to our chalets encountering numerous Capybaras on the road.

Tuesday 2 November

The next morning we said goodbye to Alejandro and Victor and reluctantly we tore ourselves away from this ornithological treasure chest and headed north through the Llanos to the Andes. En route we stopped a few times to look for any species that might have eluded us up to this point. Of course we stopped at the La Ye Bridge, where we added White fringed Antwren to our trip list.

We made a long stop in the drier part of the Llanos and here Striped Cuckoo, Ruby topaz Hummingbird and Piratic Flycatcher were amongst the additions to our list.

It was almost dark when we arrived at the edge of the Andean foothills in the small town of Barinitas and checked into Hotel Lido.

Wednesday 3 November

Early next morning we were on our way into the Andes. Our first stop was at the nearby Rio Barragán. A stroll in the vicinity of this river provided lots of ‘new’ birds amongst them Black and chestnut Eagle, Stripe throated Hermit, Many banded Aracari, Sepia capped Flycatcher, Lemon browed Flycatcher, Bare eyed Thrush, Crested Oropendola and many other birds.

Hereafter we drove further into the Santo Domingo Valley. The lower part of the valley had been much influenced by man. A mixture of second growth, plantation shade trees, cleared areas and disturbed forest provided a varied habitat for many forest edge species as well as visitors from less disturbed tropical forest nearby.

Our next stop was at La Soledad and we spent a few hours on the trail. This very disturbed forest gave us a whole new set of species such as Violet crowned Woodnymph, Steely vented Hummingbird, White bearded Manakin, Crested Spinetail, Whiskered & Rufous breasted Wren, Golden fronted Greenlet and Speckled Tanager.

We had lunch at the La Soledad restaurant and then made the last climb to Santo Domingo where we booked rooms at the Santo Domingo Hotel.

In the late afternoon we returned to the Santo Domingo Valley and spent a few hours along the road to the San Isidro Tunnel. Many of the birds seen here were of course the same ones as found at La Soledad, but we saw a few ‘new’ birds. Most noteworthy of the birds we encountered here were Golden faced Tyrannulet, Black hooded Thrush, Green Jay, Brown capped Vireo, Orange bellied Euphonia, Bay headed Tanager and Yellow backed Oriole.

On the way back toward "home" we delighted three Torrent Ducks feeding in the swiftly flowing river without effort, although we did not find the White capped Dippers.

Thursday 4 November

Next morning it was chilly, but it was sunny all day. We spent all day in the Santo Domingo Valley. In the early morning we headed to La Soledad and spent all morning on the trail.

Walking uphill, we came amongst others across Pale bellied Hermit, Red headed Barbet, Azara’s Spinetail, Flavescent Flycatcher, two Chestnut bellied Thrushes, a bird I dipped in 1988, Guira Tanagers and Blue black Grosbeaks.

Overhead a King Vulture and a Black Hawk Eagle soared, while we also saw a raptor I still have not identified, although I was inclined to think it was a juvenile White rumped Hawk. We spent quite some time searching at the place mentioned in Mary Goodwin’s book for the Red Siskins, but failed miserably.

After lunch at the restaurant (trucha con ajillo) we headed to the nearby San Isidro Road with its superb sub-tropical forests. We parked just before the quarry and immediately spotted a few Cliff Flycatchers in the quarry. We did not have to descend into the cleft to visit the lek, because we saw two stunning red and black males Andean Cock-of-the-Rock along the trail.

In a large flock here we managed to see Golden olive Woodpecker, Plain Xenops, Rufous browed Peppershrike, Blackburnian, Cerulean and Black and white Warbler, Blue naped Chlorophonia, Bay headed Tanager and Blue Dacnis, and, nearby, a crawl through the chigger infested forest, gave us eyeball to eyeball views of a Golden winged Manakin.

Other species of note included Lined Quail Dove, Slaty Wren and Spotted Nightingale Thrush.

Then dark clouds gathered overhead and the first drops of rain started to fall and this wasn't too much fun and we returned to our hotel.

Friday 5 November

We started this morning by dropping in altitude down the road to Barinas, then turning right to San Isidro Quarry.

We arrived at dawn, before work commenced, and made our way across the slope through the quarry workings, watching of course the Cliff Flycatchers en route, before picking up the old road on the other side.

We again heard the strange honking calls of the male Andean Cock of the Rocks and again had good views of a male along the trail. Many of the birds here were the same as we saw yesterday, but inevitably we found a few new ones amongst them Band tailed Guan, the near endemic Saffron headed Parrot, Golden crowned Flycatcher, Black and white Becard and Golden Tanager.

Hereafter we returned to our hotel and drove higher into the Andes to Hotel Los Frailes. It looked the same to me as so many years ago although there was a new hotel built next to Los Frailes. We settled into our comfortable hotel rooms overlooking the small valley. In the afternoon we started birding the grounds of the Hotel Los Frailes, focusing especially on an area at the entrance of the front garden. We clambered up onto the bank under some bushes, and found a relatively open area between the bushes down the slope below us, and waited to see what came along. This tactic proved extremely successful, and in the space of two hours or so, we added such species as Plain breasted Hawk, Orange throated Sunangel, Tyrian Metaltail, Ringed Kingfisher(!), Pearled Treerunner, Streak throated Bush Tyrant, Merida Flowerpiercer and Blue backed Conebill, all of which gave excellent views.

Saturday 6 November

After breakfast, and having all acclimatised overnight to the higher altitude, we decided to make a visit to the high paramo area of Laguna Mucubaji. The day was crystal clear with glorious sunshine. A Black chested Buzzard Eagle greeted us as we entered the stunning paramo zone. Most of us felt the altitude but the birds kept us going. In Laguna Mucubaji swam Speckled and Blue winged Teals. We spent all morning on the trails and the low vegetation in the vicinity of the lagoon, where we spotted furnarids such as Andean Tit Spinetail and the endemic Ochre browed Thistletail and more common species such as Brown Backed Chat Tyrant, Paramo Pipit, Andean Siskin and Plumbeous Sierra Finch. In 1988 we had no trouble in finding the Bearded Helmetcrest, but this time we had no luck, sorry Luc.

We also flushed Andean and Wilson’s Snipe, which were the only ones of our trip.

At midday it got very misty and we had trouble finding our way back to Laguna Mucubaji. After a lunch in the restaurant we headed to the Condor Centre at Mifafi. Of course we visited the cages with the Condors while overhead Black-chested Buzzard-Eagles soared. Hereafter we made a stroll in the vicinity of the Condor Centre and the nearby low scrub produced Bar winged Cinclodes, Plain coloured Seedeater and we had good views of Longuemare’s Sunangel.

We retired to our delightful Andean hotel set in spectacular scenery well satisfied with the day.

Sunday 7 November

It was at last time to leave the coolness of the Andes. It was largely a travelling day and we arrived in the late afternoon in the unlikely-looking village of Colonia Tovar. Founded by German colonists, the place looked as if it was plucked from an alpine slope in southern Bayern and transferred to the higher reaches of the coastal cordillera in Venezuela! We booked rooms at Hotel Bergland in the centre of the village. Dumping our stuff in the hotel we spent the last hours of the day at Cortada de Maya, a partially paved road nowadays. Amongst the birds we encountered here were Blood eared Parakeet, Lazuline Sabrewing, Golden tailed Sapphire, Long tailed Sylph, Groove billed Toucanet, Black crested Warbler, Bluish Flowerpiercer and Ochre breasted Brush Finch.

Dinner at Hotel Bergland was excellent with an ample supply of “German schnitzels”.

Monday 8 November

The next day we were up early and set off for the nearby Cortada de Maya. Despite the cold and decidedly damp weather we were richly rewarded with a number of new species including the endemic Black throated Spinetail, Bronzy Inca, Streaked Xenops, Streaked Tuftedcheek, Montane Woodcreeper, a pair of striking Green-and-black Fruiteaters, Golden fronted Greenlet, Capped Conebill and Plushcap Finch. However the absolute highlight of the day was the Chestnut crowned Antpitta that performed so incredibly well for us.

In the late afternoon we headed to Caracas. At 17.00 hours we arrived in the capital and were unable to find our way out of town, again a real nightmare. At some point we decided to hire a taxi to get us out of town. 90 minutes later we were out of town and en route to Macuto, where we again booked rooms at the coastal Hotel Santiago.

Tuesday 9 November

Our last port of call was Junglaven in the state of Amazonas. Our 9.00 a.m. Air Venezuela flight was on time and in no time at all we had left the coast behind and were soaring over the stunning Venezuelan landscape. At 10.45 we arrived in a sunny Puerto Ayacucho, where a representative from Tur-V Special Tours was waiting for us.

We had to leave most of our luggage at the airport before we boarded the old six-passenger single-engine Cessna aircraft for our Wayumi flight to Junglaven - 45 minutes over stunning topography which included tepuiform mountains rising to 2.500 metres, with granite cliffs and expansive primary forest. Our plane landed right at the Junglaven airstrip, 12 km away from the camp, where we were met by the Junglavens Toyota pick-up jeep. We were transported in the back of the jeep to the remote rainforest lodge. Vital and I had a two-bedded cabin with a high thatched roof, which had a private bathroom with cold water shower and flush toilet. After lunch we ventured out on to the lagoon and the lodge clearing.

The lodge clearing was alive with birds, even in the heat of the day and a wealth of species here quickly expanded our list and highlights included Maroon tailed Parakeet, Green tailed & Paradise Jacamar, Black Nunbird, White throated Toucan, Lesser Kiskadee and Black tailed Tityra.

The last hours of the day we made a boat trip on the large lagoon. Amongst the birds encountered here were no less than 4 Sungrebes, Green Ibis and White winged & White banded Swallows. In failing light we saw many Band tailed Nighthawks and Pauraques above the lagoon.

The Campement was a delightful place to stay with a very relaxing atmosphere and the Peacock Brass this afternoon caught in the lagoon tasted very well.

Wednesday 10 November

Next morning we were all keen to explore the tall terra firme forest. We spent all day along the seven km long jeep track and the understorey of the terra firme forest required intensive use of the tape-recorder, resulting in thrilling views of many Antbirds such as Blackish gray Antshrike, White shouldered Antshrike, Amazonian Antshrike, Spot winged Antshrike, Cinereous Antshrike, White flanked Antwren, Warbling & Spot winged Antbird and the mint humbug-like Cherrie's Antwren.

Huge canopy flocks yielded such specialities as Brown headed Greenlet and Amazonian Barred Woodcreeper.

Blue throated Piping Guan, Ornate Hawk Eagle, Eastern Long tailed Hermit, Ivory billed Aracari, Chestnut rumped Woodcreeper and Black Manakin were amongst many species all seen well. In the fading light when we headed back to the lodge Jos and Staf had good looks of a few Gray winged Trumpeters, while the rest of us had only brief views of them.

A little disheartened I walked back to the lodge to enjoy a cool beer, followed by a relaxing dinner and a lively log call.

Thursday 11 November

The break of dawn found our group standing on the savannah edge and delivered another very localized speciality, the rather Myiarchus-like Pale-bellied Mourner and a group of Little Chachalacas.

In more open savannah we found such specialities as Green-tailed Goldenthroat and Red shouldered Tanager, whilst clumps of Mauritia palms held Spangled Cotinga and Moriche Oriole. Overhead, Scarlet, Blue and yellow and Chestnut fronted Macaws winged their way to their fruiting trees. Raptors were much in evidence too, with Greater Yellow headed Vulture, Black-collared and Savanna Hawks all showing well.

We also saw a few attractive White-bearded Manakins, which produced a curious cracking sound by snapping its wings when the birds become excited.

All afternoon was spent on the forest track. It was hard work in the afternoon heat but eventually we caught up with Spix’s Guan, Reddish Hermit, White necked Jacobin, Long billed Starthroat, Green Aracari, Gilded Barbet, Helmeted Pygmy Tyrant, Citron bellied Attila, Gray chested Greenlet and Short billed Honeycreeper to name but a few.

Here we also found in an open area in the forest an obliging Blackish Nightjar which allowed a close approach in daylight.

The Rufous-winged Ground-Cuckoo proved elusive this day and although we heard its strange call we did not find the bird.

Mammals were in evidence, and amongst the monkeys seen were the very noisy Red Howler Monkeys and Brown Capuchin Monkeys and we also spotted a Savannah Fox on the track.

Friday 12 November

Next day we headed to some odd-looking seasonally flooded forest to the Laguna de Galápagos (Tortoise Lagoon). In this very different habitat we saw the elegant and very local Yellow-crested Manakin and McConnell’s Flycatcher.

I spent most of the morning alone on the main track in the terra firme forest and this paid off. I had good views of a number of rare, difficult and poorly known species such as, Black faced Hawk, Tawny tufted Toucanet, Ringed Woodpecker and Amazonian Tyrannulet. At the lodge clearing I also had good looks of a pair of White browed Purpletufts in the top of a tree.

Of course when the others told me what they had seen this morning I really got sick: Rufous winged Ground Cuckoo and Gray winged Trumpeter. The rest of the day our birding activities centred understandably on the main track in the terra firme forest. Amongst the more memorable birds seen were Crimson crested Woodpecker, Slender billed Xenops, Immaculate Antbird, Cinnamon Attila and Grayish Mourner.

We also had close encounters with a group of Brown Bearded Saki Monkeys. The monkey did not like our presence and they started throwing sticks at us.

Saturday 13 November

Again we were awakened by the loud calls of the pair of Long billed Woodcreepers right above our cabin. In the morning we made a boat trip on the Ventuari and its tributary the Guayaje river. It provided world class birding in a relaxing setting. Not only did we encounter large numbers of waterbirds amongst them elegant Capped Herons, but we also saw all five South American Kingfishers and Drab Water Tyrant. We were treated to fishing Ospreys and also obtained excellent views of the highly sought-after Amazonian Umbrellabird.

And of course the icing on the cake was provided by a wonderful encounter with the Pink River Dolphins and the Giant Otters. Seeing these magnificent beasts surfacing along the gently flowing waters of the Ventuari was an unforgettable sight.

All afternoon we spent on the main track in the forest and amongst the birds seen were amazingly co operative Black Curassows, White chinned Sapphire, White tailed Trogon, Bronzy Jacamar, Golden spangled Piculet, Pygmy Antwren and Rufous crested Tanager.

On our last night, sitting outside in the warm air along the lagoon, we had time to reflect on all the birds we had seen here, and much more beside, as we watched the sun dip into the lagoon. Then came torrential rain and we had to take cover in our cabins.

Sunday/Saturday 14/15 November

It rained heavily all night and when we got up the next morning Captain Lorenzo told us that our return flight to Puerto Ayacucho had been delayed. It was still raining when we arrived at the airstrip and we were all very relieved when suddenly a small plane dived out of the sky and landed on the muddy strip, two hours later than planned.

All too soon our time at Junglaven ended and we began our journey back and as we boarded our plane, we all agreed that we had been treated to a great birding experience at Junglaven.

We said goodbye to Captain Lorenzo and we arrived in time at Puerto Ayacucho for our midday flight to Caracas and the evening flight bound for Madrid.

We identified 441 species during these 17 days. Yes, the chiggers and mosquitoes at Hato El Cedral and Junglaven did attack us, but nothing unbearable. We had some rain, but I think we all knew we could have had a lot more. Most of the rain fell during non birding hours, so I can’t complain too much.

With such a vast bird list picking out my ten best birds of the trip is almost meaningless. Nevertheless, a few that come instantly to mind include Black faced Hawk, Blue throated Piping Guan, Yellow knobbed Curassow, Black Curassow, Sungrebe, Dwarf Cuckoo, Tawny tufted Toucanet, Ringed Woodpecker, Amazonian Black Tyrant and Citron bellied Attila, a few of them endemics, but lifers all of course.

Chaam, 15 January 2005,

If you need any help or further information, contact me at the following address and I'll try and help if I can.

Jan Vermeulen
Bredaseweg 14
4861 AH Chaam
The Netherlands

Telephone: (31) – 161 – 491327
E-mail: jem.vermeulen@wxs.nl
Web: http://home.planet.nl/~verme860

Species Lists

This list follows the taxonomy, names and sequence of James F. Clements (Birds of the World, A Check List, Fifth Edition, 2000, including updates May 2000 - December 2004).

This fifth edition is based primarily on the higher taxonomic sequence outlined in the “Handbook of the Birds of the World” series published by Lynx Edicions.

The Dutch names follow the translated "Complete Checklist of Birds of the World" (Complete Checklist van Vogels van de Wereld) of Michael Walters.

Numbers quoted are estimates of the minimum numbers seen.

1. GREAT TINAMOU, Tinamus major, Grote Tinamoe
Heard at Junglaven.

2. PIED-BILLED GREBE, Podilymbus podiceps, Dikbekfuut
2 at Hato El Cedral and 1at Laguna Mucubaji.

3. BROWN PELICAN, Pelecanus occidentalis, Bruine Pelikaan
Common along the coast at Caracas.

4. NEOTROPIC CORMORANT, Phalacrocorax brasilianus, Bigua-aalscholver
A common and widespread species.

5. ANHINGA, Anhinga anhinga, Amerikaanse Slangenhalsvogel
A common and widespread species.

6. WHISTLING HERON, Syrigma sibilatrix, Fluitreiger
Small numbers at Hato El Cedral and the Llanos.

7. CAPPED HERON, Pilherodius pileatus, Kapreiger
A total of 5 birds during the boat trip on the Ventuari River.

8. GREAT BLUE HERON, Ardea herodias, Amerikaanse Blauwe Reiger
A single bird at the Llanos.

9. COCOI HERON, Ardea cocoi, Sokoireiger
Common at Hato El Cedral and 1 during the boat trip on the Ventuari River.

10. GREAT EGRET, Ardea alba, Grote Zilverreiger
Abundant at Hato El Cedral and the Llanos.

11. LITTLE BLUE HERON, Egretta caerulea, Kleine Blauwe Reiger
Up to 25+ a day at Hato El Cedral.

12. SNOWY EGRET, Egretta thula, Amerikaanse Kleine Zilverreiger
Common at Hato El Cedral and the Llanos.

13. CATTLE EGRET, Bubulcus ibis, Koereiger
A common and widespread species.

14. STRIATED HERON, Butorides striatus, Mangrovereiger
Common at Hato El Cedral and the Llanos, a few at Junglaven.

15. AGAMI HERON, Agamia agami, Agamireiger
A single bird during the boat trip at Hato El Cedral.

16. BLACK-CROWNED NIGHT-HERON, Nycticorax nycticorax, Kwak
Common at Hato El Cedral.

17. BOAT-BILLED HERON, Cochlearius cochlearius, Schuitbekreiger
A single bird during the boat trip at Hato El Cedral.

18. RUFESCENT TIGER-HERON, Tigrisoma lineatum, Rosse Tijgerroerdomp
Common at Hato El Cedral and 3 at Junglaven.

19. WOOD STORK, Mycteria americana, Kaalkopooievaar
Common at Hato El Cedral and the Llanos.

20. MAGUARI STORK, Ciconia maguari, Magoeari
Fairly common at Hato El Cedral and the Llanos.

21. JABIRU, Jabiru mycteria, Jabiroe
Fairly common at Hato El Cedral and the Llanos (a group of 75+ en route Bruzual – Hato El Cedral).

22. BUFF-NECKED IBIS, Theristicus caudatus, Geelhalsibis
Fairly common at Hato El Cedral.

23. BARE-FACED IBIS, Phimosus infuscatus, Maskeribis
Common at Hato El Cedral.

24. SCARLET IBIS, Eudocimus ruber, Rode Ibis
39 at Hato El Cedral.

25. GLOSSY IBIS, Plegadis falcinellus, Zwarte Ibis
40+ en route in the Llanos and 5 at Hato El Cedral.

26. ROSEATE SPOONBILL, Platalea ajaja, Rode Lepelaar
Up to 15+ a day at Hato El Cedral and the Llanos.

27. FULVOUS WHISTLING-DUCK, Dendrocygna bicolor, Rosse Fluiteend
25+ at the Llanos.

28. WHITE-FACED WHISTLING-DUCK, Dendrocygna viduata, Witwangfluiteend
A group of 150+ at the Llanos and fairly common at Hato El Cedral.

29. BLACK-BELLIED WHISTLING-DUCK, Dendrocygna autumnalis, Zwartbuikfluiteend
A group of 250+ at the Llanos and fairly common at Hato El Cedral.

30. ORINOCO GOOSE, Neochen jubata, Orinocogans
Fairly common at Hato El Cedral.

31. BRAZILIAN TEAL, Amazonetta brasiliensis, Amazonetaling
Up to 7 a day at Hato El Cedral.

32. TORRENT DUCK, Merganetta armata, Bergbeekeend
3 at the mountain river near Santo Domingo.

33. SPECKLED TEAL, Anas flavirostris, Chileense Taling
25+ at Laguna Mucubaji.

34. BLUE-WINGED TEAL, Anas discors, Ablauwvleugeltaling
3 at Laguna Mucubaji.

35. BLACK VULTURE, Coragyps atratus, Zwarte Gier
Abundant and widespread.

36. TURKEY VULTURE, Cathartes aura, Roodkopgier
Common throughout.

37. LESSER YELLOW-HEADED VULTURE, Cathartes burrovianus, Kleine Geelkopgier
Fairly common at Hato El Cedral.

38. GREATER YELLOW-HEADED VULTURE, Cathartes melambrotus, Grote Geelkopgier
Up to 10 a day at Junglaven.

39. ANDEAN CONDOR, Vultur gryphus, Andescondor
2 in captivity at Fifati.

40. KING VULTURE, Sarcorhamphus papa, Koningsgier
2 en route Bruzual – Hato El Cedral and 1 at La Soledad.

41. OSPREY, Pandion haliaetus, Visarend
Up to 20 a day at Hato El Cedral and the Llanos, 15+ during the boat trip on the Ventuari River.

42. WHITE-TAILED KITE, Elanus leucurus, Amerikaanse Grijze Wouw
6 en route Maracay – Bruzual.

43. SNAIL KITE, Rostrhamus sociabilis, Slakkewouw
A single bird at the Llanos.

44. DOUBLE-TOOTHED KITE, Harpagus bidentatus, Tandwouw
A single bird at Junglaven.

45. PLAIN-BREASTED HAWK, Accipiter ventralis, Zuid-Amerikaanse Sperwer
A single bird at Hotel Los Frailes.

46. CRANE HAWK, Geranospiza caerulescens, Langpootkiekendief
2 at Hato El Cedral, 5 at the Llanos and 3 at Junglaven.

47. BLACK-FACED HAWK, Leucopternis melanops, Zwartmaskerbuizerd
A splendid observation of a pair at Junglaven.

48. GREAT BLACK-HAWK, Buteogallus urubitinga, Zwarte Arendbuizerd
2 a day at Hato El Cedral and at the Llanos, 2 at Junglaven.

49. SAVANNAH HAWK, Buteogallus meridioinalis, Savannebuizerd
Up to 5 a day at Hato El Cedral and the Llanos, 4 en route Maracay – Bruzual, 2 at Junglaven.

50. HARRIS' HAWK, Parabuteo unicinctus, Woestijnbuizerd
3 at Hato El Cedral and 1 at the Llanos.

51. BLACK-COLLARED HAWK, Busarellus nigricollis, Moerasbuizerd
5 at Hato El Cedral and 3 at the Llanos, 3 at Junglaven.

52. BLACK-CHESTED BUZZARD-EAGLE, Geranoaetus melanoleucus, Grijze Arendbuizerd
5 at the Condor Centre at Mifafi in the Andes.

53. GRAY HAWK, Asturina nitida, Grijze Buizerd
2 at La Soledad.

54. ROADSIDE HAWK, Buteo magnirostris, Wegbuizerd
Seen in small numbers almost every day of the trip.

55. BROAD-WINGED HAWK, Buteo platypterus, Breedvleugelbuizerd
1 en route Bruzual – Barinas.

56. SHORT-TAILED HAWK, Buteo brachyurus, Kortstaartbuizerd
2 en route Barinas – Maracay.

57. WHITE-TAILED HAWK, Buteo albicaudatus, Witstaartbuizerd
A single bird at Hato El Cedral.

58. ORNATE HAWK-EAGLE, Spizaetus ornatus, Bonte Kuifarend
A single observation at Junglaven.

59. BLACK-AND-CHESTNUT EAGLE, Oroaetus isidori, Andeskuifarend
Single birds at the Rio Barragán near Barinitas and at the Condor Centre at Mifafi.

60. BLACK CARACARA, Daptrius ater, Zwarte Caracara
Up to 4 a day at Junglaven.

61. CRESTED CARACARA, Caracara cheriway, Kuifcaracara
Fairly common at Hato El Cedral and at the Llanos.

62. YELLOW-HEADED CARACARA, Milvago chimachima, Geelkopcaracara
Fairly common at Hato El Cedral and at the Llanos, a few near Barinitas.

63. AMERICAN KESTREL, Falco sparverius, Amerikaanse Torenvalk
Seen in small numbers en route Maracay – Barinas - Bruzual.

64. APLOMADO FALCON, Falco femoralis, Aplomadovalk
3 at Hato El Cedral.

65. BAT FALCON, Falco rufigularis, Vleermuisvalk
2 at Junglaven.

66. PEREGRINE FALCON, Falco peregrinus, Slechtvalk
2 each day at Hato El Cedral.

67. RUFOUS-VENTED CHACHALACA, Ortalis ruficauda, Roodbuikchachalaca
5 at Hato El Cedral..

68. LITTLE CHACHALACA, Ortalis motmot, Kleine Chachalaca
3 at Junglaven.

69. BAND-TAILED GUAN, Penelope argyrotis, Bandstaartsjakohoen
A single bird at the San Isidro Tunnel Road in the Andes.

70. SPIX’S GUAN, Penelope jacquacu, Spix' Sjakohoen
Small numbers almost each day at Junglaven.

71. BLUE-THROATED PIPING-GUAN, Pipile cumanensis, Blauwkeelgoean
Up to 8 a day at Junglaven.

72. YELLOW-KNOBBED CURASSOW, Crax daubentoni, Geelknobbelhokko
A splendid observation of a male during the boat trip at Hato El Cedral.

73. BLACK CURASSOW, Crax alector, Zwarte Hokko
4 on the Road at Junglaven.

74. CRESTED BOBWHITE, Colinus cristatus, Kuifbobwhite
A single bird at Hato El Cedral.

75. HOATZIN, Opisthocomus hoazin, Hoatzin
Up to 25+ a day at Hato El Cedral.

76. LIMPKIN, Aramus guarauna, Koerlan
2 en route Bruzual – Barinas.

77. GRAY-WINGED TRUMPETER, Psophia crepitans, Trompetvogel
Up to 6 on the road at Junglaven.

78. GRAY-NECKED WOOD-RAIL, Aramides cajanea, Cayennebosral
Heard at Hato El Cedral.

79. PURPLE GALLINULE, Porphyrio martinica, Amerikaans Purperhoen
4 at Hato El Cedral and 3 at the Llanos.

80. AZURE GALLINULE, Porphyrio flavirostris, Azuurpurperhoen
1 at Hato El Cedral and 6 at the Llanos.

81. SUNGREBE, Heliornis fulica, Kleine Fuutkoet
4 at the lagoon in Junglaven and 2 during the boat trip on the Ventuari River.

82. SUNBITTERN, Eurypyga helias, Zonneral
A single one during the boat trip at Hato El Cedral.

83. WATTLED JACANA, Jacana jacana, Leljacana
Common at Hato El Cedral and the Llanos.

84. BLACK-NECKED STILT, Himantopus mexicanus, Zwartneksteltkluut
Common at Hato El Cedral and the Llanos, a few en route Andes – Colonia Tovar.

85. DOUBLE-STRIPED THICK-KNEE, Burhinus bistriatus, Caribische Griel
Up to 10 a day at Hato El Cedral.

86. PIED LAPWING, Vanellus cayanus, Cayennekievit
Common at Hato El Cedral and the Llanos.

87. SOUTHERN LAPWING, Vanellus chilensis, Chileense Kievit
Common at Hato El Cedral and the Llanos and a single bird at Laguna de Mucubaji (!).

88. SEMIPALMATED PLOVER, Charadrius semipalmatus, Amerikaanse Bontbekplevier
A single bird at Hato El Cedral.

89. COLLARED PLOVER, Charadrius collaris, Kraagplevier
6 at Hato El Cedral.

90. WILSON’S SNIPE, Gallinago delicata, Wilsons Snip
Small numbers at the Laguna de Mucubaji area.

91. ANDEAN SNIPE, Gallinago jamesoni, Andessnip
4 at the Laguna de Mucubaji area.

92. LESSER YELLOWLEGS, Tringa flavipes, Kleine Geelpootruiter
7 at Hato El Cedral.

93. SOLITARY SANDPIPER, Tringa solitaria, Amerikaanse Bosruiter
Fairly common at Hato El Cedral and the Llanos.

94. SPOTTED SANDPIPER, Actites macularia, Amerikaanse Oeverloper
Fairly common at Hato El Cedral and the Llanos, 1 at Laguna de Mucubaji and 3 at Junglaven.

95. LEAST SANDPIPER, Calidris minutilla, Kleinste Strandloper
30 at Hato El Cedral.

96. BAIRD’S SANDPIPER, Calidris bairdii, Bairds Strandloper
A single bird at the Llanos (!).

97. GULL-BILLED TERN, Sterna nilotica, Lachstern
20+ at Hato El Cedral.

98. YELLOW-BILLED TERN, Sterna superciliaris, Amazonestern
A few at Hato El Cedral.

99. BLACK SKIMMER, Rhynchops niger, Amerikaanse Schaarbek
50+ daily at Hato El Cedral and the Llanos, 2 at Junglaven (Ventuari River).

100. ROCK DOVE, Columba livia, Rotsduif
Fairly common in cities and villages.

101. BAND-TAILED PIGEON, Columba fasciata, Bandstaartduif
Up to 150+ daily in the Santo Domingo area in the Andes.

102. PALE-VENTED PIGEON, Columba cayennensis, Rosse Duif
20+ daily at Hato El Cedral, small numbers daily at Junglaven.

103. RUDDY PIGEON, Patagioenas subvinacea, Purperduif
1 at Hato El Cedral and 10+ at Junglaven.

104. EARED DOVE, Zenaida auriculata, Geoorde Treurduif
Fairly common at Hato El Cedral.

105. COMMON GROUND-DOVE, Columbina passerina, Musduif
Small numbers en route Barinas – Maracay.

106. PLAIN-BREASTED GROUND-DOVE, Columbina minuta, Dwergduif
2 at Hato El Cedral and 5 at Junglaven.

107. RUDDY GROUND-DOVE, Columbina talpacoti, Steenduif
Small numbers at Hato El Cedral and the Llanos.

108. SCALED DOVE, Columbina squammata, Zuid-Amerikaanse Incaduif
Common at Hato El Cedral and the Llanos.

109. BLUE GROUND-DOVE, Claravis pretiosa, Blauwe Grondduif
A single one at Hato El Cedral.

110. WHITE-TIPPED DOVE, Leptotila verreauxi, Verreaux' Duif
A few at Hato El Cedral and the Laanos, 2 at the Santo Domingo Valley.

111. LINED QUAIL-DOVE, Geotrygon linearis, Bruine Kwartelduif
4 at the San Isidro Tunnel Road in the Andes.

112. RUDDY QUAIL-DOVE, Geotrygon montana, Bergkwartelduif
A single one at Junglaven.

113. BLUE-AND-YELLOW MACAW, Ara ararauna. Blauw-gele Ara
3 at Junglaven.

114. SCARLET MACAW, Ara macao, Geelvleugelara
6 at Hato El Cedral and 2 at the Llanos, 10+ at Junglaven.

115. CHESTNUT-FRONTED MACAW, Ara severa, Dwergara
20+ at Hato El Cedral and 2 at Junglaven.

116. BROWN-THROATED PARAKEET, Aratinga pertinax, Maïsparkiet
6 at the Llanos and a few at Junglaven.

117. MAROON-TAILED PARAKEET, Pyrrhura melanura, Zwartstaartparkiet
Up to 15 a day at Junglaven.

118. RED-EARED PARAKEET, Pyrrhura hoematotis, Roodoorparkiet
5 at Colonia Tovar.

119. GREEN-RUMPED PARROTLET, Forpus passerinus, Groene Muspapegaai
Fairly common at Hato El Cedral and the Llanos.

120. BLACK-HEADED PARROT, Pionites melanocephala, Zwartkopcaique
7 at Junglaven.

121. ORANGE-CHEEKED PARROT, Pionopsitta barrabandi, Barrabands Papegaai
2 at Junglaven.

122. SAFFRON-HEADED PARROT, Pionopsitta pyrilia, Saffraankoppapegaai
2 at the San Isidro Tunnel Road in the Andes.

123. YELLOW-CROWNED PARROT, Amazona ochrocephala, Geelvoorhoofdamazone
Singles at Hato El Cedral and the Llanos, 3 at Junglaven.

124. ORANGE-WINGED PARROT, Amazona amazonica, Oranjevleugelamazone
3 at Junglaven.

125. DWARF CUCKOO, Coccyzus pumilus, Dwergkoekoek
Up to 3 a day at Hato El Cedral and 1 at the Llanos.

126. SQUIRREL CUCKOO, Piaya cayana, Eekhoornkoekoek
2 at Hato El Cedral, 2 at the Llanos and 1 at Junglaven.

127. GREATER ANI, Crotophaga major, Grote Ani
Common at Hato El Cedral and the Llanos, 2 at Junglaven.

128. SMOOTH-BILLED ANI, Crotophaga ani, Kleine Ani
Fairly common at Hato El Cedral and the Llanos.

129. STRIPED CUCKOO, Tapera naevia, Gestreepte Koekoek
A single one en route Bruzual – Barinas.

130. RUFOUS-WINGED GROUND-CUCKOO, Neomorphus rufipennis, Roodvleugelgrondkoekoek
Heard and seen at Junglaven.

131. BARN OWL, Tyto alba, Kerkuil
A single one at the lodge in Hato El Cedral.

132. GREAT HORNED OWL, Bubo virginianus, Amerikaanse Oehoe
3 at Hato El Cedral.

133. CRESTED OWL, Lophostrix cristata, Kuifuil
Heard at Junglaven.

134. BURROWING OWL, Athene cunicularia, Holenuil
8 at Hato El Cedral.

135. LESSER NIGHTHAWK, Chordeiles acutipennis, Texasnachtzwaluw
Up to 10 a day at Hato El Cedral.

136. NACUNDA NIGHTHAWK, Podager nacunda, Nacundanachtzwaluw
A single bird at Hato El Cedral.

137. BAND-TAILED NIGHTHAWK, Nyctiprogne leucopyga, Staartbandnachtzwaluw
15+ at Hato El Cedral and 20+ at the lagoon in Junglaven.

138. PAURAQUE, Nyctidromus albicollis, Pauraque
6 at Hato El Cedral and up to 5 a day at Junglaven.

139. BLACKISH NIGHTJAR, Caprimulgus nigrescens, Roetnachtzwaluw
Splendid views on the road of 2 birds at broad daylight in Junglaven.

140. TEPUI SWIFT, Cypseloides phelpsi, Tepuigierzwaluw
2 at Junglaven.

141. WHITE-COLLARED SWIFT, Streptoprocne zonaris, Witkraaggierzwaluw
5 at Santo Domingo in the Andes and 4 at Junglaven.

142. GRAY-RUMPED SWIFT, Chaetura cinereiventris, Grijsstuitgierzwaluw
Small numbers at Junglaven.

143. SHORT-TAILED SWIFT, Chaetura brachyura, Kortstaartgierzwaluw
20+ in the Santo Domingo Valley in the Andes and a few at Junglaven.

144. FORK-TAILED PALM-SWIFT, Tachornis squamata, Braziliaanse Palmgierzwaluw
Small numbers en route Sabaneta - Bruzual.

145. LESSER SWALLOW-TAILED SWIFT, Panyptila cayennensis, Cayennegierzwaluw
A single bird at the San Isidro Tunnel Road in the Andes.

146. EASTERN LONG-TAILED HERMIT, Phaethornis superciliosus, Oostelijke Langstaartheremietkolibrie
A single observation at Junglaven.

147. PALE-BELLIED HERMIT, Phaethornis anthophilus, Bleke Heremietkolibrie
1 at the La Soledad Road in the Andes.

148. REDDISH HERMIT, Phaethornis ruber, Rode Heremietkolibrie
A single bird at Junglaven.

149. STRIPE-THROATED HERMIT, Phaetornis striigularis, Vlekkeelheremietkolibrie
A few at the La Soledad Road and the San Isidro Tunnel Road in the Andes.

150. LAZULINE SABREWING, Campylopterus falcatus, Blauwbuiksabelvleugel
A single one at Colonia Tovar.

151. WHITE-NECKED JACOBIN, Florisuga mellivora, Witnekkolibrie
A single one at Junglaven.

152. SPARKLING VIOLETEAR, Colibri thalassinus, Goulds Violetoorkolibrie
1 at the Condor Centre at Mifafi in the Andes.

153. BLACK-THROATED MANGO, Anthracothorax nigricollis, Zwartkeelmango
3 at Hato El Cedral.

154. RUBY-TOPAZ HUMMINGBIRD, Chrysolampis mosquitus, Muskietkolibrie
A splendid observation at Hato El Cedral.

155. BLUE-CHINNED SAPPHIRE, Chlorestes notatus, Blauwkeelsaffierkolibrie
1 at the San Isidro Tunnel Road in the Andes.

156. VIOLET-CROWNED WOODNYMPH, Thalurania colombica, Kroonbosnimf
1 at the La Soledad Road in the Andes.

157. SHINING-GREEN HUMMINGBIRD, Lepidopyga goudoti, Goudots Kolibrie
A single bird at the Rio Barragán along the Santo Domingo Road.

158. RUFOUS-THROATED SAPPHIRE, Hylocharis sapphirina, Roodkeelsaffierkolibrie
Only one bird seen at Junglaven.

159. WHITE-CHINNED SAPPHIRE, Hylocharis cyanus, Witkinsaffierkolibrie
2 at Junglaven.

160. GOLDEN-TAILED SAPPHIRE, Chrysuronia oenone, Bronsstaartsaffierkolibrie
A single one at Colonia Tovar.

161. WHITE-TAILED GOLDENTHROAT, Polyhmus guainumbi, Witstaartgoudkeelkolibrie
2 at Junglaven.

162. GREEN-TAILED GOLDENTHROAT, Polytmus theresiae, Groenstaartgoudkeelkolibrie
2 at the savannah in Junglaven.

163. GLITTERING-THROATED EMERALD, Amazilia fimbriata, Franjeamazilia
3 at Hato El Cedral, 3 along the Barinitas – Santo Domingo Road in the Andes.

164. STEELY-VENTED HUMMINGBIRD, Amazilia saucerrottei, Staalblauwbuikamazilia
2 at the La Soledad Road in the Andes.

165. COPPER-RUMPED HUMMINGBIRD, Amazilia tobaci, Koperrugamazilia
10+ at the La Soledad Road and 2 at the San Isidro Tunnel Road in the Andes.

166. VIOLET-FRONTED BRILLIANT, Heliodoxa leadbeateri, Violetborstbriljantkolibrie
2 at the La Soledad Road in the Andes.

167. BRONZY INCA, Coeligena coeligena, Bronzen Incakolibrie
3 at Colonia Tovar.

168. LONGUEMARE’S SUNANGEL, Heliangelus clarisse, Longuemares Zonnekolibrie
A splendid observation at the Condor Centre at Mifafi

169. ORANGE-THROATED SUNANGEL, Heliangelus mavors, Oranjekeelzonnekolibrie
2 at Hotel Los Frailes in the Andes.

170. TYRIAN METALTAIL, Metallura tyrianthina, Smaragdglansstaartkolibrie
Small numbers in the high Andes and at Colonia Tovar.

171. LONG-TAILED SYLPH, Aglaiocercus kingi, Langstaartnimf
3 at Colonia Tovar.

172. LONG-BILLED STARTHROAT, Heliomaster longirostris, Langsnavelsterkeelkolibrie
3 at Junglaven.

173. WHITE-TAILED TROGON, Trogon viridis, Witstaarttrogon
5 at Junglaven.

174. RINGED KINGFISHER, Ceryle torquatus, Amerikaanse Reuzenijsvogel
A common bird in suitable habitat in Venezuela.

175. AMAZON KINGFISHER, Chloroceryle amazona, Amazone-ijsvogel
Small numbers at Hato El Cedral and the Llanos, 10+ at Junglaven.

176. GREEN KINGFISHER, Chloroceryle americana, Groene IJsvogel
2 each day at Hato El Cedral and a few at Junglaven.

177. GREEN-AND-RUFOUS KINGFISHER, Chloroceryle inda, Groen-bruine Ijsvogel
3 at Hato El Cedral and 1 at Junglaven.

178. AMERICAN PYGMY KINGFISHER, Chloroceryle aenea, Groene Dwergijsvogel
5 at Hato El Cedral and 2 at the Llanos, 4 at Junglaven.

179. RUFOUS-TAILED JACAMAR, Galbula ruficauda, Roodstaartglansvogel
2 at Hato El Cedral.

180. GREEN-TAILED JACAMAR, Galbula galbula, Groenstaartglansvogel
Up to 4 a day at Junglaven.

181. BRONZY JACAMAR, Galbula leucogastra, Bronskleurige Glansvogel
A single bird at Junglaven.

182. PARADISE JACAMAR, Galbula dea, Paradijsglansvogel
A pair at Junglaven.

183. PIED PUFFBIRD, Notharchus tectus, Bonte Baardkoekoek
A single bird en route Bruzual – Barinas.

184. TWO-BANDED PUFFBIRD, Hypnelus bicinctus, Tweebandbaardkoekoek
5 at Hato El Cedral.

185. BLACK NUNBIRD, Monasa atra, Zwarte Trappist
Fairly common at Junglaven.

186. SWALLOW-WING, Chelidoptera tenebrosa, Zwaluwbaardkoekoek
Common at Junglaven.

187. GILDED BARBET, Capito auratus, Gouden Baardvogel
2 at Junglaven.

188. RED-HEADED BARBET, Eubucco bourcierii, Roodkopbaardvogel
1 at the La Soledad Road and 3 at San Isidro Tunnel Road in the Andes.

189. GROOVE-BILLED TOUCANET, Aulacorhynchus sulcatus,Geeloogarassari
A single bird at Colonia Tovar.

190. GREEN ARACARI, Pteroglossus viridis, Groene Arassari
Up to 5 a day at Junglaven.

191. IVORY-BILLED ARACARI, Pteroglossus azara, Ivoorsnavelarassari
2 at Junglaven.

192. MANY-BANDED ARACARI, Pteroglossus pluricinctus, Dubbelbandarassari
2 at Rio Barragán along Santo Domingo Road and 1 at Junglaven.

193. TAWNY-TUFTED TOUCANET, Selenidera nattereri, Natterers Pepervreter
A splendid observation of a pair at Junglaven.

194. WHITE-THROATED TOUCAN, Ramphastos tucanus, Witkeeltoekan
“Cuvier’s Toucan” now considered a race of White-throated Toucan. Each day small numbers at Junglaven.

195. GOLDEN-SPANGLED PICULET, Picumnus exilis, Kleine Dwergspecht
Only 1 at Junglaven.

196. SCALED PICULET, Picumnus squamulatus, Geschubde Dwergspecht
1 en route Bruzual – Barinas and singles at the La Soledad Road and the San Isidro Tunnel Road in the Andes.

197. YELLOW-TUFTED WOODPECKER, Melanerpes cruentatus, Geelbrauwspecht
Up to 7 a day at Junglaven.

198. RED-CROWNED WOODPECKER, Melanerpes rubricapillus, Roodkruinspecht
Up to 6 a day at Hato El Cedral and the Llanos, each day small numbers at the La Soledad Road and San Isidro Tunnel Road in the Andes.

199. GOLDEN-OLIVE WOODPECKER, Piculus rubiginosus, Olijfrugspecht
A single one at the San Isidro Tunnel Road in the Andes.

200. SPOT-BREASTED WOODPECKER, Colaptes punctigula, Vlekborstgrondspecht
2 en route at the Llanos.

201. CREAM-COLOURED WOODPECKER, Celeus flavus, Strogele Specht
A single one at Junglaven.

202. RINGED WOODPECKER, Celeus torquatus, Zwartborstspecht
A splendid observation at Junglaven.

203. LINEATED WOODPECKER, Dryocopus lineatus, Gestreepte Helmspecht
Each day 1 or 2 birds at Junglaven.

204. RED-NECKED WOODPECKER, Campephilus rubricollis, Roodnekspecht
A single bird at Junglaven.

205. CRIMSON-CRESTED WOODPECKER, Campephilus melanoleucos, Zwartkeelspecht
2 at Junglaven.

206. BAR-WINGED CINCLODES, Cinclodes fuscus, Bandvleugelwipstaart
Small numbers at the high altitude sites such as the Laguna Mucubaji area and at the Condor Centre at Mifafi.

207. ANDEAN TIT-SPINETAIL, Leptasthenura andicola, Andesmeesstekelstaart
6 near Laguna Mucubaji.

208. BLACK-THROATED SPINETAIL, Synallaxis castanea, Bruine Kastanjestekelstaart
3 at Colonia Tovar.

209. AZARA'S SPINETAIL, Synallaxis azarae, Azara's Stekelstaart
A single one at the La Soledad Road in the Andes.

210. CRESTED SPINETAIL, Cranioleuca subcristata, Kuifstekelstaart
A single observation at the La Soledad Road in the Andes.

211. YELLOW-CHINNED SPINETAIL, Certhiaxis cinnamomea, Geelkeelstekelstaart
Fairly common at Hato El Cedral and the Llanos.

212. OCHRE-BROWED THISTLETAIL, Schizoeaca coryi, Okerbrauwdistelstaart
3 near Laguna Mucubaji.

213. COMMON THORNBIRD, Phacellodomus rufifrons, Roodkapstekelkruin
Fairly common at Hato El Cedral.

214. PEARLED TREERUNNER, Margarornis squamiger, Parelboomloper
A single one at Hotel Los Frailes.

215. SLENDER-BILLED XENOPS, Xenops tenuirostris, Streepstaartxenops
A splendid observation at Junglaven.

216. PLAIN XENOPS, Xenops minutus, Sparrmanns Xenops
2 at the San Isidro Tunnel Road in the Andes.

217. STREAKED XENOPS, Xenops rutilans, Gestreepte Xenops
1 at Colonia Tovar.

218. STREAKED TUFTEDCHEEK, Pseudocolaptes boissonneautii, Andespluimoor
6 at Colonia Tovar.

219. PLAIN-BROWN WOODCREEPER, Dendrocincla fuliginosa, Grijswangmuisspecht
1 en route from Bruzual – Mantecal in the Llanos.

220. WEDGE-BILLED WOODCREEPER, Glyphorhynchus spirurus, Wigsnavelmuisspecht
2 at Junglaven.

221. LONG-BILLED WOODCREEPER, Nasica longirostris, Langsnavelmuisspecht
Each morning 1 or 2 birds loudly calling in the same tree at the lodge in Junglaven.

222. AMAZONIAN BARRED-WOODCREEPER, Dendrocolaptes certhia, Amazone Gebandeerde Muisspecht
1 at Junglaven.

223. BLACK-BANDED WOODCREEPER, Dendrocolaptes picumnus, Blauwsnavelmuisspecht
3 at Junglaven.

224. STRAIGHT-BILLED WOODCREEPER, Dendroplex picus, Priemsnavelmuisspecht
Up to 4 a day at Hato El Cedral.

225. BUFF-THROATED WOODCREEPER, Xiphorhynchus guttatus, Geelkeelmuisspecht
A single bird at Junglaven.

226. STREAK-HEADED WOODCREEPER, Lepidocolaptes souleyetii, Streepkopmuisspecht
A single bird at Colonia Tovar.

227. MONTANE WOODCREEPER, Lepidocolaptes lacrymiger, Bergmuisspecht
1 at the La Soledad Road in the Andes and 3 at Colonia Tovar.

228. BLACK-CRESTED ANTSHRIKE, Sakesphorus canadensis, Zwartkuifmierklauwier
2 at Hato El Cedral and 1 at Junglaven.

229. BARRED ANTSHRIKE, Thamnophilus doliatus, Gebandeerde Mierklauwier
3 at Hato El Cedral.

230. BLACKISH-GRAY ANTSHRIKE, Thamnophilus nigrocinereus, Zwart-grijze Mierklauwier
2 at Junglaven.

231. WHITE-SHOULDERED ANTSHRIKE, Thamnophilus aethiops, Witschoudermierklauwier
A single one at Junglaven.

232. AMAZONIAN ANTSHRIKE, Thamnophilus amazonicus, Amazonemierklauwier
A single one at Junglaven.

233. CINEREOUS ANTSHRIKE, Thamnomanes caesius, Temmincks Mierklauwier
A single bird at Junglaven.

234. PYGMY ANTWREN, Myrmotherula brachyura, Dwergmiersluiper
2 at Junglaven.

235. CHERRIE’S ANTWREN, Myrmotherula cherriei, Cherries Miersluiper
Seen and heard at Junglaven.

236. WHITE-FLANKED ANTWREN, Myrmotherula axillaris, Witflankmiersluiper
3 at Junglaven.

237. SLATY ANTWREN, Myrmotherula schisticolor, Leigrijze Miersluiper
A single bird at the San Isidro Tunnel Road in the Andes.

238. WHITE-FRINGED ANTWREN, Formicivora grisea, Witbandmiersluiper
2 at the Llanos (La Ye bridge).

239. WARBLING ANTBIRD, Hypocnemis cantator, Orpheusmierkruiper
6 at Junglaven.

240. SPOT-WINGED ANTBIRD, Percnostola leucostigma, Vlekvleugelmiervogel
3 at Junglaven.

241. IMMACULATE ANTBIRD, Myrmeciza immaculata, Blauwmaskermiervogel
1 at Junglaven.

242. CHESTNUT-CROWNED ANTPITTA, Grallaria ruficapilla, Roestkapmierpitta
A few heard and one splendid observation at Colonia Tovar.

243. GREEN-AND-BLACK FRUITEATER, Pipreola riefferii, Groen-zwarte Cotinga
3 at Colonia Tovar.

244. WHITE-BROWED PURPLETUFT, Iodopleura isabellae, Witkeeldwergcotinga
A splendid observation of a pair in the top of a tree at the lodge in Junglaven.

245. SPANGLED COTINGA, Cotinga cayana, Halsbandcotinga
A single bird in the top of the trees in the savannah in Junglaven.

246. AMAZONIAN UMBRELLABIRD, Cephalopterus ornatus, Amazoneparasolvogel
A few during the boat trip on the Ventuari River near Junglaven.

247. ANDEAN COCK-OF-THE-ROCK, Rupicola peruviana, Rode Rotshaan
3 at the San Isidro Tunnel Road in the Andes.

248. WHITE-BEARDED MANAKIN, Manacus manacus, Bonte Manakin
4 at the La Soledad Road in the Andes and 3 in the clumps of savannah forest at Junglaven.

249. WIRE-TAILED MANAKIN, Pipra filicauda, Draadmanakin
Single ones at Hato El Cedral and at Rio Barragán along the Santo Domingo Road.

250. GOLDEN-WINGED MANAKIN, Masius chrysopterus, Goudvleugelmanakin
4 at the San Isidro Tunnel Road in the Andes.

251. BLACK MANAKIN, Xenopipo atronitens, Zwarte Manakin
A single one at Junglaven.

252. YELLOW-CRESTED MANAKIN, Heterocercus flavivertex, Geelkruinmanakin
A single one at Junglaven.

253. DWARF-TYRANT-MANAKIN, Tyranneutes stolzmanni, Dwergtiranmanakin
A single one at Junglaven.

254. SOUTHERN BEARDLESS-TYRANNULET, Camptostoma obsoletum, Zuidelijke Chaparralvliegenpikker
2 at Hato El Cedral, 3 en route in the Llanos and 1 at Rio Barragán along the Santo Domingo Road.

255. FOREST ELAENIA, Myiopagis gaimardii, Boselaenia
1 at Hato El Cedral, 2 en route in the Llanos and 1 at Rio Barragán along the Santo Domingo Road.

256. GREENISH ELAENIA, Myiopagis viridicata, Groene Elenia
1 at the La Soledad Road in the Andes.

257. YELLOW-BELLIED ELAENIA, Elaenia flavogaster, Geelbuikelenia
1 at the La Soledad Road in the Andes.

258. PLAIN-CRESTED ELAENIA, Elaenia cristata, Kap-elenia
6 at Junglaven.

259. OLIVE-STRIPED FLYCATCHER, Mionectes olivaceus, Olijfstreeppipratiran
Small numbers at the La Soledad Road and the San Isidro Tunnel Road in the Andes.

260. MACCONELL’S FLYCATCHER, Mionectes macconnelli, MacConnells Pipratiran
A single bird at Junglaven.

261. SEPIA-CAPPED FLYCATCHER, Leptopogon amaurocephalus, Bruinkapleptopogon
A single one at Rio Barragán along the Santo Domingo Road.

262. SLATY-CAPPED FLYCATCHER, Leptopogon superciliaris, Grijskruinleptopogon
2 at the La Soledad Road and 1 at the San Isidro Tunnel Road in the Andes.

263. VARIEGATED BRISTLE-TYRANT, Pogonotriccus poecilotis, Bonte Looftiran
A single bird at the San Isidro Tunnel Road in the Andes.

264. VENEZUELAN TYRANNULET, Zimmerius improbus, Venezolaanse Vliegenpikker
2 at the San Isidro Tunnel Road in the Andes.

265. GOLDEN-FACED TYRANNULET, Zimmerius chrysops, Goudwangvliegenpikker
A single bird at the San Isidro Tunnel Road in the Andes.

266. WHITE-THROATED TYRANNULET, Mecocerculus leucophrys, Witkeeltachuri
Fairly common in the Hotel Los Frailes area and at Colonia Tovar.

267. PALE-TIPPED TYRANNULET, Inezia caudata, Bruinkopinezia
A single bird at Hato El Cedral.

268. AMAZONIAN TYRANNULET, Inezia subflava, Amazone-inezia
A single bird at Junglaven.

269. HELMETED PYGMY-TYRANT, Lophotriccus galeatus, Helmdwergtiran
A single one at Junglaven.

270. COMMON TODY-FLYCATCHER, Todirostrum cinereum, Geelbuikschoffelsnavel
Common at Hato El Cedral and the Llanos.

271. RUFOUS-TAILED FLATBILL, Ramphotrigon ruficauda, Roodstaartbreedbektiran
Twice seen at the campement in Junglaven.

272. YELLOW-OLIVE FLYCATCHER, Tolmomyias sulphurescens, Groenkapbreedbektiran
1 at Hato El Cedral.

273. YELLOW-BREASTED FLYCATCHER, Tolmomyias flaviventris, Geelbuikbreedbektiran
A single observation at Hato El Cedral.

274. WHITE-CRESTED SPADEBILL, Platyrinchus platyrhynchos, Witkuifbreedbektiran
A single bird at Junglaven.

275. FLAVESCENT FLYCATCHER, Myiophobus flavicans, Goudtiran
A single one at the La Soledad Road in the Andes.

276. CINNAMON FLYCATCHER, Pyrrhomyias cinnamomea, Kaneeltiran
2 at the La Soledad Road in the Andes.

277. CLIFF FLYCATCHER, Hirundinea ferruginea, Zwaluwtiran
5 at the kaolin mine at the San Isidro Tunnel Road in the Andes.

278. FUSCOUS FLYCATCHER, Cnemotriccus fuscatus, Vinktiran
A single observation at Hato El Cedral.

279. OLIVE-SIDED FLYCATCHER, Contopus cooperi, Sparrenpiewie
2 at the La Soledad Road in the Andes.

280. SMOKE-COLOURED PEWEE, Contopus fumigatus, Leigrijze Piewie
4 at the San Isidro Tunnel Road in the Andes.

281. EASTERN WOOD-PEWEE, Contopus virens, Oostelijke Bospiewie
A single one seen at Hato El Cedral.

282. BLACK PHOEBE, Sayornis nigricans, Zwarte Phoebe
2 at the Rio Barragán along the Santo Domingo Road.

283. VERMILION FLYCATCHER, Pyrocephalus rubinus, Rode Tiran
Each day small numbers at Hato El Cedral and en route in the Llanos.

284. BROWN-BACKED CHAT-TYRANT, Ochthoeca fumicolor, Bruinrugtapuittiran
6 in the Hotel Los frailes area and a few at Laguna Mucubaji and at the Condor Centre at Mifafi.

285. DRAB WATER-TYRANT, Ochthornis littoralis, Vale Tapuittiran
15+ along the Ventuari River.

286. STREAK-THROATED BUSH-TYRANT, Myiotheretes striaticollis, Streepkeelstruiktiran
2 at Hotel Los Frailes.

287. AMAZONIAN BLACK-TYRANT, Knipolegus poecilocercus, Amazonemoortiran
6 at Hato El Cedral and 3 at Junglaven.

288. PIED WATER-TYRANT, Fluvicola pica, Bonte Watertiran
4 at Hato El Cedral and 1 en route at the Llanos.

289. WHITE-HEADED MARSH-TYRANT, Arundinicola leucocephala, Witkopwatertiran
Up to 3 a day at Hato El Cedral and the Llanos.

290. CATTLE TYRANT, Machetornis rixosus, Veetiran
Fairly common at Hato El Cedral and the Llanos.

291. CINNAMON ATTILA, Attila cinnamomeus, Kaneelatilla
2 at Junglaven.

292. CITRON-BELLIED ATTILA, Attila citriniventris, Geelbuikatilla
Twice seen at Junglaven.

293. CINEREOUS MOURNER, Laniocera hypopyrra, Grauwe Treurtiran
A single observation at Junglaven.

294. GRAYISH MOURNER, Rhytipterna simplex, Grijze Treurtiran
A single observation at Junglaven.

295. PALE-BELLIED MOURNER, Rhytipterna immunda, Vaalbuiktreurtiran
A splendid observation in the savannah at Junglaven.

296. SWAINSON'S FLYCATCHER, Myiarchus swainsoni, Swainsons Tiran
4 at Junglaven.

297. BROWN-CRESTED FLYCATCHER, Myiarchus tyrannulus, Cayennetiran
2 at the La Soledad Road in the Andes.

298. LESSER KISKADEE, Philohydor lictor, Kleine Kiskadie
Small numbers at Junglaven.

299. GREAT KISKADEE, Pitangus sulphuratus, Grote Kiskadie
Fairly common at Hato El Cedral and the Llanos, a few at the Rio Barragán along the Santo Domingo Road.

300. BOAT-BILLED FLYCATCHER, Megarhynchus pitangua, Bootsnaveltiran
2 at the San Isidro Tunnel Road in the Andes.

301. RUSTY-MARGINED FLYCATCHER, Myiozetetes cayanensis, Roestvleugeltiran
4 in the Santo Domingo Valley.

302. SOCIAL FLYCATCHER, Myiozetetes similis, Roodkruintiran
10+ at Hato El Cedral and a few at the La Soledad Road in the Andes and at Junglaven.

303. LEMON-BROWED FLYCATCHER, Conopias cinchoneti, Geelringtiran
A single one at the Rio Barragán along the Santo Domingo Road.

304. GOLDEN-CROWNED FLYCATCHER, Myiodynastes chrysocephalus, Goudkruintiran
A single bird at the San Isidro Tunnel Road in the Andes.

305. STREAKED FLYCATCHER, Myiodynastes maculatus, Gestreepte Tiran
Singles en route in the Llanos and at the Rio Barragán along the Santo Domingo Road.

306. PIRATIC FLYCATCHER, Legatus leucophaius, Piraattiran
A single bird en route in the Llanos.

307. WHITE-BEARDED FLYCATCHER, Phelpsia inornata, Witbaardtiran
Small numbers at Hato El Cedral and at the Llanos.

308. TROPICAL KINGBIRD, Tyrannus melancholicus, Tropische Koningstiran
A common and widespread species.

309. GRAY KINGBIRD, Tyrannus dominicensis, Grijze Koningstiran
3 at Hato El Cedral and 3 en route in the Llanos.

310. FORK-TAILED FLYCATCHER, Tyrannus savana, Vorkstaartkoningstiran
Fairly common at Hato El Cedral and the Llanos.

311. BLACK-AND-WHITE BECARD, Pachyramphus albogriseus, Eksterbekarde
A single observation at the San Isidro Tunnel Road in the Andes.

312. BLACK-TAILED TITYRA, Tityra cayana, Zwartstaarttityra
Each morning a pair in the top of a tree at the campement in Junglaven.

313. BLACK-CROWNED TITYRA, Tityra inquisitor, Zwartkruintityra
A single observation at the Rio Barragán along the Santo Domingo Road.

314. BROWN-CHESTED MARTIN, Progne tapera, Bruinborstzwaluw
5 at Hato El Cedral, 2 along the Santo Domingo Road and 4 at Junglaven.

315. WHITE-WINGED SWALLOW, Tachycineta albiventer, Witbuikzwaluw
Small numbers at Hato El Cedral and the Llanos, also small numbers at Junglaven.

316. BLUE-AND-WHITE SWALLOW, Notiochelidon cyanoleuca, Blauw-witte Zwaluw
Fairly common in the Santo Domingo Valley in the Andes.

317. BROWN-BELLIED SWALLOW, Notiochelidon murina, Muiszwaluw
10+ near the Condor Centre at Mifafi in the Andes.

318. WHITE-BANDED SWALLOW, Atticora fasciata, Witbandzwaluw
Small numbers at Junglaven.

319. SOUTHERN ROUGH-WINGED SWALLOW, Stelgidopteryx ruficollis, Zuid-Amerikaanse Ruwvleugelzwaluw
Small numbers at Junglaven.

320. CLIFF SWALLOW, Petrochelidon pyrrhonota, Amerikaanse Klifzwaluw
A few near Colonia Tovar.

321. BARN SWALLOW, Hirundo rustica, Boerenzwaluw
Fairly common at Hato El Cedral and the Llanos, a few at Junglaven.

322. PARAMO PIPIT, Anthus bogotensis, Páramopieper
A few in the High Andes near Laguna Mucubaji and at the Condor Centre at Mifafi.

323. YELLOWISH PIPIT, Anthus lutescens, Gele Pieper
2 at Hato El Cedral.

324. BLACK-CAPPED DONACOBIUS, Donacobius atricapillus, Zwartkopdonacobius
Up to 3 a day at Hato El Cedral.

325. BICOLOURED WREN, Campylorhynchus griseus, Tweekleurige Winterkoning
2 at the lodge in Hato El Cedral.

326. STRIPE-BACKED WREN, Campylorhynchus nuchalis, Streeprugwinterkoning
2 a day at Hato El Cedral.

327. WHISKERED WREN, Thryothorus mystacalis, Andeswinterkoning
A single one at the La Soledad Road in the Andes.

328. RUFOUS-BREASTED WREN, Thryothorus rutilus, Roodborstwinterkoning
A single one at the La Soledad Road in the Andes.

329. BUFF-BREASTED WREN, Thryothorus leucotis, Witoorwinterkoning
2 at Hato El Cedral.
330. HOUSE WREN, Troglodytes aedon, Huiswinterkoning
Up to 4 a day at Hato El Cedral.

331. MOUNTAIN WREN, Troglodytes solstitialis, Bergwinterkoning
A single observation at the La Soledad Road in the Andes.

332. GRAY-BREASTED WOOD-WREN, Henicorhina leucophrys, Grijze Boswinterkoning
A single one at the San Isidro Tunnel Road in the Andes.

333. TROPICAL MOCKINGBIRD, Mimus gilvus, Tropische Spotlijster
Fairly common at Hato El Cedral and the Llanos, 1 at the La Soledad Road in the Andes.

334. SPOTTED NIGHTINGALE-THRUSH, Catharus dryas, Gevlekte Dwerglijster
A single one at the San Isidro Tunnel Road in the Andes.

335. SWAINSON'S THRUSH, Catharus ustulatus, Dwerglijster
1 at the San Isidro Tunnel Road in the Andes, 2 at Junglaven.

336. YELLOW-LEGGED THRUSH, Platycichla flavipes, Geelpootlijster
1 at the La Soledad Road in the Andes.

337. GREAT THRUSH, Turdus fuscater, Reuzenlijster
Common in the High Andes.

338. GLOSSY-BLACK THRUSH, Turdus serranus, Fluweellijster
2 at Colonia Tovar.

339. BLACK-HOODED THRUSH, Turdus olivater, Kapucijnerlijster
4 at the San Isidro Tunnel Road in the Andes.

340. CHESTNUT-BELLIED THRUSH, Turdus fulviventris, Bruinbuiklijster
2 at the La Soledad Road and 2 at the San Isidro Tunnel Road in the Andes.

341. PALE-BREASTED THRUSH, Turdus leucomelas, Vaalborstlijster
2 at the Rio Barragán along the Santo Domingo Road and 1 at the San Isidro Tunnel Road in the Andes.

342. BARE-EYED THRUSH, Turdus nudigenis, Naaktooglijster
1 at the La Soledad Road and 3 at the San Isidro Tunnel Road in the Andes.

343. LONG-BILLED GNATWREN, Ramphocaenus melanurus, Zwartstaartmuggensluiper
1 at Hato El Cedral.

344. TROPICAL GNATCATCHER, Polioptila plumbea, Amazonemuggenvanger
4 at Hato El Cedral and 2 en route in the Llanos, 1 at Junglaven.

345. GREEN JAY, Cyanocorax yncas, Incagaai
10 at the San Isidro Tunnel Road in the Andes and 1 at Colonia Tovar.

346. VIOLACEOUS JAY, Cyanocorax violaceus, Violetgaai
Up to 8 a day at Junglaven.

347. BROWN-CAPPED VIREO, Vireo leucophrys, Witbrauwvireo
2 at the San Isidro Tunnel Road in the Andes.

348. RED-EYED VIREO, Vireo olivaceus, Roodoogvireo
A single one at Junglaven.

349. GRAY-CHESTED GREENLET, Hylophilus semicinereus, Grijsnekvireo
A single bird at Junglaven.

350. BROWN-HEADED GREENLET, Hylophilus brunneiceps, bruinkopvireo
2 at Junglaven.

351. GOLDEN-FRONTED GREENLET, Hylophilus aurantiifrons, Goudvoorhoofdvireo
2 at the La Soledad Road and 1 at the San Isidro Tunnel Road in the Andes, 1 at Colonia Tovar.

352. RUFOUS-BROWED PEPPERSHRIKE, Cyclarhis gujanensis, Roodbrauwpeperklauwier
Up to 5 a day in the Santo Domingo Valley in the Andes.

353. ANDEAN SISKIN, Carduelis spinescens, Andessijs
20+ at Laguna Mucubaji.

354. LESSER GOLDFINCH, Carduelis psaltria, Witbandsijs
Up to 4 a day in the Santo Domingo Valley in the Andes.

355. YELLOW WARBLER, Dendroica petechia, Gele Zanger
Singles at Hato El Cedral and en route in the Llanos.

356. BLACKBURNIAN WARBLER, Dendroica fusca, Sparrezanger
2 at the La Soledad Road and 5 at the San Isidro Tunnel Road in the Andes, 3 at Colonia Tovar.

357. BLACKPOLL WARBLER, Dendroica striata, Zwartkopzanger
Single ones at Hato El Cedral and Junglaven.

358. CERULEAN WARBLER, Dendroica cerulea, Azuurzanger
1 at the La Soledad Road and 3 at the San Isidro Tunnel Road in the Andes.

359. BLACK-AND-WHITE WARBLER, Mniotilta varia, Bonte Zanger
Singles at the La Soledad Road and the San Isidro Tunnel Road in the Andes and at Junglaven.

360. AMERICAN REDSTART, Setophaga ruticilla, Amerikaanse Roodstaart
Small numbers daily in the Santo Domingo Valley in the Andes.

361. PROTHONOTARY WARBLER, Protonotaria citrea, Citroenzanger
A single bird at Hato El Cedral.

362. SLATE-THROATED REDSTART, Myioborus miniatus, Meniezanger
Fairly common in the Santo Domingo Valley in the Andes.

363. CITRINE WARBLER, Basileuterus luteoviridis, Bonapartes Zanger
A single observation at the La Soledad Road in the Andes.

364. BLACK-CRESTED WARBLER, Basileuterus nigrocristatus, Zwartkuifzanger
10+ at Colonia Tovar.

365. THREE-STRIPED WARBLER, Basileuterus tristriatus, Driestreepzanger
3 at the San Isidro Tunnel Road in the Andes and 2 at Colonia Tovar.

366. BANANAQUIT, Coereba flaveola, Suikerdiefje
Fairly common in the visited areas.

367. BLUE-BACKED CONEBILL, Conirostrum sitticolor, Blauwrugspitssnavel
2 at Hotel Los Frailes in the Andes.

368. CAPPED CONEBILL, Conirostrum albifrons, Witkopspitssnavel
2 at Colonia Tovar.

369. COMMON BUSH-TANAGER, Chlorospingus ophthalmicus, Briltangare
2 at the La Soledad Road in the Andes and 10+ at Colonia Tovar.

370. GUIRA TANAGER, Hemithraupis guira, Guiratangare
2 at the Rio Barragán and the San Isidro Tunnel Road along the Santo Domingo Road.

371. RUFOUS-CRESTED TANAGER, Creurgops verticalis, Okerkuiftangare
2 at Junglaven.

372. WHITE-SHOULDERED TANAGER, Tachyphonus luctuosus, Witschoudertangare
2 at the Rio Barragán and also 2at the La Soledad Road along the Domingo Road.

373. WHITE-LINED TANAGER, Tachyphonus rufus, Zwarte Tangare
Fairly common in the Santo Domingo Valley in the Andes.

374. RED-SHOULDERED TANAGER, Tachyphonus phoenicius, Roodschoudertangare
2 at the savannah in Junglaven.

375. HEPATIC TANAGER, Piranga flava, Gele Tangare
A few at the La Soledad Road and the San Isidro Tunnel Road in the Andes.

376. SUMMER TANAGER, Piranga rubra, Zomertangare
2 at the Rio Barragán along the Santo Domingo Road and 4 at the La Soledad Road in the Andes.

377. WHITE-WINGED TANAGER, Piranga leucoptera, Witvleugeltangare
A single bird at the the La Soledad Road in the Andes.

378. SILVER-BEAKED TANAGER, Ramphocelus carbo, Fluweeltangare
A fairly common and widespread species.

379. BLUE-GRAY TANAGER, Thraupis episcopus, Bisschopstangare
A fairly common and widespread species.

380. BLUE-CAPPED TANAGER, Thraupis cyanocephala, Blauwkaptangare
Fairly common at Colonia Tovar.

381. PALM TANAGER, Thraupis palmarum, Palmtangare
Fairly common in the Santo Domingo Valley in the Andes, small numbers at Junglaven.

382. TRINIDAD EUPHONIA, Euphonia trinitatis, Trinidadorganist
4 at Hato El Cedral.

383. THICK-BILLED EUPHONIA, Euphonia laniirostris, Dikbekorganist
A single bird at the San Isidro Tunnel Road in the Andes.

384. GOLDEN-RUMPED EUPHONIA, Euphonia cyanocephala, Goudstuitorganist
2 at the San Isidro Tunnel Road in the Andes.

385. ORANGE-BELLIED EUPHONIA, Euphonia xanthogaster, Vuurbuikorganist
Small numbers at the La Soledad Road and the San Isidro Tunnel Road in the Andes.

386. BLUE-NAPED CHLOROPHONIA, Chlorophonia cyanea, Blauwnekorganist
2 at the San Isidro Tunnel Road in the Andes.

387. GOLDEN TANAGER, Tangara arthus, Goudtangare
3 at the San Isidro Tunnel Road in the Andes.

388. SPECKLED TANAGER, Tangara guttata, Spikkeltangare
Small numbers at the La Soledad Road and the San Isidro Tunnel Road in the Andes.

389. BAY-HEADED TANAGER, Tangara gyrola, Okerkaptangare
Up to 10+ a day along the Santo Domingo Road in the Andes.

390. BURNISHED-BUFF TANAGER, Tangara cayana, Sabeltangare
2 at Hato El Cedral, 4 at the La Soledad Road in the Andes and 1 at Junglaven.

391. BLUE-NECKED TANAGER, Tangara cyanicollis, Azuurkoptangare
Fairly common in the Santo Domingo Valley in the Andes.

392. BERYL-SPANGLED TANAGER, Tangara nigroviridis, Zilvervlektangare
A single one at the La Soledad Road in the Andes.

393. BLUE DACNIS, Dacnis cayana, Blauwe Pitpit
2 at the San Isidro Tunnel Road in the Andes and 3 at Junglaven.

394. SHORT-BILLED HONEYCREEPER, Cyanerpes nitidus, Kortsnavelsuikervogel
A splendid observation at the campement in Junglaven.

395. PURPLE HONEYCREEPER, Cyanerpes caeruleus, Purperen Suikervogel
A single bird at the La Soledad Road in the Andes.

396. SWALLOW-TANAGER, Tersina viridis, Zwaluwtangare
Up to 20+ a day at Junglaven.

397. PLUSH-CAPPED FINCH, Catamblyrhynchus diadema, Fluweelkaptangare
A single bird at Colonia Tovar.

398. PLUMBEOUS SIERRA-FINCH, Phrygilus unicolor, Loodkleurige Sierragors
20+ in the High Andes.

399. BLUE-BLACK GRASSQUIT, Volatinia jacarina, Witbrauwgrasgors
Common at Hato El Cedral and in the Llanos, a few at Colonia Tovar.

400. GRAY SEEDEATER, Sporophila luctuosa, Zwart-wit Dikbekje
A few at Hato El Cedral and the Llanos and in the Santo Domingo Valley.

401. LINED SEEDEATER, Sporophila lineola, Witsterdikbekje
2 at Junglaven.

402. YELLOW-BELLIED SEEDEATER, Sporophila nigricollis, Geelbuikdikbekje
A few at Hato El Cedral and at the La Soledad Road in the Andes.

403. RUDDY-BREASTED SEEDEATER, Sporophila minuta, Dwergdikbekje
9 at Hato El Cedral and 2 at the Rio Barragán along the Santo Domingo Road.

404. CHESTNUT-BELLIED SEEDFINCH, Oryzoborus angolensis, Zwartkopzaadkraker
1 at Hato El Cedral.

405. PLAIN-COLOURED SEEDEATER, Catamenia inornata, Bruingrijze Catamenia
2 at the Condor Centre at Mifafi.

406. PARAMO SEEDEATER, Catamenia homochroa, Páramocatamenia
1 at Laguna Mucubaji.

407. DULL-COLOURED GRASSQUIT, Tiaris obscura, Bruine Grondvink
A few at the San Isidro Tunnel Road in the Andes.

408. WHITE-SIDED FLOWERPIERCER, Diglossa albilatera, Witflankberghoningkruiper
10+ at Colonia Tovar.

409. MERIDA FLOWER-PIERCER, Diglossa gloriosa, Meridaberghoningkruiper
2 at Hotel Los Frailes, 2 near Laguna Mucubaji and 1 at the Condor Centre at Mifafi.

410. BLUISH FLOWERPIERCER, Diglossopis caerulescens, Grijsblauwe Berghoningkruiper
2 at Colonia Tovar.

411. SAFFRON FINCH, Sicalis flaveola, Gewone Saffraangors
Fairly common at Hato El Cedral and en route in the Llanos.

412. GRASSLAND YELLOW-FINCH, Sicalis luteola, Graslandsaffraangors
1 at Hato El Cedral and 2 en route in the Llanos.

413. ORANGE-FRONTED YELLOW-FINCH, Sicalis columbiana, Dwergsaffraangors
Fairly common at Hato El Cedral.

414. WEDGE-TAILED GRASS-FINCH, Emberizoides herbicola, Wigstaartgrasgors
A single one at Junglaven.

415. RED-CAPPED CARDINAL, Paroaria gularis, Zwartkeelkardinaal
Fairly common at Hato El Cedral and in the Llanos.

416. SLATY BRUSH-FINCH, Atlapetes schistaceus, Grijsborststruikgors
3 near Hotel Los Frailes.

417. OCHRE-BREASTED BRUSH-FINCH, Atlapetes semirufus, Okerborststruikgors
3 at Colonia Tovar.

418. GRASSLAND SPARROW, Ammodramus humeralis, Graslandgors
6 at the savannah in Junglaven.

419. YELLOW-BROWED SPARROW, Ammodramus aurifrons, Geelwanggors
Up to 8 a day at Hato El Cedral.

420. RUFOUS-COLLARED SPARROW, Zonotrichia capensis, Roodkraaggors
Fairly common in the Andes, a few at Colonia Tovar and 1 at Junglaven.

421. GRAYISH SALTATOR, Saltator coerulescens, Grijze Saltator
A few at Hato El Cedral and en route in the Llanos, 2 near Rio Barragán along the Santo Domingo Road.

422. BUFF-THROATED SALTATOR, Saltator maximus, Bontkeelsaltator
Up to 10 a day in the Santo Domingo Valley.

423. ORINOCAN SALTATOR, Saltator orenocensis, GOrinocosaltator
A single observation at Hato El Cedral.

424. YELLOW-GREEN GROSBEAK, Caryothraustes canadensis, Geelgroene Kardinaal
A single one at Junglaven.

425. BLUE-BLACK GROSBEAK, Cyanocompsa cyanoides, Blauwrugbisschop
2 at the La Soledad Road in the Andes and 3 at Junglaven.

426. YELLOW-HOODED BLACKBIRD, Agelaius icterocephalus, Geelkaptroepiaal
A single one en route in the Llanos.

427. RED-BREASTED BLACKBIRD, Sturnella militaris, Zwartkopsoldatenspreeuw
Common at Hato El Cedral and the Llanos.

428. EASTERN MEADOWLARK, Sturnella magna, Witkaakweidespreeuw
Small numbers at Hato El Cedral and at the Llanos.

429. CARIB GRACKLE, Quiscalus lugubris, Caribische Troepiaal
Fairly common at Hato El Cedral and at the Llanos.

430. SHINY COWBIRD, Molothrus bonariensis, Glanskoevogel
A few at at Hato El Cedral and en route in the Llanos.

431. MORICHE ORIOLE, Icterus chrysocephalus, Morichetroepiaal
2 at the savannah in Junglaven.

432. YELLOW-BACKED ORIOLE, Icterus chrysater, Geelrugtroepiaal
2 at the San Isidro Tunnel Road in the Andes.

433. YELLOW ORIOLE, Icterus nigrogularis, Gele Troepiaal
Small numbers each day at Hato El Cedral and at the Llanos.

434. VENEZUELAN TROUPIAL, Icterus icterus, Oranje Troepiaal
A few at Hato El Cedral and en route in the Llanos.

435. YELLOW-RUMPED CACIQUE, Cacicus cela, Geelstuitbuidelspreeuw
10+ at Hato El Cedral and up to 6 a day at Junglaven.

436. CRESTED OROPENDOLA, Psarocolius decumanus, Kuiforopendola
Fairly common along the Santo Domingo Road in the Andes.

437. RUSSET-BACKED OROPENDOLA, Psarocolius angustifrons, Roestrugoropendola
9 at the San Isidro Tunnel Road in the Andes.

438. AMAZONIAN OROPENDOLA, Gymnostinops bifasciatus, Para-oropendola
Small numbers at Junglaven.

439. ORIOLE BLACKBIRD, Gymnomystax mexicanus, Wielewaaltroepiaal
7 at Hato El Cedral and 6 en route in the Llanos.

SYSTEMATIC LIST OF MAMMALS

This list follows the taxonomy, names and sequence of "Neotropical Rainforest Mammals, A Field Guide" by Louise H. Emmons. Numbers quoted are estimates of the minimum numbers seen.

1. GREATER BULLDOG BAT, Noctilio leporinus, Grote Bulldogvleermuis
Common at Hato El Cedral.

2. COMMON OPOSSUM, Philander opossum, Noord-Amerikaanse Opossum
A single sighting in a hole in a tree at Hato El Cedral.

3. SOUTHERN TAMANDUA, Tamandua tetradactyla, Zuidelijke Tamandua
A single one at Hato El Cedral.

4. BROWN CAPUCHIN MONKEY, Cebus paella, Bruine Capucijneraap
5 at Junglaven.

5. BROWN BEARDED SAKI MONKEY, Chitopotes satanus, Bruine Baardaap
Twice a small group in the forest at Junglaven.

6. RED HOWLER MONKEY, Alouatta seniculus, Rode Brulaap
Up to 4 a day at Hato El Cedral.

7. GIANT OTTER, Pteronura brasiliensis, Reuzenotter
Mammal highlight of the trip. A single one in the lagoon at Junglaven and a party of six during our boat trip on the Ventuari River.

8. PINK RIVER DOLPHIN, Inia geoffrensis, Orinocodolfijn
15+ around our boat during the boat trip on the Ventuari River.

9. WHITE-TAILED DEER, Odocoileus virginianus, Witstaarthert
Fairly common at Hato El Cedral and 2 at Laguna Mucubaji.

10. RED-TAILED SQUIRREL, Sciurus granatensis, Roodstaarteekhoorn
3 at the Santo Domingo Valley.

11. CAPYBARA, Hydrochaeris hydrocheris, Capybara
Abundant at Hato El Cedral.

12. RED-RUMPED AGOUTI, Dasyprocta agouti, Agouti
A single one at Junglaven.

13. GRAY (SAVANNAH) FOX, Urocyon cinereoargenteus, Grijze Vos
3 at Hato El Cedral and 2 on the road in the forest at Junglaven!

14. CAPE HARE, Lepus capensis, Haas
A single one at Hato El Cedral.